“Highlights of Orchid History”

 

 

 

 

Introduction

 

     The following compilation of orchid historic facts are the result of a period of research undertaken by the then Show Secretary of the North of England Orchid Society during 1990-1993 spending three to four hours daily researching orchid literature, local libraries and archive records in addition to similar institutions farther afield from his home in Cheshire, England; at a time when he was almost single-handedly nursing an invalid wife who unfortunately departed life on earth some six months before the result of such research formed the basis for the staging of the society's award winning exhibit at the 14th. World Orchid Conference at Glasgow in April-May 1993.  Since that time further research remained ongoing and additions to the original work have and are still being effected.

 

     This publication is presented dealing with the pre-historic period Before Christ (B.C.); through to “to Date”; in datal - year by year order.   In addition a number of "Pen Portraits" of orchid worthies of yesteryear listing their contribution to orchids and in the case of hybridisers; lists of their registered creations in addition to such portraits being somewhat personalised.

 

     The whole provides much history within the covers of a single comprehensive document, in the opinion of the  researcher/compiler; not as yet available; despite such a document being necessary as a useful additional resource for orchidists interested in historic detail and future students of orchidology and horticulture in general.

 

     It is dedicated to the memory of Florence Gertrude Rigby who despite being critically ill for the period January 1990 to October 1992 gave some practical help with necessary research and a great deal of encouragement knowing that she would probably not witness the final resultant exhibit for which the study was first undertaken.

 

 

 

 

R. Rigby. 1917-2017


 

 

Contents:

Introduction. 1

Section 1. 3

130,000,000 - 01 B.C. 3

0001 - 1599 A.D. 4

1600 - 1699 A.D.. 6

1700 -.1799.AD. 7

1800 - 1899 AD. 12

1900 - 1999 AD. 49

2000 A.D. 70

Section 2:  Personal Profiles of Notable Orchidists of Yesteryear: 71

Reverend John Clowes, M.A. - 1777-1846. 71

James Bateman, FRS.;FLS.;FGS.; - 1811 - 1897. 75

George Ure Skinner – 1804 -1867. 78

Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linne.) - 1707-1778. 79

John Lindley - 1799 - 1865. 81

The 6th. Duke of Devonshire. 1790 - 1858. 82

William Thompson, Esq. 1870? -1920. Grower & Hybridist. 84

J. J.  Holden, Esq. 85

Samuel & Mary Gratrix. 87

Richard G. and Mrs. Thwaites, 90

The Wrigley Alliance - Pre 1856-1955: 92

Richard Ashworth. Esq. 102

Colonel Sir. John Rutherford M.P. 104

J. Leemann, Esq. 106

William Bolton Esq.  (Pre) 1856-1916. 108

Dr. William Stirling,  O.B.E.; M.D. – 1888-1967. 109

Section 3:List of Orchid Natural Genera (Species): 111

Section 4:List of Generic Names of Orchid Hybrids: 158

  

 

 

Note:   It is hoped that the Natural Orchid and Orchid Hybrid Lists can be updated from time to time, at approx. half yearly    

            intervals.   Any browser wishing to do this individually should consul the following:

 

                                www.ipni.org

 

                                www.orchidspecies.com

 

                                www.rbgkew.org.uk/data/monocots/orch-all.pdf

 

                                www.rbgkew.org.uk/herbarium/orchid

 

                                www.rhs.org.uk/plants/registration-orchids.asp

 


Section 1.

 

                                                                         HIGHLIGHTS OF ORCHID HISTORY.

                                                                     130,000,000 - 01 B.C.

 

130000000 Years Ago:       The Cretaceous Period:

                                                Noted for the demise of the dinosaurs and the development of flowering plants

 

1000 - 600BC:       The earliest references to orchids would appear to be from China where the earliest

                                 Cymbidiums were known as "Lan" a word used to also mean "superior man";

                                  elegant woman"; addition to "strong"; "virile"; and "beautiful".

 

                                 "Lan" often appeared in "love poems" and songs of the early dynasties, and was often

                                  used as a name for both men and women:

 

                                                "Yeuk Lan"          - resembling an orchid.

                                                "Lan Fong"           - the fragrance of an orchid.

                                                "Tin Lang"            - heavenly orchid.

                                                "Sau Lan"             - good orchid.

 

                                  Chinese art and later Japanese art often featured orchids alongside birds - again the                                                                                    Cymbidium is evident.   Such art work is perhaps the earliest form of written                                                                                                communication; continuing for many centuries.

 

 551 - 479 BC:       Confucius said "Acquaintance with good men is likened to entering a room full of Lan".

                                 Lan being the Chinese name for "Fragrant Orchid". He was familar with Cym.ensifolium,

                                 Cym. pumilum and others of that time.

 

 

 372 - 285 BC:       Theophrastus - Greek writer, philosopher and scientist who followed his master Aristotle                              

  as Head of the Peripatetic School at Athens - described orchids in his "Enquiry into Plants".

                                 He wrote two botanical treatii.

 

280 - BC:                Bletilla hyacinthina was described alongside a Dendrobium species by Emperor Shen Nung,                                                                    in his  "Material Medica”.

 

250 - 233 BC:          Emperor Shi-Kotei following the advice of his physician, placed an orchid, believed to be

                                  Cymbidium ensifolium in the quarters of the Empress Yohki-Hi after some years of a                                                                                childless marriage.   The plant developed a spike of thirteen flowers - the Empress                                                                                    conceived the first of thirteen fine “lan” sons.

 


                                                                HIGHLIGHTS OF ORCHID HISTORY.

                                                            0001 - 1599 A.D.

 

0003 AD:               Ki Han, Chinese Minister of State described Cymbidium ensifolium & Dendrobium moniliforme.

 

0030 AD:               "Shou Wen Chieh Tzu" the earliest reference on Chinese etymology, compiled by Hsu Shen                                                           defined an orchid as a fragrant plant

 

0040 AD:               Dioscorides - (0040-0090) - Greek physician in his " De Materia Medica "; possibly the first

                                written evidence of orchids outside the Orient, commented on the usefulness of orchids as a

                        determinant of the sex of offspring:   Ingestion of dried tubers by woman to give female progeny                                                   whereas the ingestion of fresh tubers by man would produce male offspring.

 

O420 AD               "Hou Han Shu" another early reference recording the history of the Han Dynasty provides further

                       evidence of the meaning of "Lan".   Young chinese living on the slopes of the Tapa Shan mountain

                                range would when walking up to the headwaters of the Chen and Wei rivers to call back the soul

                                and to tune to the emotion of the animal spirit, collect and adorn themselves with fragrant plants -

                                often orchids in flower to warn off evils which they believed to be living amongst the trees

                                encountered en route.   Orchids used for this purpose were also called Lan, in this case as a verb

                             meaning to stop evil becoming something or someone during their mission.  It can therefore be said                                             that the word Lan springs from the verb - to check.

 

1233 AD                The first book on orchids - "Chin Chang Lan Pu" describes twenty-two orchids, mainly cymbidiums.

                                The author - Choo Shih Keng was from the Fukien Province the then cultural centre for orchids.

 

1247 AD                The second book on orchids - "Lan Pu" by Wang Kuei-Lsueh also of Fukien Province described

                                thirty-seven orchids, gave full cultural details and stated that the orchid is a symbol of the perfect

                                personality and the quality of a superb person.

 

1368/1644 AD:    Ming Dynasty - many references to the use of orchids as herbs:-

                                                Cymbidium  for rheumatism, neuralgia & venereal diseases.

                                                Gomesa crispa for stomach upsets; diarrhoea; fevers; boils; abscesses and sick elephants

                                                Vanilla - (100 species) for flavouring.

                                               

                                                General use for pigments; colouring and perfumery.

 

1400-1800AD      Further references in Chinese and later Japanese history.

 

1427 AD:               Vanilla planifolia - fruits (seed pods) used to flavour "chocolat" a Mexican drink made  from cacao and honey.      This species has over the years become the only orchid to be agri./horticulturally valuable.   It has become commercially viable earning thousands of dollars from food favouring outlets.   This success may not come about had not Edmund Albius, a slave of Ferre’ol Bollier-Beaumont,devised a method of the ‘hand pollination’ of flowers of this species, which; wither and die within four or five hours after opening early in the day.  

                             Edmund Albius was a young teenager when he discovered the technique, he was freed from bondage by his

                                master, and eventually left his employment trying other ways of earning a living.   It is recorded that he died

                                destitute at 51 years of age on 26th.August 1880.

                                (Other entries re Vanilla planifolia appear under: 1532; 1552; 1754 and 1768)

 

1488-1534AD      Otto Brunfels of Strasbourg referred to orchids as herbal remedies.

 

1490-1500AD:     Cattleya citrina - Spanish conquerors of the Americas recorded that this species was worshipped by the   

                                                         natives.

 

1501-66 AD:         Leonard Fuchs - Physician used orchids as medicinal plants.

 

1532 AD:               Vanilla - illustrated in Aztec Herbal - "The Badianus MS"

 

1542-1612AD:     John Gerard - Physician made use of orchid extracts in medicine.

 

1546 AD:               Kreate Buck described ten orchids in his book "Hieronymus"

 

1548 AD:              Listera ovata - recorded as growing in the United Kingdom.


 

1550 AD:               Thirteen species recorded throughout Europe most likely:

 

                                                                Ophrys apifera                    (Bee orchid)-(July)

                                                                     "          “     var trolli      (Wasp orchid)

                                                                     “        muscifera              (Fly orchid)-(June)

                                                                     “        fuciflora                (Spider orchid) July - (late Spider orchid).

                                                                     "        sphegodes -           (Early Spider orchid).

                                                                Orchis simia -                      (Monkey orchid)

                                                                     "     mascula

Himantoglossum hircinum - (Lizard orchid)

                                                                Serapias vomeracae

                                                                      “       lingua

                                                                Dactylorrhiza majali

                                                                 "       "        folioza

 

1552 AD:               Orchids in Medicine - The first American book  on medicinal plants "Badiano Codex" by Martin de                                                                                    la Cruz - Aztec Physician, referred to Vanilla planifolia as a useful herb for the

                                                                        treatment of: hysteria; fevers; impotence; rheumatism; and to increase the

                                                                        energy of muscular systems:

 

                                                                        Encyclia citrina - used by natives on infected wounds

                                                                        Laelia autumnalis - used for coughs.

                                                                        Stanhopea  hernandezii - used for sunstroke.

                                                                        Arpophyllum spicatum, Bletia catenulat, Cranichis speciosa

                                                                        and Epidendrum pastoris were all used for dysentery.

 

1579 AD:               Orchis odorata - William Langham described the power of this species in his book  - “Garden of                                                                               Health".

 

 

 

 


Highlights of Orchid History

 

                                                                          1600 - 1699 A.D

 

1600 AD:               East Indian Company -1600-1857:

                                Founded by Charter granted by Queen Elizabeth I.

                                Had its own herbarium and collected orchids throughout India

 

1601 AD:              William Shakespeare in his play "Hamlet" referred to Orchis mascula and the folklore of orchids:

                                                "There with fantastic garlands did she come of crow-flowers, nettles, daisies and

                                                  long purples, that liberal shepherds give a grosser name.

                                                  But our cold maids do dead men's fingers call them".

 

1613 AD:              Alvin Samedo - Jesuit Missionary in China wrote of hanging flowers or air plants known

                                locally as "tiao hua" lasting many months suspended in the air. (Considered to be Orchids.)

 

1640 AD:               Parkinson in his "Theatricum Botanicum" made the first British reference to orchids as herbs

                                to aid fertility & virility.  He also named Cypripedium acaule.

 

1641 AD:              Orchis hircina - now known as Himantoglossum hircinum - one of the first native orchids to be

                                                            recorded. It was also found growing in Kent during 1910.

 

1661 AD:              Hernandez described & illustrated Coatzon-coxochit as an orchid cultivated by the Aztec of

                                Central Mexico. During 1882 Kunthre described the same species and named it Anguloa -                                                               hernandezii and in 1918 Schlechter transferred this to Stanhopea hernandezii - the first authentic

                             name after almost three hundred years.

 

1663 AD:              Orchids in Medicine - Gerard made further reference to orchids being used as herbals to aid

                                                                        fertility & virility

 

1685 AD:              Brassavola nodosa - recorded as growing in garden of Casper Fogel in Holland from 1634.

 

1690 AD:             Manuscript of the first six volumes of Herbarium amboinense – Rumphius (Ambon) described

orchid seeds despatched to Batavia (Jakarta).  Herbarium Ambionense was completed in 1701 and

published in Amsterdam in 1741-1750.

 

1698 AD:              Paul Herman published "Paradise Batavos" in which he illustrated two orchids species

                                growing in Holland.

 

 


                                                                HIGHLIGHTS OF ORCHID HISTORY:

 

                                                            1700 -.1799.AD.

 

1702:     First account of Oriental Orchids appeared in "Amenities Exotica" by Engeleber Kaempfer who

                illustrated Dendrobium moniliform.

 

1725       Cymbidium culture - four commandments written by Matsnoka in a book commissioned by Japanese

                                                     Emperor Chang-te

                                                                In Spring do not place out of doors

                                                                In Summer do not expose to too much sun

                                                                In Autumn do not keep too dry

                                                                In Winter do not keep too wet

 

                The book also recommended fertilisation with tea once a month; also that fish soup would rid plants

                of insects; also that Jung-Luan - (Angraecum falcata - now Neofineta falcata)- grew best in human hair

                cut from a woman.

 

                Book also stated the orchids were usually potted in an earth & sand mix; gave advice not press down

                with fingers - merely pour the mix around the roots to prevent “yellowing”.

 

1728       1728 - 1779 Captain James Cook - British Naval Officer undertook oceanic surveys between 1768-71

                on behalf of the Royal Navy & the Royal Society.  He was accompanied by botanist Sir.Joseph Banks

                who introduced a number of orchids to cultivation in the U.K.around 1770.

                Captain Cook claimed Eastern Australia for the British despite earlier discovery of the Australian

                Continent by Dutch navigators.   It was Sir. J. Banks who named “Botany Bay”.

 

1730       Orchids were included when the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew was founded, but it was not until the

                bequethal of the collection of the Rev’d. John Clowes, M.A. one hundred and forty-six years later that                          the Royal collection could be regarded as extensive. 

                                (Refer to “Orchid Review” Vol. 106 No. 1220 pp. 78 - March 1998)

 

1731       Bletia verecunda - In addition to being reported as the first tropical orchid to flower in the U.K. in the

                                                  collection of Sir. Charles Wager it is reported to have been growing in Chelsea Physic                                                                    Garden according to an account in "Historia Plantarum Rariorum".

The "Observer - Magazine" of 16th. September 1973 reprinted a coloured plate of the plant                                              in the Chelsea Physic Garden; this is also confirmed by Miles Hatfield in his "History of British

Gardening"                                                                                                         

(Note :- This orchid was established by Ruiz & Pavon in 1794.)

 

1735:     It is from this time that more reliable records of orchid species and hybrids are available. Included later in this document a list of the ‘Generic Names of Orchid Species’ in alphabetical order and giving other important detail;

                also a similar list of the ‘Generic Names of Orchid Hybrids’.   These lists were last updated December 2003 and

                give details of ‘species’ and ‘hybrids up to July 2003.   It is intended to update six monthly, as and when information becomes available.

 

1737       Epidendrum genus established by Linnaeus, but described more fully by him in 1750 as a large genus of

                American orchids closely related to Cattleya & Laelia epiphytes and used by him in his "Species Plantarum"

                to describe epiphytic habit.

 

                                                Type species: Epidendrum nocturnum.

 

1750:     Stanhopea tigrina - first known as Coatzante coxochitl & Chichiltic tepetlavhochitl according to woodcut                                                                      illustrations, one of fifteen in "Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispanae Thesaurus sen                                                                             Plantarum, Animalium, Mineralium Mexicanarum Historic".

 

1750       Phalaenopsis - amabilis. - Originally described by G.E. Rumphius in 1750 as Angraecum - album ‘Majus’,

                                                              from the island of Amboina in his"Herbarium Amboinense"

                                                              Re-collected in 1752 by P. Osbek journeying from China to England.

                                                         Named Epidendrum amabile by Linnaeus in "Species Plantarum" in 1753.

                                                              Transferred to Phalaenopsis by C.L.Blume in 1825 in his "Bijdragen".


l753        Linnaeus, Carolus - (Carl von Linne') - Swedish Botanist who devised the first authorative system of

                                                    classification in his "Species Plantarum" after his first work "Species Naturae" in 1735.

                                                    The first edition of "Species Plantarum" classified eight genera: Cymbidium; Cypripedium;                                                           Epidendrum; Limodorum; Liparis; Ophrys; Habenaria and Serapias.

 

1753:     William Roscoe - A Liverpool dignitary did much to raise funds for the establishment of the Liverpool

                                             Botanic Garden which has played an important part in the cultivation of orchids.

 

1753:     Arethusa genus - Known to Linnaeus as a species of bog orchids, one from America and one from Japan.

 

1753       Cypripedium genus - Described by Linnaeus as a medium sized genus of terrestrial orchids from temperate

                                                      zones of both hemispheres.   Latinised name from Greek meaning Venus' sandal.

                                                      Contained Paphiopedilum until 1886 when the revision by R.A.Rolfe seperated the two.

                                                      Type species: Cypripedium  calceolus.

 

1754       Vanilla genus - Described by P. Miller.

                                           Type species - Epidendrum - vanilla (syn. - Vanillamexicano – later named planifolia)

 

1757:     Peter Osbeck - Pupil of Linnaeus, when recording a voyage to Canton; described a fine scented

                                          Epidendrum ensifolium (now Cymbidium) growing as pot plants yielding a fine scent.

 

1758:     Bauer, Franze Andreas (1758 - 1840) - Botanical illustrator worked with John Lindley.

 

1759:     Kew - Botanic gardener William Aiton aimed to acquire specimens of all plants known on earth.

 

1760:     Stelis ophioglossoides - one of the first American orchids known.Described by N.J. Jacquin in "Enumeratio

                                                          Systematica Plantarum" as Epdendrumi.ophioglossoides.  Was transferred to Stelis genus,

          of which it is the type species, by O. Swartz in his "Schrader Journal ur die Botanic.

 

1763-4: Epidendrum genus - described by Linnaeus as a genus of American orchids

 

1765:     Orchids stated to be "Epiphytic parasites long considered to be uncultivable" in Millers"Dictionary of           Gardening".

 

1766:      Marked the introduction of orchids into the U.K. by Church and Medical Missionary personnel;

                Army and Naval Officers and other explorers leading to the first British Botanic Expedition

 

1767:     Disa genus - established by P.J. Bergius as a very large genus of terrestrial orchids found mainly in the

                                       tropics and South Africa

                                       Type species - Disa uniflora.

 

1768:      Vanilla planifolia - first importations of these to the U.K. - did not survive.  Some years later further shipments

                                                   arrived and were cultivated successfully by the Marquis of Blandford in 1788 and by Charles

                                                   Grenville at Paddington, London during 1806. 

 

1768:      Epidendrum genus - the first notes on the cultivation of the genus by Miller appeared in "Floriculture"

 

1768:      Banks, Sir. Joseph, (1743-1820): accompanied Captain James Cook in the "Endeavour" to the Pacific

                                                                           region and introduced the first orchids from the East Indies.

 

1768:     Kew R.B.Garden: Catalogued twenty-four species in "Hortus Kewensis" by John Hill; all were of European                                                                              origin other than Rhynchostylis retusa and a Bletia which were listed as Epidendrum

 retusum & Limodorum  tuberosum respectively.

 

1772:      Kew R.B.Garden - Frederick Masson the gardens' first orchid hunter collected plants from the Cape of

                                                  Good Hope

 

1773:     Brown, Robert (l773-1858) - Noted early British botanist who worked on the orchids of Australasia and

                                                                    elsewhere and made the important discovery "The Nucleus of the Cell".

 

1773:      Orchis falcata - Discovered in the Nakasoki Hills, Japan. (See entries under 1784;1813;1868.)

 

1775:     Epidendrum conopseum - Dr. J. Fothergill introduced the first Epidendrum from Florida U.S.A.

 

1776:     Thelymitra genus – Establisher by J.&G. Forster, botanists to Capt. Cook’s 2nd. Expedition to Australia,

1777:     Clowes, Revd. John. - (1/5/1777 - l8/9/1846)

                Resided at Broughton Hall, Manchester where he maintained a large collection of fine orchids which he

                bequeathed to Queen Victoria’s collection at Kew R.B.Garden thereby forming the basic collection there at

                that time.   (Refer to “Orchid Review” Vol.106 No.1220 - March 1998 pp. 78 ).

                (Note:  A full account of the collection of this noted collector appears in Section 2 of this document).

 

1777:     Cattleya maxima - discovered by Ruiz & Pavon in Equador.    Described by Lindley in l831 from a dried                                                                     specimen.  Rediscovered by Hartweg in 1842 & sent to the London Horticultural Society.

                                                  (Local name is Flor de Navidad = Christmas Flower.)

 

1777:     During the period 1777 - 1781 Lopez; Pavon & Dombey explored Chile & Peru and discovered the genus

                Sobralia which was not described until the year 1794.

 

1778:     Dean Herbert - (1778 - 1847) of Manchester - cultivated orchids attached to bark & wood - dipping the plants                                                                                                              several times daily in water.  He also described how he had                                                                                                                    reared: Bletia; Cattleya; Hermenium & Ophreys from seed.

 

1778:     Phaius tankervilleae (grandifolius) & Cymbidium ensifolium were the first Oriental orchids to be introduced

                into the United Kingdom.   Introduced by Dr. John, Fothergill.

 

                The first flowering of Cymbidium ensifolium in the U.K. was in the collection of a Mrs. Hird at York.

 

1780:     First Australian species to arrive in the U.K.   Introduced by Sir. John Banks leading the Royal Society's                      Botanical Expedition.  Later Knighted & appointed the first Director of the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew.

 

1784:     Orchis falcata - syn.- Neofineta falcata & Angraecum falcatum (1813) Described by C. Thunberg.

                                                               Discovered  in 1773. Also known as Limodorum falcatum (1819).

                                                               Transferred to Neofineta falcata by H.H.  Hu in 1925.

 

1786:     Encyclia cochleata - first orchid to flower under cultivation at Kew R.B.Garden.

 

1787:     Botanic Magazine founded - First orchid of many to be illustrated therein was Calopogon - pulchellus

                                                                   (syn. tubernes) - April 1790.

 

1787:     Phragmipedium caudatum - Discovered by Ruiz & Pavon in the Peruvian Andes, remained unknown  until 1848

   when a specimen arrived in the U.K. where it flowered in 1849.

                                                                   Genus then established by R.A. Rolfe in 1896.

 

1788:     Malaxis amplexicolumna - First described by O. Swartz in 1788.  Type species is Malaxis spicata which

                                                               was not described until 1980.

 

1789:     Aiton, William published "Hortus Kewensis" in three volumnes.

 

1789-94: Some fifteen species of epiphytic orchids were under cultivation at Kew R.B.Garden.

 

1789:     Joanis de Loureiro - Jesuit Missionary - recorded: Aerides; Phaius; Habenaria; Spiranthes and Dendrobium.

 

1789:     Epidendrum fragrans - Presented by Commodore Gardner of the West Indies to the Apothocaries Garden at

                                                         Chelsea.

 

1789:     Compost for potted orchids often contained rotten wood & decayed leaves and then plunged in earth.

 

1790:     Aerides genus - Established by Louriero - Portuguese Missionary in Cochin, China in his

                                           "Flora Cochinchinensis".

 

1790:     Epidendrum ciliare - Introduce to the U.K. by Elcock

 

1790:     Renanthera genus - Established by Juan Loureiro.

                                                    Type species: Ren. Coccineai


1791:     Cattleya forbesii - the first two Cattleya to be described by Veloso.   Introduced  to the U.K.  by the Rt. Hon. Robert

                                            Gordon via the London Horticultural Society - 1827.   Cattleya forbesii was first named Cattleya

                                            pauper by Veloso in 1790 - his work was not published  until 1823 some two years after J.Lindley

                                            had established it and named it after H.O.Forbes who had collected further specimens for the 

                             London  Horticultural Society.

 

1790:     Phaius genus: Described by Loureiro - related to Galanthe

                                         Type species: Phaius grandifolius

 

1791/1839: Cunningham, Allan - (1791-1839) collected from Brazil & Australasia for R.B.Garden, Kew.

 

1791/1865: Cuming, Hugh - (1791-1839)  English conchologist & orchid collector who collected extensively

                                                                           from Chile, Polynesia and the Philippines.

 

1791:     Encyclia fragrans - The first epiphyte to be illustrated in the Botanical Magazine

 

1793:     Broughtonia sanquinea - Arrived at the R.B. Garden, Kew; from Jamaica where it flowered alongside

                                                            Brassovola nodosa.   Both specimens were described by R. Brown in 1813.

 

1793:     Sobralia - macrantha: Founded by Ruiz & Pavon, also described by Lindley in 1842

 

1793:     Bligh, William. Admiral - Returned to U.K. in H.M.S. Providence bringing the following orchids:

 

                                                                Dendrobium linguiforme from Australia.

                                                                Oncidium altissimum from the West Indies.

                                                                Oncidium triguetrum from Jamaica.

 

1794       Anguloa uniflora - Discovered during 1794, described by Ruiz & Pavon in 1798 who named the species

                                                  in honour of Don Francisco Angulo - Director of Mines, Peru.

 

1794:     Maxillaria genus - Described by Ruiz & Pavon.

                                                  Type species: Maxillaria ramosa.

 

1794:     Bletia genus - Described by Ruiz & Pavon.   Named in honour of Don Luis Blet - Spanish Apothecary

                                                                                         who maintained a Botanic Garden at Algeciras.

 

1794:    Kew R.B.Garden: Recorded fifteen orchid species under cultivation - most of these had been brought to the

                                                 U.K. by Admiral W.Bligh (of the "Bounty" - 1789) from the West Indies and included:

 

                                                                Ornithideum coccinea = Maxillaria coccinea.

                                                                Oncidium attisimum.

                                                                Isochilus lineaius.

                                                                Oncidium carthaginense.

                                                                Lycaste barringtoniae.

                                                                Epidendrum ciliare.

                                                All referred to as Epidendrum at that time.

 

1794:     Masdevallia genus - Described by Ruiz & Pavon.

                                                     Type species: Masdevallia uniflora.

 

1794:     Gongora genus - Described by Ruiz & Pavon in "Florae Peruvianae et Chilensis" & named after

                                             Don Antonio Caballero y Gongora, Viceroy of New Granada (Colombia & Ecuador) who

                                             later became the Bishop of Cordoba.

                                             Type species: Gongora quinquenervis.

 

1794:     Rodriguezia genus - Described by Ruiz & Pavon

                                                    Type species: Rodriguezia lanceolata.

 

1794:     Sobralia genus - Described by Ruiz & Pavon. - Type species: Sobralia dichotoma.

 

 


1795:  Vanda genus - Established by Sir. W. Jones and described by him as a sizeable genus.

                                          Type species: Vanda Roxburghii.                                                                   

                                       Some twenty-four other species of the genus were known to science during the next ninety-nine years:

                                      Vanda cristata -                     1818 -                             Wallich -               Himalayas.

                                           "     spathulata                  1826 -                             Sprengel-              Ceylon, India.

                                           "     teres                            1829 -                             Wallich -               Burma.

                                           "     concolor                     1835 -                             Loddiges -             China.

                                           "     alpina                         1836 -                             Gibson -                Himalayas, India.

                                           "     coerulea                     1837 -                             Griffith -                Burma.

                                            "     coerulescens              1837 -                             Griffith -                Burma.

                                           "     lamellata                    1838 -                             Cuming -               Philippines.

                                            "     parviflora                  1844 -                             Loddiges -             Assam, Burma.

                                            "     tricolor                       1846 -                             Blume -                  Java.

                                            "     insignis                      1848 -                             Blume -                 Timor, Moluccas.

                                            "     limbata                       1848 -                             Blume -                Java.

                                            "     hookeriana                1856 -                             Motley -               Borneo.

                                            "     stangeana  1858 -     C. Schiller -                 India.

                                            "     bensoni                      1866 -                             Benson -               Burma.

                                            "     denisoniana              1868 -                             Benson -               Burma.

                                            "     sanderiana                1882 -                             Roebelin -            Philippines.

                                            "     dearei                         1886 -                             Reichenbach -     Borneo.

                                            "     amesiana                   1887 -                             S. Low -               Burma.

                                            "     kimballiana               1887 -                             S. Low -               Burma.

                                            "     roeblingiana             1894 -                             H. Low -               Philippines.

                                            "     luzonica                     1905 -                             Rolfe -                  Philippines.

                                            "     sumatrana                 1907 -                             Schlechter -         Sumatra.

                                           "     merrillii                      1930 -                             Quisumbing -      Philippines

 

                Vanda species have been used no fewer than 220 times to create intergeneric hybrids.

 

1796:     Blume, Karl Ludwig (1796/1862) - Dutch botanist who worked extensively on the flora of Asia & Indonesia.

 

1798:     Angraecum sesquipedale -  Discovered by Thours who did not described his find until 1822.

                                                                 Plants were not imported into the U.K. until 1855.

 

1798:     Diuris genus - Described by Smith as a medium sized genus of Australian terrestrials.

 

1799:     Lindley, John. - 1799/1865: Eminent British Botanist & Orchidologist whose works include:

                                                                  "Orchidearum Selectos" - 1826.  "Genera & Species of Orchidaceous Plants" - 1830.

                                                                  "Sertum Orchidaceum" - 1837/42. "Folia Orchidacea" - 1825/39.

 

1799:     Cymbidium genus - A sizeable genus found mainly in the Indiam Himalayas and the Orient where it was known in the   Orient from 700-B.C.;  Established by Swartze in 1799 after being classified as Epidendrum aliofolium in 1753.

 

1799:     Epidendrum ciliare: First flowering in the U.K. by Whiteley at Old Brampton.

 

1799:     Dendrobium genus - Described by Swartz as a large genus.

                                                     Type species - Dendrobium moniliforme.

 

1799:     Lepanthes genus - Described by Swartz.

                                                 Type species - Lepanthes concinna.

 

1799:     Stelis genus - Described by Swartz.

                                        Type species - Stelis ophioglossoides.

 

1799:     Wachter (Germany) hand-pollinated an orchid between 1799 and 1801.

 

It can be reasonably assured that at the end of the eighteenth century some one hundred and one of the generic names

of Orchid Species were known to science.   These are listed in “The Generic Names of Orchid Species” following in

this document and which gives details in alphabetical order, includes the authority, abbreviated name – where known -; breeding group number (as published in the data based of Dr. Cedric Maunder – one time Chairman of the British Orchid Council Judging Committee), and year of introduction/registration of all generic names of species from 1735 to November 2004.


                                                                HIGHLIGHTS OF ORCHID HISTORY.

                                                            1800 - 1899 AD.

 

1800/25:The City of Liverpool was described as the U.K’s leading centre for botany.

 

1800:     Satyrium genus - Established by O. Swartz.

                                              Type species - Orchis bicornis.

 

1800:     Epipactis genus - Established by O. Swartz as a genus of circumboreal terrestrial orchids related to                                                                              Celphalanthera.  Swartz used the name originated by Theophratus - 372/285 BC.

 

1800:     Bentham, George. (1800-1884) Co-author with J. Hooker of "Genera Plantarium - Vol. III - Orchideae"

                                                 during the period 1862-1883.  He is commemorated by two orchid genera:                                                                                         Benthamia & Neobenthamia.

 

1800:     Oncidium genus - Described by O. Swartz as a sizeable genus of epiphytic tropical American orchids.

                                                 Type species - Oncdm. variegatum.

 

1800:     Dendrobium - nine species described by O.Swartz.

 

1800:     Blume, Carl, L. - published "Javanese Orchide".

 

1801:     Dendrobium speciosum -  Introduced to the U.K from Australia by J. Banks, later Sir. J. Banks who became

                                                             the Director of Kew R.B.Garden.

 

1802       Seeds:    R.S. Salisbury:- Described the successful germination and growing of orchids.

                                                            (Refer also to 1778 - Dean Herbert/1849 - David Moor).

 

1802:     Bauer, Francis:-   Resident draughtsman at Kew R.B.Garden illustrated the "nucleus of the cell" using

                                                Phaius grandifolius.

 

1803       Liverpool Botanic Garden opened, largely due to the work of William Roscoe a leading citizen of that City.

 

1803/55:  Mrs.Lawrence of Drayton Green, Middlesex issued a catalogue of two hundred and twenty-seven orchids

                  in her collection during 1838.

 

1804:     Angraecum genus - The first Madagascan orchid known to science, established by Colonel Bory de St.                                                                           Vincent in his "Voyages”.

 

1804:     Gastrochilus bellinus - originally described by Reichenbach following collection by Boxall from Burma.

                                                         re-described by D. Don in 1825 & again by Schlechter in 1913

 

1804:     Salisbury (England) : observations of germinating orchid seeds.

 

1805:     Bonatea genus - Established by Chas. Willdenow.

                                            Type species: Bnt. speciosa.

 

1805:     Habenaria genus - Described by Chas. Willdenow in the IVth. edition of "Species Plantarium".

                                                 Type species: Orchis habenaria.

 

1808:     Liverpool: A catalogue of plants in the best gardens within the City listed thirty orchid species and stated -

                                   "and the merchants and the masters of vessels are entitled to the thanks of the proprietors and

                                     the Liverpool Botanic Garden for their numerous and valuable presents of plants and seed".

 

1809:     Darwin, Charles. (1809/1892): During voyages (l831/1836) he gathered information for his subsequent

                                                                       writings on evolution and "On the Various Contrivancies by which “British

                                                                       and Foreign Orchids are Fertilised by Insects" in which he predicted

                                                                       that an insect with a twelve inch long probosis would be necessary to effect

                                                                       the fertilisation of Angraecum sesquipedale.

                                                                       Some forty years later it was established that the Hawk Moth Xanthopan

                                                                       morganii praedicta did in fact fertilise this genus.


1809:     Cynorkis genus - Described by A. Du Petit Thours - Type species Cyn. fastigiata.

 

1809:     Graphorkis genus - Described by A. du Petit Thours.

                                                   Type species: Grks. scripta.

 

1810:     Cattleya loddigesii -  First imported cattleya to flower at Liverpool Botanic Garden.

                                                      Some thirteen years after being established by John Lindley in 1823

 

1810:     Spiranthes romanzoviana - discovered by Drummond at Bantry Bay, Ireland.

 

1810:     Dendrobium linguiforme - Introduced into Europe by Captain W. Bligh of the "Bounty".

                                                               Founded by O. Swartz in 1800.

 

1810:     Caladenia genus - Described by R. Brown as a sizeable genus from Australia, Indonesia & New Zealand.

                                                  Noted for having hairs on the lip.

 

1810:     Caleana genus - Described by R. Brown as a small genus of Australian terrestrials and named by him after

                                             George Caley of St. Vincent Botanical Garden who assisted him when collecting in the

                                             Sidney area.

 

1810:     Sarcochilus genus - Established by R. Brown

                                                    Type species - Sarco. falcatus.

 

1810:     Dipodium genus - Founded by R. Brown as a small genus of diverse vegetative character from China &

                                                 South East Asia - related somewhat to Cymbidium.

 

1811:     Bateman, James. FRS.; FLS.; LS.; FGS. (1811/1897) - Orchidist and Orchidologist of Knypersley Hall,

                                                                                                                  Staffordshire.

Noted for his writings - particularly "Orchids of Mexico & Guatemala" the largest known book on orchids - published   in 1843

 

                Became interested in orchids when eight years of age on collecting Orchis mascula from a country lane near

                to his home - Knypersley Hall - Staffordshire. U.K.

 

                His extensive collection began with Renanthera - coccinea which he acquired from Fairbairns Nursery -

                Oxford whilst a student at Keble College

 

                Apart from his considerable collection at Knypersley, mainly as a result of his friendship with G.U.

                Skinner he & his wife created the first Victorian Garden - (recently restored) - at Biddulph Grange -

                a part of the Knypersley Hall Estate at that time

 

                He did much to influence cultivation and he is credited with the first flowerings of :-

 

                                Grammatophyllum - multiflorum from Malaya in 1837.

                                Schomburgkia - tibicinis from Guatemala which took four years to flower.

                                Odontoglossum - pulchellum from Guatemala in 1841

                                Odontoglossum - cavendishianum from Guatemala in 1835

                                Miltonia - anceps  from Brazil in 1865 - there is no other record of this orchid flowering again

                                                                                                       in Great Britain

 

                The genus Batemannia commemorates his name which appears regularly in the annals of orchid history.

                (please refer to Section 2 of this document for a fuller account of this noted orchidist.)

                James Bateman died during the same year that the Manchester Orchid Society, now the North of England

                Orchid Society was founded - 1897. (Refer to “Orchid Review” Vol.106 No.1222 pp.214 - 1998)

 

1811:     Duke of Devonshire - Cavendish, William (Hart.) - The Marquess of Hartington who became the VI th.

                Duke of Devonshire of Chatsworth House, Derbyshire. (Refer to Section 2 for a fuller account.)

 

                He developed a very large collection of Orchids at his country seat ; housing them in a conservatory 227 feet

                long, 123 feet wide, 67 feet high and known as the Great Stove.   This was illuminated by fourteen hundred

                lamps for a visit by Queen Victoria - in 1843.

                From 1826 the Bachelor Duke employed Joseph Paxton, who was later Knighted; as his Head gardener at a

                salary of twenty-five shillings per week - considered to be a good salary at that time.  Paxton remained in

                that position during the Dukes's lifetime becoming his General Manager in all matters


1812       Orchis mascula - One of the fifteen species in Europe known from 1550 was the subject of an item in

"Hortis Botanicies Americanus" by a Dr. W.T. Tilford who wrote - "The tubers of orchis mascula contain bassorin, a little starch and other properties similar to amylaceous food substances - one   ounce of ground tubers from the plant with one ounce of soup concentrate and two quarts of boiling water  would contain sufficient nourishment for one man for one day and should therefore be carried on ships  to prevent famine at sea.

                                              Orchis - mascula was also used in medicine.

 

1812:     Oncidium - bifolium: Arrived in England alive from Monte Video.  It had been hung in the cabin of the

                                                      Master of the ship without earth and it bore flowers for most of the journey.

 

                This was a significant observation which aided the understanding of the culture of epiphytes in Britain.

 

1812:     Several epiphytes were thriving in soil in the glasshouse of the Empress Josephine at Malmaison as

                Napoleon invaded Russia

 

1812:     The commercial importation of orchids got underway at Loddiges of Hackney, London. - via shipments

                and the nursery.

 

1813:     Kew R.B.G. - more than seventy species reported as growing there.

 

1813:     Angraecum - falcatum: The first of the genus to be cultivated in Europe, also; one of the first Japanese orchids ever

                                                    introduced.   Sent by Dr. Roxburgh - eventually lost to cultivation until re-introduced by

                                                    Veitch during 1868. - Syn. Neofinetia falcata by which name the species as been known               

                                                    since 1925.In 1784 Carl Thunberg named this Orchis falcata

 

1813:     Aerides - odoratum: First flowering in cultivation by a Mr. Fairbairn at Claremont.

 

1813       Brassia - genus: Described by R. Brown as a genus related to Oncidium and named in honour of

                                            William Brass - Botanical Illustrator.

 

1813:     Brassavola - genus: Described by R. Brown as a Tropical American genus allied to Cattleya and Laelia

                                                    and dedicated to Senor Antonio Musa  Brasavola - Venetian Nobleman and Botanist.

 

1813:     Broughtonia- genus: Described by R. Brown as a Monotypic genus of epiphytic orchids from Jamaica

                                                     and dedicated to A. Broughton - English Botanist.

 

1813:     Cyrtopodium - genus: Described by R. Brown as a medium sized genus of terrestrial or epiphytic orchids

                                                       from tropical America.

                                                       Type species - Cyrt. andersonii

 

1813:     Corallorrhiza - genus: Established by R. Brown as a small sized genus of saprophytic orchids native to

                                                        North America.   Name is descriptive of "coral" like roots - hence the popular name

                                                        "Coral Root".    Also found in Mexico, Europe & Asia.

 

1813:     Goodyera - genus: Described by R. Brown

                                                  Type species G. repens = Satyrium - repens

 

1813:     Isochilus - genus: Described by R. Brown

                                                Type species: I. linearis

 

1813:     Octomeria - genus: Described by R. Brown.

                                                   Type species: O. graminifolia.

 

1814:     Kew R.B.G.: Second edition of "Hortus Kewensis" listed 115 species, from 48 genera; 84 of which were                                                           considered "exotics”.

 

1813:     Pleurothallis - genus: Described by R. Brown.

                                                      Type species Pths. Ruscifolius

 

1813:     Ponthieva - genus: Described by R. Brown.

                                                  Type species - P. glandulosa.

 

1815:     Ionopsis - genus: Described by F.H.V. von Humboldt.

                                                Type species - Inps. pulchella

1815:     Botanical Register "The cultivation of tropical parasites long regarded as hopeless”.

 

1815:     Gomesa - genus:  Described by R. Brown in Botanical Magazine  - l784

                                                Known from 1368 to 1644 as a medical herb.

                                                Type species: Gom. crispa.

 

1815:     Telipogon - genus: Described by Humboldt.

                                                  Type species: Tp. angustifolius.

 

1815:     Oncidium - ornithorhynchum: Discovered near to Valladolid - Mexico by Humboldt who also established

                                                                       the species. Was also discovered by G. Ure. Skinner collecting in Guatemala.                                                                                   Plants were sent to Loddiges by Humboldt and to Bateman by Skinner.

 

1815:     Restrepia - genus: Described by Humboldt

                                                 Type species: Rstp. antennifera.

 

1815:     Odontoglossum - genus: Described by A. Von Humboldt; A. Bonpland and C.S. Kunth in "Nova

                                                           Genera et Species”

                                                           Type species: Odm. epidendroides

 

1816:     Dominy, John. - (1816/1891

 

                Born at Gittisham, Devon.: During 1834, after completing an apprenticeship in a private garden he

                entered the nursery of Messrs. Luscombe, Price & Co. at Exeter - to move a few months later to the

                nurseries of Messrs. Veitch also at Exeter where he stayed for seven years before becoming Head Gardener

                to a Mr. Magor at Redruth, Cornwall during 1841

 

                Five years later he transferred to the Chelsea Nursery of Messrs. Veitch where he remained until ill heath

                forced him to retire during 1880

                He died on 12/2/1891 and was interred at Exeter.

 

                During 1854 a Mr. Harris suggested to Dominy the possibility of hybridising. Dominy crossed

                Cattleya - guttata with Cattleya - loddegesii and a little later Calanthe - masuca with Calanthe - furcata.

                Some time later the second cross he had made flowered and thus became the first man-made orchid hybrid.

 

                On seeing this Dr. Lindley remarked "You will drive the botanist's mad”.

                The hybrid was named Calanthe Dominii after the hybridiser.

 

                The cattleya cross Dominy made was also successful and became known as Cattleya hybrida.

 

                Dominy produced the following hybrids also:

                                Aerides - hybrida (Aer. affine x Aer. fieldingii)

                                Anaectomaria Dominii (Antchs. roxburghii x Haemaria. discolor - now known as Ludisia discolor.)

                                Calanthe Veitchii (Cal.  rosea x Cal. vestita.)

                                Cattleya Brabantiae ( C. loddigesii x C. aclandiae.)

                             Cattleya Dominiana (C. intermedia x C. maxima.)

                                Cattleya quinquecolor ( C. aclandiae x C. forbesii.)

                                Cypripedium Harrisianum ( Cyp. villosum x Cyp. barbatum ) - (First Cypripedium hybrid.)

                                Cypriprdium vexillarium (Cyp. barbatum x Cyp.Fairrieanum

Laeliocattleya Devoniense ( L. crispa x C. leopoldii.)

                                             "        Dominiana ( L. purpurata x C. dowiana.)

                                             "        Exoniensis ( L. crispa x C. Mossiae ) - (First intergeneric hybrid - 1863.)

                                             "        Felix ( L. crispa x C. Schilleriana)

                                             "        Veitchiana (  L. crispa x C. labiata)

                                Macromaria Domini (Haemaria discolour x Macodes petola. )

Phaio-Calanthe irrorata ( Ph. gandifolius x Cal. vestita. )

Selenipedium Dominianum ( Sel. caricinum x Sel. caudatum)

                                (Refer to full list on page 34)

                Since Dominy's time very many hybrids have been raised within genera and between genera, we now have

                multi-generic factors in the parentage of many modern hybrids which are being raised and registered at a rate of

              something in the order of two thousand plus per annum

 

                An apt memorial to the man who produced the first man assisted  hybrid orchid.


1817:     Hooker, Sir. Joseph - (1817/1911): One time Director of R.B.G. Kew. - stated that - "England was the

                                                                                “graveyard of tropical orchids”

                                                                                We now know that this is not so. – we only have to look into what has

                                                                                Occurred since 1817.

 

1817:     Fitch, Walter Hood - (1817/1892):   Outstanding botanical artist solely responsible for Curtis' Botanical

                                                                                 Magazine - 1834/1877.

                                                                                 Hooker; Bateman and Warner all used his lithographs 1854/1891

 

1817:     Catasetum - fimbriatum: Described by Richards.

                                                           Flowered at Horticultural Society Gardens. 

 

1817:     Calanthe - delavaye: Collected from Dali-Western Yunnan by French Missionary Pierre Jean Marie Delavay.                                                                 Described and named by Eugene Finet - (1863/1913.)

 

1818:     Stanhopea insignis (Type species) arrived in the U.K. from D. Lochart at Trinidad Botanic Garden  along with:-

 

                                                                Oncidium papilo.

                                                                Catasetum tridentatum.

                                                                Lockhartia elegans.

 

1818:     Ludisia discolor - syn. Haemaria discolor - Originally described as Goodyera discolor by John Ker-Gawler

                                                                                             based on a plant believed to be from Brazil.

 

1818:     Cattleya labiata - The first cattleya recorded by Lindley in 1821. (Refer to 1821.)

                                                 First arrived in England as packing around other species, was cultivated by W. Swainson

                                                 for some six years before being classified as Cattleya - previously known as Epidendrum.

                                                 Species discovered on Organ Mountains - Rio de Janero

                                               

                                           William Cattley after whom the genus is named - a keen cultivator of tropical plants at

                                                Barnett received of plants from the same source - he also cultivated the packing which

                                                flowered during November 1818.

 

1818:     Aplectum - genus: described by Nuttall as a monotypic genus from North America.

 

1818:     Vanda - Roxburghii: Discovered by C. Rowe at Barrachpue - India. First of the genus to arrive in the U.K.

                                                     Cultivated by Sir. John Banks in his private collection.

                                                     Named after Dr. William Roxburgh, Director of Calcutta Botanic Garden.

 

1818:     Vanda cristata: Introduced from Northern India by Wallich.

 

1818:     Liparis - genus: Described by L.C. Richard.

                                            Type species: Ophrys loeselii = Liparis loeselii.

 

1818:     Pelexia - genus: Established by L.C. Richard.

                                            Type species - P. spiranthoides

 

1818:     Stenorrhynchus - genus: Established by L.C. Rich.

                                                           Type species - S. speciosus.

 

1819:     Paphiopedilum venustum: First of the genus to be successfully cultivated in Britain was by -

                                                              Whitley, Brown and Milner.

 

1820:     Liverpool Botanic Garden received the following four species from Dr. N. Wallich collecting in Nepal:

                                                                Cymbidium lancifolium.

                                                                Dendrobium fimbriatum.

                                                                Dendrobium pierardi.

                                                                Paphiopedilum insigne.

 

1820:     Dendrobium moschatum:- Introduced to Liverpool Bot. Garden by Dr. Carey as Dendrobium calceolaria.

 

1820:     Orchid culture - according to Sander - Phase One of Orchid Culture was the period 1820/1889.

 

1820:     Loddiges used a compost containing rotten wood, moss and sand.

 

1820:     Michael Faraday, Physicist demonstrated Electro Motive Force which led to the discovery of the

                                                electric motor.   Where would orchid culture be today without this discovery ?

 

1820:     Calanthe genus -  Described by R. Brown as a large genus of terrestrial or semi-epiphytic orchids

                                                mainly from Africa; Tropical Asia & Pacific Isles, with a single species from Mexico.

                                                related to the genus Phaius.

 

By the end of 1820 a further one hundred and sixty-three genera (species) had become know to science.

 

1821:   . Cattleya genus - Dedicated to William Cattley by Dr. John Lindley.

                                            Type species - Cattleya labiata.

 

1821:     Bifrenaria atropurpurea - Sent by W. Harrison merchant in Rio de Janeiro to his brother Richard in

                                                            Liverpool.  Hooker named this as Dendrobium harrisoniae during 1825.

 

1821:     Dendrobium aphyllum (syn. Den. cucullatum & Den. pierardi) - flowered at Lverpool Bot. Gdn.

 

1822:     Parish, C.S.P. Revd. English Missionary at Moulmein, Burma; collected, illustrated & introduced the

                                                     orchids of Burma to the U.K.   Several species are named after him.

 

1822:     Angraecum citratum - Discovered & described by A. du Petit Thouars collecting in Madagascar.

                                                        First recorded successful cultivation was by Veitch during 1865.   The genus

                                                        Angraecum was rare in collections prior to the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.

 

1822:     Bulbophyllum - genus: Described as a very large genus by A. du Petit Thouars, mainly from Asia.

 

1822:     Catasetum macrocarpum - (Type species) Described by Kunth in "Synopsis Plantarum".

 

1822:     Catasetum - fimbriatum: Founded by Richards - reported as flowered at Kew R.B.Garden in 1817.

 

1822:     Coelogyne - genus: Established by J. Lindley as a large genus of mainly epiphytes from Tropical Asia.

                                                    Several Type species named.

 

1822:     Dendrobium fimbriatum -  This species was sent to Liverpool Botanic Garden in 1820 by Dr. N. Wallich.

                                                                 It flowered there; on seeing this Sir. W. Hooker wrote: "Among the many

                                                                 valuable plants, which in month of April, I had the gratification of seeing

                                                                 at the rich Botanic Garden at Liverpool none interested me more than this.

 

1822:     Epidendrum polybulbon - arrived at Liverpool Botanic Garden from Jamaica; sent by Charles Horsfall.

 

1822:     Macradenia genus - Described by R. Brown.

                                                    Type species: Mcdn. lutescens.

 

1822:     Epistephium genus - Described by Humbolt, Bonpland & Kunth as a small genus of South American

                                                     terrestrials related to Sobralia & Vanilla.  Known later as Goodyera.

 

1822:     Angraecum sesquipedale - Described by Aubert du Petit Thours who had discovered the genus in

                                                                Madagascar in 1798.

 

1822 or 1832: Prescotia – Report of seedlings of this species growing in the R.H.S. Garden at Chiswick.

 

1823:     Cattleya loddigesii - Discovered at Minas Geruis-Rio de Janeiro.  Described by Lindley.

 

1823:     Eulophia - Described as a large genus by r. Brown.   Widespread in C.Africa & other warm ares of the world.

                                   Type species :- Eupha. guineensis.

 

1823:     Cattleya forbesii - Described by Lindley & introduced to the U.K. from Rio de Janeirio by Forbes collecting

                                                 for the Horticultural Society.   Described as Epidendrum pauper in 1790 by Vellozo who's                                                             work was not published until after Lindley had named the species after its discoverer.

 

1824:     Aeranthes grandiflora - The first aeranthes, discovered by Forbes on Mount Ambre - Madagascar.

                                                          Described by Lindley, named in allusion to its epiphytic habit.


 

1824:     Cattleya intermedia - Introduced to Glasgow Botanic Garden by Captain Graham of the Royal Packet Service

                                                      who had acquired the specimen from W. Harrison, Merchant in Rio de Janeiro.

                                                      First flowering in cultivation during 1826.

 

1824:     Coelogyne cristata - Discovered by Dr. Wallich at 4500-7500 feet in the Himalayas.

                                                     Described by Lindley.

 

1824:     Day, John. (1824/1888) - influential orchid hobbyist who becamed famed for his drawings & paintings of

                                                             nearly 3000 orchids.

 

1824:     Oeonia genus - Described by J. Lindley.

                                           Type species: O. aubertii.

 

1824:     Dendrobium speciosum - One of the earliest Australian Dendrobiums to flower in the U.K. -

                                                            Flowered at Kew R.B.G.

 

1825:     Arpophyllum - Small genus of Tropical American orchids known as " Hyacinth" orchids - related to

                                          Ponera & Coelia.  Described by La Llave & Lexara

 

1825:     Arundina: Genus - Originally described by D. Don in "Prodomus Flora Nepalensis" as

                                                  Bletia graminifolia.  Later described by Blume

 

1825:     Dendrochilum: Large genus of Asiatic epiphytic orchids akin to Coelogyne. Described by Blume

                                           Type species: D. aurantiacum.

 

1825:     Eria: Very large genus related to Dendrobium.   Described by Lindley

 

1825:     Erythrodes: Large genus of terrestrial orchids found in tropical and sub-tropical areas of both  

                                      hemispheres - related to Goodyera & Dossinia.   Described by Blume.

 

1825:     Grammatophyllum - genus Established by C.L. Blume.   Often regarded as "The Giant" plant of the

                                                     Natural Order, aprox. twelve species within the genus. Gram. speciosum; the type

                                                     species is the best known.  During 1851 a plant weighing over two tons was

                                                     exhibited at the Crystal Palace exhibition

 

1825:     Phalaenopsis – genus -  Originally established by C.L. Blume.

                                                           (reviewed - H.G. Reichenbach - 1862)

                                                           (reviewed - R.A. Rolfe - 1866)

                                                           (reviewed - H. Sweet - 1968)

                                                          Type species - Phal. amabilis.

 

1825:     Pleione - genus of ten species established by D. Don, closely allied to Coelogyne.

                                 Type species: Pln. praecox.

 

1825:     Polystachya - genus - Established by Sir. W. Hooker.

                                                       Type species - Polluteola

 

1825:     Schoenorchis - genus - Established by C.L. Blume.

                                                        Type species - S. juncifolia.

 

1825:     Spathoglottis – genus - Described by C.L. Blume.

                                                         Type species - Spaplicata.

 

1825:     Trichoglottis – genus - Described by C.L. Blume.

                                                        Type species - Trgl. retusa

 

1825:     Xylobium – genus - Described by J. Lindley.

                                                   Type species - Xyl. variegatum syn. Dend. squalens.

 

1825:     Notylia – genus - Described by Lindley.

                                              Type species - Ntl. punctata.

 

1825:    Oncidium papilio - First reported flowering in the U.K. following importation from Trinidad.

 

 

1825:     Anoectochilus petola - syn. Macodes petola:

                                                        Described by Blume as one of a small genus of "Jewel" orchids of S/E Asia.

 

1825:     Rhynchostylis – genus - Described by C.L. Blume.

                                                        Type species - Rhy. retusa.

 

                J. Lindley saw Rhy. retusa in bloom in the office of Sir. J. Banks in 1820 according to the Botanic Register

                of 1831.  Also listed under the then valid name of Saccolabium guttatum in the collection of the Revd. John Clowes in

              1842.

 

1825:     Odontoglossum cervantesii - Collected from Michoacan State - Mexico, described by La Llave & Lexara

                                                                    who named the species in honour of Prof. V. Cervantes. 

                                                                    Re-described by Lindley in 1838 as Odm. membranaceum.

                                                                    During 1887/1888 two varieties: Odm . deconum & Odm. lilacinum were

                                                                    described by Reichenbach & Linden repectively.

                                                                    Now known as Lemboglossom cervantesii.

 

1825:     Odontoglossum maculatum - Originally described by La Llave & Lexara - collected from near Irapea -

                                                                    Michoacan.  During 1856 Lemoine believed he had found a new species and

                                                                    named it Odm. anceps.

 

                                                                    During 1951 L.G. Williams thought he also had discovered a new species

                                                                    which he named Brassia oestlundiana.

 

                                                                    Both Odm. anceps and Brs. oestlundiana are now relegated to synonymity.

 

                                                                    Odm. maculatum now known as Lemboglossum maculatum.

 

1825:     Alamania – genus - Described by P. La Llave & J. Lexara.

 

1825:     Loddiges of Hackney - London produced a list of 84 species in 31 genera.

 

1825:     Odontoglossumapterum - Described by La Llave & Lexara based on plants collected near Irapeo -

                                                                   Michocan.   Plants of the same species and habitat are recorded as growing

                                                                   in Europe in 1883 in the collection of Baron Karwinski.

 

1825:     Acanthephippium – genus - Founded by J. Blume.

                                                                  Type species - A. javanicium.

 

1825:     Arachnis - genus first described by Blume in 1825.   Since that time genus has been placed in no fewer 

                                    than eleven other genera and discussed by leading botanists for 150 years.   Present classification                                                 made in 1975 by Kiat Tan reverted back to the original name.   Related to Vanda.

 

1825:     Ornithocephalus – genus -  Described by Sir. W. Hooker.

                                                                 Type species Orcp. gladiatus.

 

1825      Arundina – genus - Described by C.L. Blume.

                                                   Type species A. speciosa.

 

1825:     Tainia – genus - Described by C.L. Blume.

                                            Type species T. speciosa.

 

1825:     Ceratostylis – genus - Described by C.L. Blume.

                                                       Type species - several named

 

1825:     Cleisostoma – genus - Described by C.L. Blume.   Type species Cleis. sagittata.

 

1825:     Eria – genus - Described by Lindley.   Type species E. stellata.

 

1825:     Gastrochilus – genus - Described by D.Don.

                                                        Reviewed by Schlechter in 1913, by R. Holtum in 1946, and by Garay & Sweet 1947.

                                                        Type species Gchls. calceolaris = Aerides calceolaris

 

1825:     Ludisia – genus - Established by A. Richard.

                                              Type species Lus.. discolor (noted for its foliage) - Syn. Haemaria discolor - (Refer to 1818.)

 

1825:     C.L.Blume published "Javanese Orchids”.

 

1825:     Pabstia – genus - also known as Colax.   Described by  Lindley - reviewed by L. Garay in 1973.

                                              Type species Pab. viridis syn. Maxillaria viridis.

 

1825:     Loddiges of Hackney, London - produced a list of eighty-four species from thirty-one genera for sale.

 

1825:     Dendrobium aemulum - early Australian species to flower in U.K. - Kew R.B.G.

 

1825:    Noisette (Franch) stated that orchid seeds could be germinated, but did not any success in doing so.

 

1826:     Lycaste aromatica - First flowering in cultivation at  Edinburgh Bot. Gdn. after receiving a specimen plant

                                                    from Lord Napier collecting in Mexico.  First known as Maxillaria aromatica when

                                                    described by Hooker, later transferred to the genus Lycaste by Lindley - 1843.

 

1826:     Catasetum semipartum - Presented to Liverpool Botanic Garden  by Mrs. Falkner - wife of the Vice

                                                           President of the garden after receiving the plant from Mr.B.L.Lloyd in Brazil.

 

1826:     Robiquetia – genus - Established by C. Gaudichaud.

                                                     Type species: Rbq. ascendens.

 

1826:     Coryanthes – genus - Discovered, not described until 1831 by Sir. W. Hooker in Bot. Reg. from plants sent

                                                      from Caracus by Mr. Lockhart. Genus flowered at Knight's Nursery - Chelsea in 1836

                                                      also flowered at Chatsworth in 1837.

 

1826:     Cadetia – genus -  Described by L. de Freycinct.

                                                 Type species: Cadta. umbellata.

 

1826:     Luisia – genus - Described by C. Gaudichaud.

                                            Type species: Lsa. teretifolia.

 

1826:     Pholidota – genus - Described by Lindley.

                                                   Type species: Phol. imbricata.

 

1826:     Chatsworth - The Duke of Devonshire who amassed what was then considered one of the World's leading

                                        collections of orchids - engaged Paxton as Head Gardener where he remained during the

                                        Duke's lifetime. Wages were twenty-five shillings per week, which was extremely good pay at

                                        that time - being double what was normally paid for such a position.

 

1826:     Vanda spathulata - Introduced by Sprengel from Ceylon.

 

1827:     Zygopetalum rostratum - Introduced to Liverpool Bot. Gdn. by Mr. C. Parker from British Guiana.

 

1827:     Elleanthus - Described by Presl as sizable genus of Tropical American orchids akin to Sobralia.

                                      Type species: E. lancifolius.

 

1827:     Phalaenopsis cornu-cervi - Discovered in Batan by van Hasselt in Batan Provence, Java.

                                                                 Originally named Polychilos cornu-cervi. Transferred to Phalaenopsis by

                                                                 Blume & Reichenbach in 1860.

 

1827:     Lockhartia – genus - Described by Sir. W. Hooker.

                                                     Type species: Lhta. elegans.

 

1827:     Sarcoglottis – genus - Established by K.B. Presl.

                                                       Type species: Srgt. speciosa.

 

1827:     Sophronitis – genus - Described by Lindley.

                                                      Type species: Soph. cernua.

 

1827:     Zygopetalum – genus - Described by Sir. W. Hooker.

                                                        Type species: Z. mackaii.

 

1828:     Dendrobium chrysanthum - Introduced into the U.K. by Dr. Wallich of Calcutta Botanic Gardens.

 

1828:     Encyclia –genus - Established by W.J. Hooker in Botanical Magazine in 1828. Treated by some as a

                                                 section of genus Epidendrum until 1961 when Dressler produced `Brittonia'.

                                                 Type species: Eviridiflora.

 

1828:     Brassavola tuberculata: Mr.R.Harrison of Aigburgh Liverpool, was the first collector to flower this.

                                                         He received a plant from his brother who had cut the specimen from a tree

                                                         near the sea at Botafoga Bay, Brazil.  Described by Sir. W. Hooker.

 

1829:     Stanhopea genus - Described by Sir. W. Hooker.

                                                 Type species: Stan. insignis.

 

1829:    Two hundred and sixteen species of native and tropical orchids under cultivation in England were

             listed in "Encyclopedia of Plants" by J.C. Louden.

 

1829:     Stanhopea oculata: Imported from Xalapa, Mexico, by Loddiges who flowered the specimen in 1831,

                                                    Flowered also by Bateman during 1834 at Knypersley Hall, Staffordshire.   Genus

                                                    named after the Earl of Stanhope - President of- the Medico-Botanical Society of London

                                                    1829/1837.

 

1829:     Vanda teres: Introduced to U.K. by Dr. Wallich.   Discovered by Sylhet at Assam N/E India, also in

                                       Upper Burma.

 

1829:     Dendrobium longicornu - Flowered at the R.H.S. Garden after introduction by Dr. Wallich from the

                                                             lower altitude areas of the Himalayas.

 

1829:     Dendrobium secundum - Introduced from Malaya.

 

1830:     Dendrobium amoenum: Pressed specimens of this species were evident some forty years before

                                                          introduction to cultivation from the philippines around 1840.

                                                          Listed in the collection of the Revd. J. Clowes in 1842 and by Loddiges in 1844.

 

1830:     Dendrobium nobile: Described by Lindley after being known for some time before 1830.

                                                     Collected from many Himalayan areas: Nepal; Sikkin; Bhutan; N/E. India; Burma;

                                                     S. China; Vietnam; Laos & Thailand.

 

1830:     Fitzgerald, Robert. D. (1830-1892) -One time Deputy Surveyor General of New South Wales.

                                                                                 Keen amateur botanist who wrote & illustrated  `Australian Orchids -

                                                                                 1875/1888'.  The first comprehensive work on the native orchids of

                                                                                 Australasia.

 

1830:     Lycaste deppei: Discovered by F. Deppe near to Jalapa - Mexico.  Introduced to U.K. by Loddiges.

                                           Described by Lindley in 1834 who transferred it from Maxillaria.

 

1830:     Miltonia Warscewiczii - Discovered by Poeppig at Cuchrio - Peruvian Andes; also by Warscewicz who

                                                           brought specimens to the U.K. - first flowered by Veitch in 1869.

 

1830:     Microcoelia – genus - Established by Lindley.

                                                       Type species: M. exilis.

 

1830:     Otochilus – genus - Described by Lindley.

                                                   Type species: O. alba; O. fasca and O. porrecta.

 

1830:     Phreatia – genus - Described by Lindley.

                                                  Type species: P. elegans.

 

1830:     Hot water heating systems (stoves - central heating) were introduced.

 

1830:     Dilochia – genus - Described by Lindley as a small genus of epiphytes of S/E Asia related to Arundina.

 

1830:     Dendrobium harrisoniae - syn. - Bifrenaria harrisoniae; Lycaste harrisoniae & Maxillaria harrisoniae

                reported as growing well in the collection of Mr. & Mrs. Arnold Harrison of Aigburgh, Liverpool.

                The collection was eventually passed to a Mr. Knight of King's Road, Chelsea where Dr. Lindley then

                the Assistant Secretary to the London Horticultural Society saw it & considered it unrivalled.

                Mr. A. Harrison had a brother Richard who also possessed a fine collection at Aigburgh & another

                brother William, a merchant operating in Brazil who shipped many plants to his kin in Liverpool.

 

1830:     Coelia – genus - Established by Lindley as monophytic or epiphytic - occasionally terrestrial orchids; from Mexico,

                                         Central America and the West Indies.

 

1830:     Cirrhopetalum - genus - Described by Lindley.

                                                           Type species: Cirr. thouarsii.

                                                           (Now merged with Bulbophyllum.)

 

1830:     Dendrobium densiflorum - First flowering in the U.K. at Loddiges nursery.

 

1831:     Darwins Voyage (1831/1836) - Refer to entry under 1862.

 

1831:     Govenia superba - Lindley transferred this species from Maxillaria superba.   Generic name given to

                                                  commemorate J.R. Goven, English horticulturist & orchid collector who collected

                                                  from Central Mexico.

 

1831:     Leptotes bicolour - (Tetramicra bicolor):- Introduced from Organ Mountains.

 

1831:     Laelia – genus - Described by Lindley as a large genus of epiphytes from tropical S/America.

                                            Type species: L. grandiflora.

                                             (Syn.: Bletia grandiflora.)

 

1831:     Peristeria – genus - Described by Sir. W. Hooker.

                                                    Type species: Pelata.

 

1832:     Aspasia – genus - Described by Lindley - as of the Oncidium alliance. Named after the wife of Pericles. 

 

1832:     Epidendrum Oncidoides: First flowering in the U.K. by Mr. R. Harrison of Aigburgh - Liverpool.

 

1832:     Cynoches – genus - Described by Lindley as a small genus of American tropical epiphytes related to

                                                   Catasetum and Marmodes.   Commonly known as the "Swan" orchid. 

                                                   Type species Cyc. loddigesii.

                                                   A fine clone - Cynoches ventricosum - Var. chlorochilon 'Calderstones' AM/RHS. was                                                       nurtured at Liverpool Botanic Garden.   (Mr. D. Binks of Sheffield & District O.Soc.

                                                   is the proud owner of the same prize winning orchid.)

 

1832:     Gongora maculate - Syn. Cga. quinquenervis - First flowering in the U.K. by Mr. Richard Harrison, of                                                                                                                      Aigburgh, Liverpool; who employed Mr. Perrin as gardener – after

                                                                                          whom Laelia Perrinii is named.

 

1832:     Oeceoclades – genus - Described by Lindley.

                                                        Type species: Oech. maculata.

 

1832:     Laelia anceps - Enoch Harvey, Junior; of Aigburgh - Liverpool literally begged a plant for five shillings rather                                                     than the usual two guineas. A few years later the original owner paid the young man two

                                            hundred and twenty guineas to re-acquire the same plant.

 

1832      Chiloschist – genus - Described by Lindley.

                                                     Type species: Chsch. usneoides.

 

1832:     Galeandra – genus - Described by Lindley as a small genus of American tropical epiphytes originally from

                                                     French Guana - not heard for some years and re-discovered near Oaxaca,-Mexico.

                                                     Type species: Gal. baueri.   Named after Francis Bauer - botanist and one time official

                                                     artist at Kew R.B.G. at that time.

 

1832:     Dendrobium lascanthera - Described by  J. J. Smith following collection by Stuber in New Guinea.

 

 

1833:     Bateman, James - Sent a collector to Demerara to meet G. Ure Skinner resulting in all the first orchids

                                                collected from Guatemala being sent to his residence - Knypersley Hall.

 

1833:     Angraecum caudatum - Introduced from Sierra Leone by Loddiges.

 

1833:     Dichaea – genus - Described by Lindley as a medium sized genus of psuedomonopodial epiphytic orchids

                                                  from tropical America.

 

1833:     Camarotis – genus - Described by Lindley.

                                                    Type species:  C. purpurea.

 

1833:     Bifrenaria – genus - Described by Lindley as related to Lycaste, harriasoniae, also Dendrobium harrisoniae which 

                                                     had been in the collection of R. Harrison at Aigburgh, Liverpool from 1821.

                                                     Hooker also described this plant in 1824.

 

1833:     Doritis pulcherrima - This type species for the genera as described by Lindley was originally collected by

                                                       Finlayson from near the River Turon - Cochin, China (Vietnam)

 

1833:     Leptotes – genus - Described in the Botanical Register - (t 1625).

                                                 Type species: Lpt. bicolor.

 

1833:     Brown (England) produced a paper on orchid pollination and description of nuclei.

 

1834:     Kew Royal Botanic Garden  - Some seventy species were under cultivation.

 

1834:     Angraecum - caudatum: First flowering in cultivation by Loddiges - one year after importation.

 

1834:     Batemannia – genus - Described by Lindley as very small genera of epiphytic orchids native to Northern areas

                                                       of  South America related to Zygopetalum & Promeneae.  Named after James Bateman.

 

1834:     Paxton of Chatsworth gave advice on the temperatures for orchid cultivation in the Magazine of Botany.

 

1834:     Bolus, H. (1834-1911) Author of "Orchids of South Africa" which appeared in 1893.

 

1834:     Stanhopea - oculata, - Flowered in the collection of James Bateman.

 

1834:     Skinner/Bateman - First shipment of orchids from G. Ure Skinner arrived at Knypersley Hall.

 

1834:     Diothonea – genus - Described by Lindley.

                                                    Type species: D. lloensis

 

1834:     Hexisea – genus - Described by Lindley.

                                                Type species: Hxsa. bidentata.

 

1834:     Dendrobium lindleyi - Discovered in Northern India, first flowering in the U.K. at the R.H.S.

 

1835:     Gibson, John. - Collected in India for the Duke of Devonshire, also reported as being the first to use

                                           “Wardian” cases for orchids in transit.

 

1835:     Love, Hugh. - Collected in Mexico for the Duke of Devonshire. Records show that he was paid £200 plus

                                         a further £100

 

1835:     The collection of Revd. Huntley of Chiswick was purchased and added to an already fine collection at

                Chatsworth House.

 

1835:     Paxton's Compost :- turfy peat for Dendrobiums, the same with vegetable earth for Epidendrums, also

                turfy heath mould mixed with spagnum moss and pot sherds.

 

1835:     Scaphyglottis – genus - Established by E.F. Poeppig & S.L.Endliches.

                                                         Type species: Scgl. graminifolia.

 

1835:     Cattleyaaurantiaca - Introduced to U.K. by Ure Skinner via Bateman as a Guatemalan Epidendrum. 

 

1835:     Oncidiumcavendishianum - Discovered by G. Ure Skinner near City of Guatemala collecting for

                                                                      Bateman who dedicated the species to the then 6th. Duke of Devonshire -

                                                                      under whose patronage Sir. Joseph Paxton commenced the modern system of

                                                                      orchid cultivation.

                                                                      Species was also collected by Roezl from Colina - Mexico during 1875.


1835:     Cochlioda – genus - Established by Lindley.

                                                    Type species: Cda. densifolia.

 

1835:     Wentworth collection - The Earl Fitzwilliam had a thriving collection under the care of his gardener a Mr.

                                                         Joseph Cooper - a skilful grower who was the first to advocate the practice of

                                                         "damping down”.

 

1835:     Grobya – genus -  Described by Lindley.

                                                Type species: G. amherstiae.

 

1835:     Comparettia – genus - Discovered by Poepping in the Andes of Colombia, also found in Peru and Ecuador.

                                                        Founded by Poepping & Endlicher as a small genus of epiphytic orchids and named                                                                            after Snr. Andreo Comparetti, eminent plant physiologist & Proffesor of Botany at                                                                            Padua, Italy.

                                                        Type species: Comp. falcata.

 

1835:     Odontoglossum bictoniense - First of the genus to reach U.K. alive. Discovered in Guatemala by  Skinner and

                                                                     sent to Bateman & Lord Rolle of Bicton who was the first to flower the species

                                                                     in cultivation, Bateman classified it as Cyrtochilum bictoniense to be transferred

                                                                     to Odontoglossum by Lindley in 1840. Hooker described the genus as                                                                                                   Zygopetalum africanum also in 1840.   Grows epiphytically and terestrially in                                                                                     both Mexico and Gautemala.

 

1835:     Chatsworth Collection - 1835 was the zenith of the Duke of Devonshire's horticultural interests.   He planned

                                                           and subsidised expeditions by young botanists to Asia and the New World:                                                                                         H.Love & J. Henderson to Mexico;     J. Gibson to Calcutta & the Ganges.

 

1835:     Physosiphon – genus - Established by Lindley.

                                                        Type species: P. loddigesii

 

1835:     Paxton illustrated two cases (Wardian) used for the transportation of orchids on long sea voyages in -

                "A Few Remarks on Preserving Plants and Seeds".   These had been sucessfully used by Gibson, Love &

                Henderson, collecting for the Bachelor Duke.

 

1835:     Vanda concolor: introduced by Loddiges from China.

 

1836:     Artificial Pollination: Charles Moran of Leigh, Lancs., attempted to pollinate the genus Vanilla by hand.

                                                       (Refer to entry under 1841.)

 

1836:     ditto – Morren (Belgium) successfully hand-pollinated Vanilla.

 

1836:     Dendrobium jenkinsii - Discovered by British Army Officer "Jenkins" at Assam.

 

1836:     Cattleya skinneri - The National Flower of Costa Rica. Discovered by G.Ure Skinner in Guatamala.

                                                   Also discovered later by Oersted in Nicaragua and again by Warscewicz in Costa Rica.

                                                   There is also an  'alba' form - discovered by Endnes in Costa Rica.

                                                   Described by Bateman in 1838.

 

1836:     Cattleya harrisoniana - Introduced from Brazil by Harrison of Aigburgh - Liverpool.

 

1836:     Vanda alpine - Introduced by Gibson from sub-tropical Himalayas & India.

 

1836:     Cattleya Mossiae - Introduced to U.K. by G. Green of Liverpool from La Guaira - Venezuela.

                                                  Flowered during 1839 in the collection of Mr. &  Mrs. Moss of Aigburgh.

                                                  Named after Mrs. Moss by Sir. J. Hooker.

 

1836:     Cochleanthes genus - Established as a small genus of tropical American epiphytes by Rafinesque.

                                                       Also described as Zygopetalum and Warrea.

                                                       Type species: Cnthsfragrans.

 

1836:     Mormodes – genus - Described by Lindley.

                                                     Type species: Morm. atropurpurea.


1836:     Caularthron genus - A small genus of tropical American epiphytes allied to Epidendrum and Cattleya.

                                                     Named by Rafinesque. Also named Diacrium by Bentham in 1881

                                                     Type species: Caubicornutum   =   Diacrium.

 

 

1836:     Odontoglossum ehrenbergii - Discovered by Ehrenberg in Mexico. Named by Link; Klotsch & Otto.

                                                                    Renamed Odm. dawsonianum by Reichenbach in 1865.

 

1836:     Pecteilis genus: Established by Rafinesque.

                Type species: Orchis susanne; Habenaria gigantea - (D. Don.); L. radiata & O. radiata.

 

1836:     Stenoglottis genus - Described by Lindley

                                                  Type species: Sngl. fimbriatum.

 

1836:     Work began on the erection of the great stove at Chatsworth House to house what was considered the

                worlds largest collection of cultivated orchids.  Completed five years later.

 

1837:     Barkeria genus - Discovered by Ross when collecting for Mr. G. Barker of Birmingham in Mexico and

                                             named after him.

                                             Founded by Knowles & Wescott and disappeared from cultivation until re-discovered

                                             and re-introduced in 1853 by Linden through Ghiesbreght who collected plants from the

                                             slopes of the Guerrero Mountains near the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

                                             Plant given name of Barkeria - elegans.

 

1837:     Dendrobium devonianum - Discovered by Gibson in the Khasia Hills when collecting for the Duke of

                                                               Devonshire of Chatsworth.

 

1837:     Dendrobium pulchellum - Received at Chatsworth from the Calcutta Botanic Garden.

 

1837:     Grammatophyllummultiflorum - Malayan species first flowered by James Bateman in cultivation.

                                                                             Described by G. Blume in 1925

 

1837:     Schomburgk, Brothers Sir. Richard & Robert sent the first British Guianean orchids to the U.K.

 

1837:     Huntleya: Genus - Described by Lindley in Botanical Register and named after the Rev'd. J.T. Huntley

                                                  a keen English amateur grower.   Who later sold his collection to the Duke of Devonshire

                                                  Type species: Hya. meleagris

 

1837:     Chysis - A very small genus of tropical American epiphytes founded by Lindley, following discovery by

                                J. Henchmann in the Cumanacoa Valley, Venezuala; who sent plants to Low & Co., London.

                                Type species: Chy. aurea

 

1837:     Schomburgkia tibicinis - Received from Guatamala by Bateman who was the first to flower the species

                                                           in cultivation.

                                                           Established by Lindley and named in honour of Sir. Richard Schomburgk who                                                                                   became the Director of the Adelaide Botanic Garden – Australia.   Refer to Orchid  

           Review 112/1255, Jan.2004 which states that Richard Schomurgk was not Knighted.

 

1837:     Aerides quinquevulnerum - Discovered by Cummings collecting in the Phillipines for Loddiges who

                                                                 flowered the species.  Described by Juan Lourerio - 1790.

 

1837:     Deschamps - brought a large consignment of Mexican species to the United Kingdom.

 

1837:     Leochilus - A small genus of tropical American epiphytes allied to Oncidium.

                                     Described by Knowles & Westcott.

                                     Introduced to cultivation by Mr. G. Barker of Springfield, Birmingham as part of a large

                                     consignment of orchids collected from around Xalapa Mexico.

 

1837:     Miltoniaspectabilis - Founded by Lindley.   Originally sent to the Birmingham Hort. Society from Brazil by

                                                         a Mr. Fry, who named it, Miltonia Fryanus some time later. Unfortunately; his

         registration arrived a few days after Lindley had named the species as it is now known.

                                                         This is the species type

 

1837:     PhalaenopsisAphrodite - First of the genera to arrive in the U.K. Sent by Cummings from the Philippines

                                                                when collecting for Loddiges.

 

1837:     G. Ure Skinner - sent his second consignment to James Bateman.

 

1837:     Vandacoerulea - Discovered by William Griffith in the Khasia Hills - Assam, India.

 

1837:     Vandacoerulescens - Discovered in the Khasia Hills - Assam, by W. Griffith.

 

1837:     Laelia crispa - Sir Joseph Paxton gave details of a seven flowered spike in the Chatsworth collection in

                                          his Magazine of Botany - Vol. V.

 

1837:     Gastrochilusacutifolius - Introduced to cultivation by the Rev'd. John Clowes of Broughton Hall, Manchester.

 

1837:     Stenia: Genus - Described by Lindley.

                                           Type species: Stenia - pallida.

 

1837:     Oncidiumexcavatum - Discovered by Matthews at Chachapogas - N.Peru, & later by Spruce in the Andes of

                                                         Equador.  First flowering in the U.K. at Loddiges in 1839.   Not recorded again until

                                                         1862 when another plant flowered for a Mr. T. Dawson at Meadowbank, Glasgow.

 

1837:     Believed to be the best year of the peak period of 1817 - 1858 for the importation of new orchid species.into

                the U.K.

 

1837:     Odontoglossumcordatum - Described by Lindley who in 1855 described the same plant as Odm.. maculatum

                                                                    mistakenly.

 

1838:     A Mr. Lawrence of Drayton Green, Middlesex. possessed a fine collection of 227 different orchids - (Quote

                from Hadfield's "History of British Gardens.)

 

1838:     Cattleyaviolacea - Introduced into the U.K. by Sir. R. Schomburgk who sent plants from his exploration of

                                                     British Guiana.

                                                     Originally discovered by Humbolt in 1815 who gave his discovery the name -

                                                     Cymbidium - violaceum.

 

1838:     Vanda lamellata: Introduced by Cummings from the Philippines.

 

1838:     Amblostoma genus - Established by M. Scheidweiler.

                                                     Type species: Amb. cernuum.

 

1838:     Odontoglossumrossii - Introduced to U.K. by Mr. G. Barker of Birmingham.

                                                            Described by Lindley who named the species in honour of Lord Ross.

                                                            Also known as Odm. coerulescens; Odm. rubescens; Odm. warnerianum;

                                                            Odm. humeanum;   Odm. asperum and Odm. youngii.

 

1838:     Leochilus genus - Described by Knowles & Westcott.

                                                Type species: Lchs. oncidiodes.

 

1838:     Trichocentrum genus - Described by Poeppig &  Endlicher.

                                                        Type species: Trctm. pulchrum.

 

1838:     Trichopilia genus - Described by Lindley

                                                   Type species: Trpla. tortilis.

 

1839:     Aganisia - Founded by Lindley as a small genus of tropical South American orchids related to Zygopetalum -                                                some Aganisia are blue flowered.   (Dr. R. Bakaya of the N.E.O.S received the A.M./RHS. on

                                   21/06/1988 for her blue flowered species- Aganisa cyanea `Rosemaen’ – this was later crossed

                                with  Zygopetalum Blackii to produce Zygonisia Ramala Bakaya ‘Rosemaen’ which was registered  )

                                    by Mr George  Black (who has made over 1700 hybrids ) during October 1944.) – ( Compilers Note :-

                                    This hybrid has the bluest of blue orchids I have ever judged – see photograph on the opening page.).

 

1839:     Cattleyaaclandiae - Discovered by Lt. James of H.M.S. Spey. Introduced to the U.K. and named after Lady                                                                  Ackland of Killerton.   Flowered during 1840.

 

1839:     Angraecumarmeniacum - Described by Lindley in 1834.  Introduced from Sierra Leone by Loddiges.

 

1839:     Cattleyabicolour - Introduced into the U.K. by Loddiges from Bananal - Brazil, also found in the mountains

                                                     of Rio de Janeiro.

                                                     Originally described by Lindley from a painting by Descourtilz.

 

1839:     Cattleyawalkeriana - Discovered by Gardner travelling in Brazil and named after Edward Walker travelling

                                                          with him.   Sigmund Rucker flowered a plant in cultivation in 1847.

 

1839:     Drakaea - Established by Lindley as a very small genus of four terrestrial orchids showing extreme

                                   modification of flower structure limited to Western Australia.  Allied to Caleana.   Named after                                                     Miss. Drake - artist - who illustrated Bateman's "Orchidaceae of Mexico and Guatemala”.

 

1839:     Masdevalliaracemosa - Discovered by Hartweg near Popayan - Colombia, from whose herbarium Lindley

                                                              described the species.

                                                              Many years later species collected by Cross from Pitayo near Popayan.

                                                              Plants sent to U.K. did not survive the journey.   In 1883 plants from between

                                                              Popayan & Tomita sent to the U.K. by John Gardner did survive.

 

1839:     Phalaenopsissumatrana - Discovered by Korthals in the Province of Palembang - described by him and

                                                                   Reichenbach in 1860.

                                                                   Featured in Curtis' Botanical Magazine from a specimen flowered by John Day.

 

1839:     Loddiges published his first list of orchids for sale.

 

1839:     Dendrobiumanosmum - syn. Den. macrophyllum;

                                                                  "    Den. macranthum;

                                                                  "    Den. superbum.

                                                              Introduced from the Philippines by H. Cuming.   First flowering at Loddiges nursery.

 

1840:     Manchester: It was reported that several businessmen had small private collections.

 

1840:     Dendrobium - tortile - discovered by T. Lobb at Tenasserim Burma.

 

1840:     Fitch, John Nugent - (1840/1927):  Nephew of Walter Hood Fitch continued his uncles' work for Curtis'

                                                                             Botanical Magazine; also executed all drawings for "The Orchid Album"                                                                                            1882/1897.

 

1840:     Cattleyagranulosa - Discovered by Hartweg & sent from Brazil via Guatemala to the London Hort. Society.

 

1840:     Lycaste – genus - Discovered by G. Ure Skinner English plant collector from Leeds, Yorkshire.

                                              Described by Lindley in 1843.   Lycaste skinneri is the National Flower Guatemala.

                                              Type species : Lyc. plana.

 

1840:     Masdevalliafloribunda - First Mexican masdevallia known to science.   Discovered near Veracruz by

                                                               Henri Galotti a French Botanist.

                                                               Described by Lindley in 1843 after receiving same from a Mr. Rodgers of Kent.

 

1840:     Macodes: genus - Described by Lindley.  Known from 1750 (Pre-Linnaenan time) as Filium pertolum and 

transferred to Neottia petola by Blume during 1825 before Lindley     transferred  it to Macodes.  Type species: Mac. petola.

 

1840:     Odontoglossum - pulchellum:- Discovered by J. Linden at San Bartolo, Chiapas, Mexico; also by Ure. Skinner who

                                                                sent plants to J. Bateman, and flowered by him for the first time in cultivation, at

                                                                Knypersley Hall during 1842.   Another plant from the same importation flowered at

                                                                Kew R.B.Garden a year later.

 

1840:     William Lobb - collected in Brazil for Veitch during 1840/1843; sending many unkown species to London.

 

1840:    Thomas Lobb - collected in Java - India and Lower Burma for Veitch, during 1840/43.

 

By the end of 1840 a further five hundred and thirty-one genera had been introduced.

 

1841:     The great stove at Chatsworth House was completed to house what was one of the largest collections of orchids, if not

              the largest.


1841:     Edmund Albius (a former slave) of Reunion - developed a practical method of artificially pollinating the                                                                                                                    genus:Vanilla.

 

1841:     Cogniaux. C.A.  Wrote the text of "Dictionaire Icongraphique des Orchides”.

 

1841:     Linden. H. - Was sent to Venezuela and Colombia by Messrs. Barker of Birmingham; Rucker of Wandsworth

 and the Rev'd. J. Clowes of Manchester where he discovered: Anguloa clowesii & Anguloa rucker – the

 first of the species seen in Europe.

 

1841:     Sobralia macrantha - Discovered by Count Karwinsky near Oaxaca - Mexico and later near the Hacienda -

                                                       de la Laguna by C.J. Schiede.   Described by Lindley in 1846.

                                                       First flowering in cultivation May 1841.

 

1841:     Kew Royal Botanic Garden - scientific institute founded -included orchids.

 

1841:     Odontoglossumstellatum - Collected from Chiapas Mexico by T. Hartweg for the R.H.S. London. 

                                                                    Described by Lindley.   Also named Odm. erosum by Richard & Galeatt in 1845.

 

1841:     27/10/41 - First of several letters from the Rev'd. John Clowes to Sir. W. Hooker the then director of

                                   Kew.R.B.G. (ten other letters are re-produced in the recent Orchid History Reference Papers

                                   compiled by R.M. Hamilton of British Colombia.)

 

1841:     Mr. G. Wailes of Newcastle upon Tyne received 73 orchids from G. Ure Skinner -all were dead on arrival.

 

1841:     Houlletia – genus - Described by A. Brongniart.

                                                   Type species – Hlt. stapeliaefloraHlt. brocklehurstiana was introduced by a Mr. Wanklyn                                                           of Crumpsall, Manchester and named after Thomas Brocklehurst of "The Fence",                                                                             Macclesfield, Cheshire.- A noted cultivator of orchids.

 

1841:     Lanium – genus - Discovered by G.Gardner in the Organ Mts. Brazil and described by Lindley as Epidendrum

                                              avicula.   In 1881 G. Bentham transferred it to Lanium avicula which is the Type species.

 

1841:     Dendrobiumdiscolour - Described by Lindley - 1841;previously described by R. Brown.   Originally collected                                                                   by J.Banks at the time of Captain Cook's voyage of discovery to Australia.

                                                              Syn.: Den. undulatum & Den. andersonianum.

 

1842:     Anguloa uniflora - Re-discovered by Linden at Jazi Province of Manida - Colombia.

                                                  First flowering in cultivation by Mr. G. Barker of Birmingham.   Also flowered in the                                                                     collection of the Rev'd. John. Clowes at Broughton Hall during 1844.

 

1842:     Cattleyalawrenceana - Discovered by Sir. Robert Schomburgk at the foot of Mount Roraima - Guyana.

                                                             Assumed lost to cultivation until rediscovery by Seidel collecting for Sander at the                                                                         same location.   Described by H.G. Reichenbach and named in honour of Sir. Trevor                                                                      Lawrence - President of the R.H.S.in 1885.

 

1842:     Eriapannea - First described by Lindley in 1825.   Re-described by him in 1842 two years after introduction

                                            to U.K. by Loddiges who imported the first plants of the species from Singapore.

 

1842:     Earina – genus - Described by Lindley as a small genus of epiphytes of New Zealand and other Pacific Islands.

 

1842:     Maxillarialuteoalba - Discovered by Jean Linden in the Cordillera de Merida – Venezuela, who forwarded

                                                          plants to his sponsors - Messrs. Barker, Rucker and Rev'd. J.Clowes.

                                                          Described by Lindley in 1846.

 

1842:     Hexadesmia – genus - Described by A. Brongniart.

                                                       Type species: Hex. faxiculata.

 

1842:     Bates, John. Collected from Central America for Lord Derby.

 

1842:     Lyons, J.C. Produced the first book on orchid cultivation in England and Europe - " Remarks on the Management of

                                 Orchid Plants".

 


1842:      William Hammond, talented grower; employed by the Rev'd. John Clowes compiled a list of orchids under                 cultivation

               at Broughton Hall - Manchester; arranged in alphabetical order and giving names of Countries of origin.

                 (NOTE: A copy of this catalogue is produced as "Orchid History Reference Paper - No. 4" by R.M. Hamilton                              Esq. of Richmond, B.C. Canada.)

 

1843:      Acineta – genus - Lindley founded this showy orchid in l843, however; Humboldt and Bonpland discovered it                                                          in 1825 in the Catacocha Valley near Zamuro - Ecuador and named it Anguloa superba.

                                                 Reichenbach finally transferred it to Acineta in 1863.

 

1843:     Masdevalliaschlimii - Discovered at Valley Merida, Venezuela by L. Schlim after whom it is named.

                                                           A small epiphytic orchid introduced to the U.K. by Sander during 1843.

 

1843:     Lycaste – genus - Founded by Lindley and named it after the beautiful daughter of the last King of Troy.

                                                Type species: Lyc. plana.

 

                Lycastearomatica - Previously known as Maxillaria aromatica was discovered 1826 in Mexico by Lord                                                                        Napier and sent to Edinburgh Botanic Garden.

 

                Lycastedeppei - Previously classified as Maxillariadeppei  was discovered around 1829 by F. Deppe,                                                                   collecting for Loddiges in Mexico. Introduced by Loddiges in 1830.

 

1843:     Phalaenopsis – equestris - First collected from the Island of Luzon - Philippines by Meyer.

                                                              Described by Schauer and named Stauroglottis - equestris.   Transferred to                                                                                       Phalaenopsis by Reichenbach in 1849.

 

1843:     Chatsworth House: The 6th. Duke of Devonshire's collection was considered the largest in the world.

 

                Queen Victoria visited Chatsworth in December when the conservatory was illuminated with 1400 lamps.

                (Refer to 1821 entry - Faraday).

 

1843:     Clowes, Rev'd. John - Quote from Lindley's "Gardeners' Chronicle of 2nd. December 1843":-

                                                       "The house of Mr. Clowes is the most enjoyable and displays Orchidacae to greater                                                                          advantage than any we have hitherto seen”.

 

1843:     Clowesia – genus - Established by Lindley.   Classified as a genus of five species.   Has also been classified as

                                                  Catasetum with which it has a close relationship.   Named by Lindley in honour of the  Rev’d.

                                             John Clowes of Broughton Hall, Manchester an early enthusiastic grower; and the first grower

                                             in the County of Lancashire who was the first to flower the type species in  cultivation.

                                                  Type species Cl. rosea - which is also known as Catasetum - rosea.

 

1843:     Anguloaclowesii - First flowering under cultivation was in the collection of the Rev'd. John  Clowes, after                                                                  whom the species is named.

 

1843:     Paphinia – genus - Established by Lindley.   Originally known as Maxillaria cristata, which remains as a

                                                   synonym along with Lycaste cristata and finally transferred by Lindley to Paphina in 1843.

                                                   Type species Pna. cristata.

 

1843:     Promenaea – genus - Described by Lindley as a genus of approx. fifteen species from Brazil, allied to                                                                               Hunteleya and Warscewiczella.   Several named as Type Species.

 

1843:     Encyliavitellina - Collected by R. Smith from Oaxaca.   Flowered later at Kew Botanic Garden.

                                                    Originally described by Lindley as Epidendrum vitellina as collected from Mexico by Pavon.

                                               Transferred to Encylia by Dressler during 1961.   Syn. Epidendrum vitellinum.

 

1844:     Anguloaruckeri - First flowering in cultivation by Sigmund Rucker of Wandsworth.   (Refer to 1841)

 

1844:     Anguloavirginalis - First flowering in cultivation in the collection of G. Barker of Birmingham.

 

1844:     Aerides - maculosum 'Schroderi' - First flowering in the U.K. by Mr. Schroder of Stratford Green, Essex.

                                                                            Who had purchased plant at Steven's Sale Rooms.

                                                                            Believed to have been imported from the Hills near Bombay.

                                                                            Also flowered at Loddiges and later by Rollinson.

 

1844:     Ansellia – genus - Described by Lindley and named in honour of John Ansell - Botanist at R.Hort.Garden at

                                                 Chiswick.

 

                Anselliagigantean - Collected by Gueinzius from Port Natal, S. Africa but not described by Reichenbach until                                                             1847.

 

1844:     Schomburgkia – genus - Established by Lindley. and named in honour of Sir. Richard Schomburgk who explored and

                                                      collected many orchids along with his brother Robert from British Guiana.

                                                           Type species: Schom. crispa.

 

1844:     Schomburgkiaundulate - Collected from La Guaira by Jean Linden. Introduced to cultivation by Sigmund  Rucker.                                                                           

1844:     Oncidiumoblongatum - Described by Lindley in The Botanical Register.   Imported by Loddiges from Mexico.

                                                             During 198l Hagsater proposed that the Guatemalan plants of the same name be

                                                             regarded as a new species -  Oncidium - fasciculatum.

 

1844:     The sixth Duke of Bedford: Presented his entire collection to Queen Victoria who donated the plants to the       

              Royal Botanic Garden - Kew.

 

1844:     Vandaparviflora - Introduced from Burma by Loddiges.

 

1844:     Dendrobiumkingianum - Discovered and described by J.C. Bidwill as an Australian lithophytic species,                                                                                  which had adapted well to cultivation.

 

1844:     Calanthe veratrifolia - Neumann (France) claimed to have germinated seeds of this species successfully – he did

                                            not report having brought seedlings to flowering size.

 

1845:     Odontoglossumgaleottianum - Described by Achille Richard based on plants collected from Oaxaca - Mexico. 

                                                                   In l870 Reichenbach suggested the species could be a natural hybrid between:-

                                                                   Odm. cervantesii x Odm. apertum.   R. A. Rolfe of Kew confirmed the species on

                                                                   account of its linear terete column auricles.

 

1845:     Helcia – genus - Described by Lindley, also allied to Trichopilia & Aspasia but considered a single species

                                         from Ecuador & Colombia.   First collected by Hartweg. from the Andes above Guayaquil.

                                            Type species: Hlc. sanquinealenta.

 

1846:     Phalaenopsis amabilis - Collected in Java by T. Lobb and sent to Loddiges - Exeter, where plants flowered

                                                           during September 1847 for the first time in cultivation.

 

1846:     Chondrorhyncha – genus - Described by Lindley as a small genus of tropical American epiphytes related to

                                                               Zygopetalum and Huntleya.

 

1846:     Coelogyne ochracea: Originally described in the Botanical Register of 1846 from a plant supplied by a Mr. T.

                                                      Brocklehurst of Macclesfield, Cheshire.

                                                      The plant was a magnificent specimen bearing sixty spikes and approximately four

                                                      thousand blooms.

                                                      The plant had been collected by a Mr. Charles Power, from Barrackpore, Bengal.

 

1846:     Solenidium genus: Established by Lindley as a genus of few species from tropical Americas.

                                                  Type species: S. racemosum, syn. Oncidium racemosum.

 

1846:     Kew Royal Botanic Garden: Received the bequested collection of the Rev'd. John Clowes and built a new house

                                                                   to accomodate same.  This increased the numder of orchids held there considerably

                                                                   and formed the basis of the collection for many years.

 

1847:     Dean Herbert of Manchester :  Described how he had raised Bletia; Cattleya; Herminium and Ophrys from seed.                                                                             Posssibly the first record at that time; of orchids being cultivated  from seed.

                                                                       He stated that these had died at seedling stage.

       (Refer to entries under 1802-Salisbury and 1849-Moore)

 

1847:     Vanda tricolor:   Collected from Java during 1846 by T. Lobb orchid hunting for Veitch.   Also by Blume at approx.

t he  same time but not described by him as Vanda suaveoluens until 1948.   It was first described by Lindley during 1847 as Vanda. tricolor.

 

1847:     Cypripedium caudatum:  Known to science from the 1790's but not introduced to cultivation until William Lobb,                                                                   collecting from Peru sent plants to Loddiges. Now Phragmipedium caudatum.

 

1847:     Dendrobium farmeri: Dr. McClelland of the Calcutta Botanic Garden sent plants collected from the Khasia Hils                                                              to Mr. W.G. Farmer of Nonsuch Park, Surrey.

 

1847      Dendrobium tortile: Introduced to the U.K. by T. Lobb from Tennaserim.

 

1847:     Eriopsis – genus. Described by Lindley as a small genus of Tropical American epiphytes.

                                                Type species: E. biloba.

 

1847:     Laelia perrinii: Described by Bateman in Paxton's "Magazine of Botany" and named after Mr. R.Perrin.

                                           Orchid Grower & Gardener to Mr. R. Harrison of Aigburgh, Liverpool.

 

1847:     Laeliocattleya elegans: Thought to be a natural hybrid between Cattleya leopoldi x Laelia purpurata.

                                                          Discovered on Santa Catarina Island off the Southern Coast of Brazil.

 

1847:     Dendrobium chrysotoxum: Described by Lindley from the first importations to U.K. from India by

                                                                Messrs. Henderson.

 

1848:     Arachnanthe cathcartii: Discovered by Sir. J.D. Hooker in the hot, damp, shady valleys of the Eastern

                                                           Himalayas and sent to Calcutta Botanic Garden - from where plants were despatched

                                                           to the U.K. after flowering.  These did not survive.   Further imports during 1870 by                                                                       Veitch who brought the plants into flower.   Named after Mr.J.F.Cathcart of th Indian                                                                     Civil Service - naturalist and early explorer of the Himalayas.

                                                           Now known as Esmeralda cathcartii - the type species of the genus.

 

1848:     Calanthe vestita: Discovered by Dr. Kane at Moulmein who introduced the species to Europe and to Veitch

                                             at Exeter.

 

1848:     Cattleya warscewiczii: Discovered by Warscewicz in the Province of Medellin and lost during shipment.

                                                        Re-discovered by Roezl at the same location after which specimens were found over a

                                                        large area of South America.   Was sucessfully cultivated and used extensively in

                                                        breeding hybrids.   Originally described and named by Reichenbach from dried specimens.

 

1848:     Trichophilia suavis: Discovered by Warscewicz at 5000 feet on cordillera - Costa Rica; growing on oak 20/40 feet

                                                above ground.   Best specimens are from the volcanic area of Chirigue.

                                                     First flowering in U.K. was at Westonburt in 1850.

 

1848:     Kew R.B.G. Seven hundred and fifty-five species reported in the collection there.   (Doubtless the bequeathed                                                collection of the late Rev'd. John Clowes had boosted the number somewhat.)

 

1848:     Vanda insignis: Introduced by Blume from Timor.

 

1848:     Vanda limbata: Introduced by Blume from Java.

 

1848:     Phalaenopsis pullens: Introduced to the U.K. at Chatsworth from the Philippines.

                                                       Flowered during 1849, described by Lindley, 1850.

 

1849:     Moore, David. : Curator at the Glasnevin Botanic Garden, Dublin reported that seedlings of several epiphytic                                                         orchids including Epidendrum elongatum; Epidendrum crassfolium; Cattleya forbesii and Pjajus

  albus had been reared from seed for five years – all but C. forbesii had flowered.   Keeping the

  seedlings alive for five years had been difficult.   \refer to entries 1802 & 1847). 

 

1849:    Gallier (England) reported that he had germinated seeds of Dendrobium nobile x Dendrobium chryanthum but  

             that the seedlings had lived for a short time only.         

 

1849:     Cole (England) reported that he had germinated  orchid seeds.

 

1850:     Calanthe rosea: Discovered by T. Lobb at Moulmein, Burma whilst collecting there early in the year. He sent                                                       specimens to his sponsor Veitch at Exeter where they flowered the following winter.

 

1850:     Dendrobium crepidatum: Discovered at Assam, India.   First flowering in U.K. by R.S. Holford at Westonbirt

 

 

1850:     Cattleya dowiana: also named C. Lawrenceana.   First discovered by Warscewicz in Costa Rica and sent to

                                                  Low & Co. - lost to cultivation.   Warscewicz requested his discovery be named after Mrs.                                                             Lawrence of Ealing.

 

                                                  Re-discovered in 1865 by Arce a native naturalist working for G. Ure Skinner collecting                                                                for James Bateman who was unaware of the Mrs. Lawrence patronage when he described

                                                  C .dowiana in the "Gardener's Chronicle" some years later naming the re-discovered plants

  after Sir. T. Lawrence.   G.Ure Skinner requested that the specimens he had forwarded be amed

  after Captain J.M. Dow of the American Packet Service who transported the plants to the U.K.

                                                  Veitch & Sons acquired some of these and flowered them for the first recorded time in                                                                    cultivation during 1856.

 

1850:     Dendrobium gibsonii:  First collected by J.D. Hooker from the Sikkim valleys and later by Gibson from the

                                                        Khasia Hills collecting for the Duke of Devonshire.

 

1850:     Dendrobium spectabile:  Originally described as Latouria spectabilis in 1850 - by Blume.

                                                           Collected in New Guinea by L. de la Tour - the Naturalist assigned to Baudin's                                                                                 expedition to the Pacific.

 

1850:     Mormolyca - genus:  Described by E. Fenzl as a small genus of six species from central America and northern

                                                     areas of South America.   Considered allied to Maxillaria.

                                                     Type species: Mlca. lineolata.

 

1850:     At one sale at Stevens' Auction Rooms, London 194 lots of South American Orchids collected by Linden; and

              200 lots collected by Warscewicz, also from South America; and 232 lots from Central India were offered.

 

1851:     R.H.S. Articles: "Orchids for the Millions" by B.S. Williams became the "Orchid Growers Manual" with seven                                                       editions between 1852/1894.

 

1851:     Cattleya trianaei: Introduced into the U.K. by Sigmund Rucker who received plants from the Magdalen River

                                             area of Colombia. Described and named by Reichenbach in honour of Dr. Triana - Bogotan

Botanist.   First flowering was in 1851.

 

1851:     Grammatophyllum speciosum:  A plant of some two tons in weight was displayed at Crystal Palace.                                                                                                    Described by Blume in 1825 in "Bijdragen" from a plant he had collected from                                                                                 near Buitenzorg, Java.   Possibly the largest orchid known to science.

                                                                        Flowered for the first time in the U.K. by Loddiges the following year (1826).

 

1852:     Coelogyne pandurata:  Discovered by Sir Hugh Low when exploring the Borrean Province of Sarawak.                      

A noted and desired species, noted for its fiddle shaped lip and intense colouration of green  &          black labellum.   Considered closely related to Coel. mayeriana and Coel. parishii.

                                                         Coel. pandurata is the type species.

 

1852:     Dr. John Harris a surgeon at Exeter recorded that he had successfully sown orchid seed around its pod parent

                acting as a "mother" plant.   This method was then used by Veitch at his Exeter Nursery.

 

1852:     Bollea - genus: Described by Reichenbach as a small genus of tropical S/ American, high altitude orchids.

                                         Allied to Huntleya and Cochleanthes.

 

1852:     Dendrobium transparens: Discovered by T. Lobb when collecting in the Himalayas,India and Burma for Veitch.

                                                                                               

1852:     Odontoglossum genus:  Lindley described the first division of the genus into six sections.

                                                         Type Species - Odm epidendroides.

 

1852:     Phalaenopsis intermedia: Collected by T. Lobb from the Philippines & introduced by Veitch.

                                                             Considered a natural hybrid between Phal. aphrodite x Phal. rosea by Dr. J. Lindley &

                                                             Veitch,  who made the same cross in cultivation to prove their opinion.

 

1852:     Bothriochilus genus: Described by Lemaire.

                                                     Type species: B. bellus. BM.6628 - 1882. Syn. Coelia bella.

 

1852:     Kefersteinia genus: Described by Reichenbach

                                                   Type species: Kefst. graminea. BM. 5046 - 1858.

 

1852:     Listrostachys genus: Established by Reichenbach.

                                                     Type species: L. jenischiana. BM.4782 - 1854.

 

1852:     Pescatorea genus: Described by Reichenbach.

                                                 Type species: Pes. cerina. BM. 5598 - 1866.

 

1852:     Sigmatostalix genus: Described by Reichenbach.

                                                     Type species: S. graminea

 

1852:     Thunia genus:  Described by Reichenbach.   The tall growing pseudobulbless stem covered with leafy                                                                   decidious sheaths produce large showy blooms.

                                          Type species: Thu. alba.

 

1852/3:  Calanthe:       John Dominy of the Veitch Orchid Nursery (England) cross pollinated two Calanthe species,

Cal. masuca  x Cal. furcata,  he collected the resultant seeds almost a year later and sowed them.

The resultant plants flowered in 1856 and thus became the first man assisted orchid hybrid.

At the same time he also cross pollinated Cattleya guttata with Cattleya loddigesii which was also successful but this cross did not flower until some time later as Cattleya hybrida.

                                        (refer to entry under 1816 – Dominy, John.).

 

1853:     Bletilla - genus: Described by Reichenbach as a small genus of terrestrial Oriental orchids - allied to the                                                                 American Arethusa and Calopogon.

 

1853:     Cattleya luteola: Described by J. Lindley in the "Gardeners' Chronicle" as a dwarf species from Brazil; Peru;                                                         Bolivia and Ecuador.

 

1853      Cochlioda - genus: Described by Lindley as a very small genus of epiphytic Andean orchids of the Oncidium                                                               alliance.

 

1853:     Acacallis - genus: Related to Zygopetalum; described by  Lindley and dedicated to a Greek nymph

 

1853:     Acampe - genus: A small genus of tropical Asian & African epiphytes described by Lindley & related to

                                             Vanda and Sarcanthus.

                                             Type species: Acp. multiflora = Acp. rigida.

 

1853:     Scuticaria - genus: Established by Lindley.   Type species: S. steelii.

 

1853:     Ada - genus: A genus of two species found in the Colombian Andes - allied to Odontoglossum.

                                       Described by Lindley and dedicated to the sister of Artimisia in Caria.

                                       Type species: Ada. aurantiaca.

 

1853:     John Lindley published "Folia Orchidacea".

 

1853:     Acacallis - genus: Founded by Lindley in “Folia Orchidacea”.   Discovered by R. Spruce near Manaus, Brazil.

Type species: Acals. cyanea. – Syn’s: Acals . hoehnei; Agn. tricolor; Agn. coerulea;- Kochiophyton negrense & Kochiophyton. coerulens.

 

1853:     Erycina - genus: Described by Lindley on seperating this from Oncidium which it resembles.

                                            Type species: Ercn.. echinata which was discovered by F.H.A. von Humboldt near Acopulco                                                       Mexico and later by Galeotti in Oaxaca Province.

 

1854:     Cattleya Leopoldii: Brazilian epiphyte named in Ghent, Belgium in honour of King Leopold by Verschaffel.

                                                   Thought to be a variety of Cattleya guttata.

 

1854:     Cattleya lueddemanniana:  Described by Reinchenbach in 'Exnia Orchidacea' and named after the gardener of 

                                                           Ms. Pescatore of  St. Cloud - Paris.   Later recognised as the same specie as

                                                                 Cattleya speciosissima.

                                                                 Also cultivated by Dawson at Meadowbank - Glasgow and named Cattleya dawsonii by

                                                          Warner.

 

1854:     Koellensteinia - genus: Discovered by Wagener collecting in Colombia, and described in “Bonplandia”

                                                         First described as Maxillaria by Lindley in the Botanical Register based on a plant

                                                         imported from Guyana and flowered by Loddiges during 1835.   Later revised by

                                                         H.G. Reichenbach in 1856 and transferred to Koellensteina in “Bonplandia”

                                                         Type species is K. kelleriana.   K. graminea (syn. Maxillaria graminea) is also known.

 

1854:     Leucohyle - genus: Described by O. Klotzsch and Rchb.f.

                                                  Type species: L. warscewiczii.

 

1854:     Meiracyllium - genus: Described by Reinchenbach.

                                                      Type species: M. trinasutum.

 

1854:     Epidendrum crassifolium: Riviere (France) reported that during 1818 he pollinated flowers of this orchid and

                                                         produced seedlings.  There does not appear to be any further record of this.

 

1854:     Selenipedium - genus:  Described by Reinchenbach.

                                                        Type species: Sel. chica.

 

1855:     Angraecum sesquipedale: Live plants arrived in Britain after a long  sea journey and flowered in 1857.

                                                             (Note :- The Suez Canal did not open until 1869).

 

1855:     Odontoglossum oerstedii - Originally discovered by Warscewicz in the higher regions of Irazu and Turialbu -                                                                           Costa Rica in l848. Later found at the same location by A.S. Oersted; H.                                                                                             Wendland and A.R. Endnes.   During 1855 Reinchenbach named it after Oersted.  

                                                                Veitch introduced plants into cultivation in 1872.

                                                                Now: Ticoglossum oerstedii.

 

1855:      Polycynis - genus: Established by Reichenbach.

                                                   Type species: Pcn. muscifera.

 

1856:      In all probability the most important year in the entire history of orchid cultivation - since it marked the 

                introduction of man made hybrids.   (refer to the Dominy entry under 1816.)

 


1856:     Cypripedium Ignotum - (tonsum x   ? ) flowered n the collection of Oswald Osmond Wrigley of Bridge Hall,

                                                      Bury, Lancashire as a result of insect pollinatiom, hence the lack of the name of the pollen                                                             O.O. Wrigley did not register this for some time later, otherwise this founder member of the

                                                    Manchester Orchid Society may have been credited with the creation of the first hybrid in

                                                    cultivated orchids.   Since an insect was involved, this; cannot be considered man-made;

                                                    therefore entries in Orchid History re Dominy are correct.   ( refer to pen portrait of `The

                                                    Wrigley Alliance’ ) in Section 2 of this document.

 

During the period 1854 - 1899 some 1010 orchid hybrids were produced - 35 of which came from the Dominy; Seden; Veitch partnership of 1853 -1882:-

 

         List of Hybrids produced at the Veitch Nurseries during John Dominy's time there. Mainly the work of Dominy -

         some could be the work of Seden who had served an apprenticeship under Dominy from 1861.   

 

                1856 - Calanthe Dominii                                   Cal. masuca x Cal. furcata.

                1856 - Cattleya Hybrida -                                  C. guttata x C. Loddigesii.

                1859 - Cattleya Dominiana -                             C. intermedia x C. .maxima.   

1861 - Dosinimaria Dominy -                           Doss. marmorata x Haem. discolor

                1862 - Calanthe Veitchii -                                 Cal. rosea x Cal. vestita.

                1862 - Macomaria Veitchii -                             Haem. discolor x Mac. petola.

                1863 - Cattleya Brabantiae -                            C. Loddigesii x C. Aclandiae.

                                 (The first hybrid to gain an award - SBM/RHS.)

                1863 - Laeliocattleyadevoniensis -              C. Leopoldii x L. crispa

                1863 - Laeliocattleya - exoniensis -                 C. Mossiae x L. crispa.

                1864 - Dendrobium - Dominianum -                Den..Linawianum x Den. nobile.

                                 (The first Dendrobium hybrid.)

                1865 - Anectomaria Dominii -                          Anct. Roxburghii x Haem. disclor.

                1865 - Cattleya quinquecolor -                         C. Aclandiae x C. Forbesii.

                1866 - Cattleya Manglesii -                               C. Lueddemanniana x C. Loddigesii.

                1867 - Phaiocalanthe -                                      Cal. vestita x Phcal. grandifolius.

                1869 - Cypripedium Harrisianum -                  Cyp. villosum x Cyp. barbatum.

                               (The first man made Cypripedium (Paphiopedilum) hybrid? refer to Cyp. Ignotum 1856).

                1870 - Selenipedium Dominianum                   Sel. caricinum x Sel. caudatum.

                1870 – Dendobium  rhodostoma -                    Den. superbum x Den. sanguinolentum.

                1870 - Cypripedium vexillarium -                    Cyp.barbatum x Cyp.Farrienum.

                1871 - Aerides hybrida -                                     Aer. affine x Aer. fieldingii.

                1873 - Selenipedium Sedeni -                            Sel. longifolium x Sel. Schlimii.

                1873 - Laeliocattlya Fausta -                            L.  exoniensis x C. Loddigesii.

                                 (Possibly the first secondary hybrid - via exoniensis - refer to 1863 above)

                1874 - Laeliocattleya Veitchiana -                  L. crispa x C. labiata.

                1874 - Chysis Chelsonii -                                   Chy. bractescens x Chy. laevis.

                1874 - Laelia  flammea -                                     L. cinnabarina x L. Pilcheri.

                1876 – Laeliacattleya  Felix -                           L. crispa x C. Schilleriana.

                1876 - Cypripedium oenanthum -                     Cyp. Harrisianum x Cypinsigne.

                1876 - Cypripedium pycnopterum -                 Cyp. Lowii x Cyp. venustum.

                1876 - Cypripedium superciliare -                   Cyp. barbatum x Cyp. Superbiens.

                1876 - Cypripedium marmorophyllum -          Cyp. barbatum x Cyp. Hookerae.      

                1877 - Selenipedium albopurpureum -            Sel.  Dominianum x Sel. Schlimii

                1877 - Cypripedium nitens -                              Cypinsigne x Cyp. villosum.

                1877 - Cattleya picturata                                  C. guttata x C. intermedia.

                1879 - Laeliocattleya Philbrickiana -             L. elegans x C. Aclandia.

                1880 - Masdevallia Chelsonii -                        Masd. amabilis x Masd. Veitchiana.

                                (The first Masdevallia hybrid.)

                1881 - Cattleya Chamberlianiana -                 Catt. Dowiana x C. Leopoldi.

                1882 - Cypripedium macropterum                   Cyp. Lowii x Cyp. superbum.

                1882 - Dominy retired in 1880 - he could have been involved in the polination of the hybrids of 1881/1882.

 

NOTE: It is estimated that there are in the order of two hundred thousand orchid hybrids - (Reg'd & Un-Reg'd.)

                            New hybrids are currently being registered at approx. 3500 plus annually (2003).

 

1856:      Vanda hookeriana: Introduce by Motley from Borneo.


1857:      Cattleya schilleriana: First recorded appearance of this species was in the collection of the Consul - Schiller at                                                                Hamburg, Germany.   importated from Bahia, Brazil. Described by Reichenbach.

 

1857:     Dendrobium primulinium:  Described by Lindley.   Introduced into cultivation from the lower slopes of the                                                                                  Himalayan regions.   Also found in N/E-India; Nepal; Burma; Thailand; Laos;                                                                               Vietnam and S/W-China.

 

1857:     Paphiopedilum fairrieanum: First exhibited by a Mr. Fairre of Liverpool U.K. then lost to cultivation.                                                                                              Re-discoverd by G.C. Searight in West Bhutan in 1905 following the offer of a                                                                                 reward of £1000 for re-discovery - made by another orchid enthusiast.

 

1857:     Angraecum sesquipedale: First flowering in cultivation was by the Rev'd. W. Ellis who spent some time in the                                                                        country of origin working as a Church Missionary.

 

1858:     Orchis hircina: British native orchid, some twenty seven plants were reported growing in Sussex.

                                           Now known as Himantoglossum hircinum.

 

1858:     Dendrobium chrysotoxum: Described by Lindley following importation by Low & Co. from Burma.

 

1858:     Phalaenopsis schilleriana:   Introduced by Consul Schiller who flowered it in cultivation following importation

                                                                   from Luzon a small island in the Philippines.   Described by Reichenbach.

 

1858:     Dendrobium primulinum: Described by Lindley following collection by J.D. Hooker from Sikkin foothills.

                                                             Syn.Dend. nobile var. pallidiflora.

 

1858:      Calanthe Dominyi: Lindley published the description of this first man made hybrid.

 

1858:     Cattleya Dominiana: Some references consider this hybrid between C. maxima x C.  intermedia the first man                                                                   assisted Cattleya hybrid - refer to entry Cattleya hybrida - 1856. (pp. 32 ).

 

1858:     Vanda stangeana: Introduced by C. Schiller from Assam, Indian.   Described by H.G. Reichenbach.

 

1858:      Epiphytic seedlings were ‘rumoured’ to be advancing in several European Orchid Nurseries.

 

1859:     Burrage, Albert - (1859/1931): First President of the American Orchid Society. 1921/1929.

                                                An outstanding patron of horticulture from Massachusetts - U.S.A. who assembled one of

                                                Americas’ finest collection of orchids and whom the quadgeneric genera Burrageara is  named.

 

1859:     Odontoglossum uroskinneri: One of the later discoveries of G. Ure Skinner in Guatemala.   Described and named

                                                            by Lindley who prefixed 'uro' meaning 'tailed' since the specie discovered during

                                                            G. Ure. Skinner's final collection during which he was taken fatally ill.

                                                                   Now known as Lemboglossum uro skinneri.

 

1859:     Phalaenopsis violacea:  Discovered by Teijsman near Pelambang - Sumatra, and introduced via the Leiden Bot.

                                                     Garden - Holland, where it flowered in 1860. Lost to records until other plants were sent

                                                     by a Mr. Murton of Singapore Botanic Garden to a Mr. Williams of Tredrea, Cornwall;

                                                     also to Veitch & Sons - reported as flowered in both collections during 1878.   Remained

                                                     rare in cultivation until Curtis sent a consignment of plants from Sumatra to the U.K.

                                                          Was crossed with Phal. luddemanniana by Veitch during 1880 to produce Phal.                                                                              Luedde-violacea & with Phal. amablis by Veitch in 1887 to produce Phal. Harriettiae.                                                                  Both being considered early hybrids of the genus.

 

                                                         Phalaenopsis hybrids got off to a very slow start,e being only nine registered during

                                                         remainder of the nineteenth century followed by only eight registrations for 1900 to 1924.-

                                                    A total of seventeen in forty-two years.

 

                                                         Nowadays (1998) hybridisers produced an average of forty plus hybrids per month.

 

                                                        The current practice of nurseries producing “Phals” en mass for the disposable pot plant trade,

                                                        from almost any parents is tending to kill the interest of serious growers of this genera in

that it becoming more and more difficult to obtain true species.

 


1859:     Cattleya amethystoglossa:  First recorded in the collection of Reichenheim, who received it from Prinz                                                                                        collecting in Brazil.   Known as Cattleya guttata - prinzii from 1856 and by various                                                                         other names between 1856-1882.   Linden & Reichenbach used the name shown here.

                                                          First U.K. appearance was in the collection of Mr. F. Coventry of  Hampshire who

                                                          eventually passed his plant(s) on to Mr. R. Warner of Broomfield.

 

1860:     Cattleya warneri: Received by Low and Co. from Binot who collected plants from Espirito Santos and Minas                                                            Gerias.   R. Warner of Broomfield who is reported as having over six hundred cattleyas in                                                              bloom at one time was the first to flower this species.   It would appear that the species is                                                                             named after him.

 

1860:     Grammangis genus: Described by Reichenbach & reviewed during 1969 by J. Bosser & P. Morat.

                                                    Type Species: G. ellisii.

 

1860:     Dendrobium infundibulum: Described by Lindley as a plant with smaller flower than Den.. formosum being from                                                                     higher altitudes.   Discovered by Rev. C. Parish who sent it from Burma to Low &                                                                            Co. London.

 

1860:     Dendroium lowii: Discovered by Hugh Low growing on trees in the mountains of Sarawak.

                                                 Described and named by J. Lindley.

 

1860:     Cypripedium stonei: Discovered by Sir. H. Low in Sarawak, Borneo.

                                                     First U.K. flowering at Low & Co.-1860 & the collection of John Day during 1863.

                                                   . Plant named in honour of Mr. Stone, John Day's orchid grower and gardener.

 

A further two hundred and eighty-two genera (species) had become known, in addition to three man assisted Orchid

Hybrids.

 

1861:     Palumbina genus: Described by H.G. Reichenbach.

                                                 Type species: P. candida - the only species of this genera known to science.

 

1861.      Dossinimaria Dominy: The first registered Bi-generic hybrid known to science. (Refer to entry under 1856.).

 

1862:     Dendrophylax - genus: Described by Reichenbach as a small genus of leafless monopodal orchids related to                                                           Angraecum.   Type species is Denhymenanthus -  approx. five species only known.

 

1862:     Cattleya guatemalensis: A natural hybrid between C. skinneri x C. aurantiaca.

                                                          All three found on the same tree by G. Ure Skinner who sent plants to the U.K.

                                                          The cross has been reappeared many times in cultivation, several varieties are known.

                                                          The lemon-yellow variety,  C.  pachecol was described by Ames & Cornell in 1943.

 

1862:     Dendrobium wardianum: Described by Warner in "Select Orchidaceous Plants".   Original plants were from                                                                           Assam but stronger plants were found in Burma; the Himalayas;   S/E Asia;  N/E India;  

                                                             Burma;  Thailand and S/W China.

 

1862:     Dendrobium draconis: Discovered in Burma by Rev. C.S.P. Parish, introduced to U.K. by Low & Co.

 

1862:     Phalaenopsis lowii: Discovered by the Rev'd. C.S.P. Parish at Moulmein. Introduced by Low & Co.

                                                   This decidous species is lithophytic and quite often under water during the wet season of

                                                   Its’ natural habitat.

 

1862:     Vanda parishii: Discovered by the Rev'd. C.S.P. Parish after whom it is named; near Moulmein.

                                           Was not introduced until 1870 when Low & Co. imported plants.

 

1862:     Finet, Archille - (1862-1913): French botanist who worked on orchids of the Orient.   Contributed much to                                                                                       the knowledge of Angracoids.

                                                                     Name commemorated by the genus Neofinetia.

 

1862:     Liverpool :    It was reported that collections of orchids within the City, then considered the Orchid Capital of

                                       World; out numbered those at Kew Botanic Garden; Messrs. Colvilles of King’s Road; the R.H.S.

                                       Garden at Chiswick and Loddiges of Hackney all together.

 


1862:     Darwin, Charles - published his book:-

                                "The Various Contrivances by which British and Foreign Orchids are Fertilised by Insects”.

 

1862:     Macromaria Veitchii: The second Bi-generic hybrid from the Veitchii - Dominy partnership. Sanders’ List gives                                                            date as 1862 and the Handbook on Nomenclature records this as 1887.

 

1863:     Laeliocattleya: The first intergeneric hybrids between Cattleya and Laelia created by the Veitch – Dominy

                                           partnership were registered as :-

 Lc. devoniensis  ( C. Leopoldii x L. crispa.)

 Lc. exoniensis (C. Mossiae x L. crispa.)  -  (Refer to entry under 1856)

 

1863:     Broadway Walter, E. - (1863-1935)-English gardener and botanist who collected orchids & other plants

                                                                                 from Trinidad; Venezuela & French Guiana.

 

1863:     Compost: Cocoanut Fibre - Mr. G. Toll grower to Mr. A.Turner of Pendlebury, Manchester - reported his

                                                                 success with this material in the "Gardeners' Chronicle".   Despite this early                                                                                       report it is not used extensively today.   (2005).

 

1864:     Cattleya porphyroglossa: Introduced from Brazil by Low & Co.   Original imports were mixed with a                                                                                      consignment of Cattleya. harrisoniana.   Sander also imported this species later.

                                               

1864:     Cattleya quadricolor: Introduced to cultivation by Sigmund Rucker of Wandsworth, from Colombia.

                                                       Named by Lindley but not made known until Bateman published details.

 

1864:     Dendrobium dixanthum: Discoveed by the Rev’d. C.S.P. Parish in Burma and later by Major General E.S. Berkerly.

                                                            Introduced to cultivation by Low & Co.

 

1864:     Laelia pilcheri: First man made Laelia hybrid - (L. crispa x L. perrinii).   Laelia. perrinii & Brassavola perrinii

were named after Mr. Perrin gardener to Mr. R. Harrison of Aigburgh, Liverpool; who was the first to flower Epidendrum oncidoides in cultivation during 1833.

 

1865:     Miltonia anceps: Brazilian species - first and only reported flowering in the U.K. was by J. Bateman.

 

1865:     Aerangis - genus: Established by H.G. Reinchenbach as a group of African orchids related to Angraecum.

                                                Type species:  Aergs. flabellifolia

.

1865:     Dendrobium gratiosissimum: Discovered by the Rev'd. C.S.P. Parish in Burma.

                                                                     (Syn. Den. bullerianum - J. Bateman;  D. Boxallii  & H.G. Reinchenbach.).

 

1865:     Dendrobium johannis: Introduced into the U.K. by J.G. Veitch collecting in Australia for the family nursery.

                                                        Species is also found in Southern New Guinea.  

 

1865:     Oncidium Marshallianum:  Introduced to cultivation by Low & through their collector Blunt.

                                                                 Dedicated to Mr. W. Marshall of the R.H.S. Flora Committee.

 

1865:     Phalaenopsis lueddemanniana: Introduced into cultivation by Ms. Luedemann of Paris from the Philippines.

                                                                        Described by Reinchenbach.

 

1865:     F. Sander requested his collector Arnold to send 1,000 plants of  Cattleya labiata and 100,000 of Cattleya                   mendelii.   Arnold reported back that 15,000 plants of Masdevallia were in transit.

 

1866:     Paphiopedilum - genus: Described by Pfitzer.

                                                          Type species: Paphinsigne.   (Known as Cypripedium before this).

 

1866:     Cattleya eldorado: Discovered in the interior Amazon basin. Known by the Spanish from 1600 AD. in its native habitat.     

                                                   First importations to Europe were by Linden who called it "The Cattleya of the    Golden Land".

                                   Established 1866 - Described by Linden in 1869 - Exhibited in Paris in 1867.

 

1866:     Vanda Bensoni: Introduced from Burma by Colonel Benson after whom it is named.

 

1867:     Zygopetalum Burtii: Discovered by Endres in Costa Rica - (Syn.  Batemania  Burtii).   First flowering in the

                                                     U.K. in the collection of  Mr. B. Hume of  Winterton,  Norfolk in 1872.

 


1868:     Angraecum  falcatum: Re-introduced to U.K. by Veitch - also been known as Orchis falcata - (1773 - 1819),                                                                     then Lindorum  falcatum; now as Neofinetia  falcata from 1925.

                                                        Believed to have been cultivated in Japan during the Edo period (l603/1867) & known

                                                        as Fuki-ran - meaning "Rich & Noble Orchid".

                                                        Records show that specimens were discovered in the Nakasoki Hills - Japan when the

                                                        genus was named as it is now known. (refer to entries under: 1773; 1784; 1813.)

 

1868:     Cattleya aurea:  Discovered by Gustav Wallis near Frontino Antioquia, Colombia when collecting for Linden.

                                            Also found by Bullen during 1872 when collecting for Backhouse of York.

 

1868:     Dendrobium crassinode:  Discovered by Colonel Benson who sent plants to Kew R. B. Gardens and to Veitch                                                                       at Chelsea - flowered at both locations a year later. Previously known by the Rev'd.                                                                        C. S. P. Parish, who also sent plants to the U.K.

 

1868:     Dendrobium crystallinium:  Discovered in Burma thought to be by T. Lobb, when collecting for Veitch who                                                                               introduced it to cultivation.

 

1868:     Vanda denisoniana: Introduced by Colonel Benson from Burma.

 

1868:     Ondontoglossum krameri: Discovered in Costa Rica by Kramer when collecting for Veitch.   Described by

                                                              H.G.Reinchenbach.   Odm. krameri - var ‘album’ was not described until 1982.

                                                              (Note - A coloured lithograph of this species appeared in the 1874 edition of

                                                                "Beeton's Garden Management".)

                                                               

1869:       Suez Canal opened enabling collected specimens from Africa;  Madagasca;  the near and far East to arrive in

                better condition since sea passage was very much reduced in distance and time taken.

 

1869:       Paphiopedilum harrisianum: First Paphiopedilum hybrid. (Paphvillosum x Paph.  barbatum).  Named after

Dr. Harris of Exeter who had suggested the idea of the hybridisation of orchids to  John  Dominy during 1853/4 or earlier.

 

1869:      Duke of Sutherland: Assembled a fine collection of orchids at his seat - Trentham Gardens - Staffordshire.

               The colection was mainly one of Odonts. under the care of Mr. Zadok Stevens who became a member of the  

               Manchester Orchid Society - possibly a founder member.

 

1869:      Disa grandiflora:  Species reported growing well in the Celebration Garden at Chatsworth House.

                                              In 1875 Mr. S. Williams stated: "That to see such a plant bearing twelve large bright scarlet

                                               flowers was well worth making the journey from London to Chatsworth".

 

1869:      Dendrobium cariniferum:  First flowering in the U.K. during 1869 shortly after introduction from Burma.

                                                           Also grows in N/E India; Thailand; Laos; Cambodia; Vietnam and Southern China.

 

1869:      Dendrobium findlayanum: Collected in Burma by Rev’d. C.S.P. Parish and Findlay. Described by Parish and

                                                           Reichenbach in 1874. First flowering in cultivation by Sir. T. Lawrence 1875.

 

1870:      Cattleya velutina: Brazillian species described by H.G. Reichenbach.

 

1870:      Dracular chimera: Discovered by B. Roezl at Choco, Colombia.   Introduced by Linden via collector Wallis in

                                               Antioquia.   Named by H.G. Reichenbach in 1872.

 

1870:      Cattleya mendelii: Introduced from Colombia by Low & Co., also by Backhouse of York who described the

                                              species and named it after Mr. Samuel Mendel of Manley Hall, Nr. Manchester.   It was

                                              discovered on the Eastern slopes of the Cordillera between Pamplona and Bucaramanga.

 

1870:      Paphiopedilum Vexillarium: The second successful man made hybrid of the genus.   Produced by Dominy

                                                               from:- (Paph. faireanum x Paph. barbatum.)

 

1870:      Phalaenopsis cornu cervi:   Discovered amid dense forest in Burma, growing at the base of Mango trees in

                                                             deep shade by Major General E.S. Berkerley.

 

1871:     Paphiopedilum Asburtoniae: Third recorded man made hybrid of the genus.   (Paphbarbatum x Paph. insigne.)

 


1871:      Phalaenopsis manni: Discovered by G. Mann at Upper Assam.  Described by Reinchenbach who named

                                                   it in honour of its discoverer.

 

1871:      Listeria cordata:  Growing in sizeable quantities in the Valley of the Don.   Know to science from 1813 after

                                             discovery by Robert Brown.   Named to commemorate Dr. Martin Lister 1638-1711 -

                                             Physician and Naturalist.

 

1871:      Goodyera repens: Growing in abundance in Scotland.   Recorded in "My Garden" by Alfred Smee. F.R.S.

 

1872:      Cattleya dolosa: Introduced into the U.K. mistakenly for Laelia  jongheana and sold at Stevens' Rooms       

London.   Originally thought to be a natural hybrid of C. walkeriana x C. loddigesii or       

Charrisoniana.

 

1872:      Laelia jongheana:  Originally discovered in 1856 by Libon collecting in Brazil for Ms. J. de Jonghe of Brussels.

                                               Described by H.G. Reichenbach in 1872 after he had received specimens from the collection of

                                              Mm. Thibaut and Keteleer of Paris.

 

1872:      Kew Royal Botanic Garden recorded 851 species from 138 genera growing there.

 

1872:      James Brooke & Co. - Fairfield Nurseries, Manchester, issued a catalogue of seventy-four pages giving details of

                                                  orchid plants, descriptions, prices, history, structure, culture, insects and available books.

 

1872:      Dendrobium chrysocrepis: Discovered in Burma by Rev’d. C.S.P. Parish who introduced it to Kew R.B.Garden.

                                                               

1873:      Laeliocattleya Fausta: The first secondary hybrid from Cloddigessi x Lc.  exoniensis.

 

1873:      Epidendrum Endresii: Discovered by A.R. Endres after whom it is named - in Costa Rica.

                                                    Re-discovered in 1878 by F.C. Lehmann.

                                                    Described by H.G. Reichenbach.

 

1873:      Paphiopedilum Crossianum: Primary hybrid made by Mr. Cross between Paph.   insigne x Paphvenustum

                                                                    making the hybridiser the second successful grower to produce a man made hybrid.

 

1873:      Phragmipedium Sedenii: The first hybrid made by Seden who succeeded J. Dominy as Veitchs' orchid grower.

                                                         (Phrag. longifolium x Phrag. schlimii.)-(Refer to www.ipni.org.)

 

1873:      Saccolabium Bellinum: Discovered by Boxall in Burma. Introduced by Low & Co.

 

1874:      "Monograph of  “Odontoglossum" by John Bateman was published.   A copy is housed in the R.H.S. Lindley   

                 Library.

 

1874:      Cattleya iricolor: Originally described by H.G. Reichenbach in 1874 but lost to cultivation  until 1962 when it

                                             was  re-discovered by Padre Angel M. Andretta; a Salesian Missionary in Cuenca - Equador 

                                             from  where a small number of plants were sent to a small number of growers.   This species

                                              is  one of two with pointed lips the other being Catt.aurantiae.

 

1874:      Epidendrum wallisii: First collected by Gustav Wallis from the Frontino District of the Western Cordillera of

                                                  New Granada for Veitch.

                                                  Described by Reichenbach.

 

1874:      Dendrobium chrysotoxum var Suavissimum: The first importation by Hugh Low arrived from Burma.

Considered by some to be different from the first Den. chrysotoxum,                            which arrived in the U.K. some twenty seven years before during 1847.

 

1874:      Odontoglossum madrense: Discovered by M. Roezl in the Sierra Madre del Sur, Mexico.

                                                            Described by H.G. Reichenbach.

 

1874:      Dendrobium amoenum: Introduced to cultivation.   Pressed specimens known for forty years before.   First

                                                       collected from Nepal. Also found in other locations in India; Himalaya & Burma.

 

1874:      Dendrobium Ainsworthii: The first dendrobium hybrid:- (Den..aureum x Den. nobile.).   Named after its hybridiser.

 

 


1875:      Phalaenopsis pulchra: Originally introduced from the Philippines by Low & Co.

                                                     Believed to have been discovered by Boxall when collecting for Low - 1870/1877.

                                                     Described and named by H.G. Reichenbach as Phal. lueddamanniana var Pulchra and                                                                    elevated to specific rank by Sweet in 1968.

 

1876:     Reinchb.f – decribed two Natural hybrids – Cyp. supercilaire & Orchis  heinzeliana.

                                     Cyp. Supercilaire (Cyp. barbatum x Cyp. superbiens) is shown in Sander’s List 1946 as created by

     Veitch during 1876.

 

1877:      Cattleya elongata: Originally described by Barbosa Rodrigues in 1877.   Specimens did not reach Europe until              

1892, when imported from Bakia where it was found by the tributaries of the Rio Sao Franciso   Western Pernambuco.  English imports were named Cattleya alexandrae.

 

1877:      Dendrobium spectatissimum: Described by H.G. Reichenbach from specimens of this most beautiful Bornean

                                                               species collected by Thomas Lobb.

 

1877:      Capanemia genus - Described by B. Rodrigues.

                                                Type species: C. micromera.

 

1877:     Orchis vallesiaca – established by Spiess – possibly a Natural hybrid.

 

1878:      Coelogyne barbata: Discovered by Griffiths at Bhatan - also by T. Lobb in the Khasia Hills near Mamloo

                                                 also by J.H. Hooker and D. Thompson at Churra Purgee.   Introduced to cultivation in

                                                   the U.K. by Wm. Bull in 1878. Flowers have a bearded lip as the name suggests.

 

1878:      Lycaste hybrida:   Lyc. skinneri was crossed with Lyc. deppei by a Mr. Marshall to produce this hybrid which

                                              was remade by a Mr. McVicar in 1960.

 

1878:      On 4/5/1878 William Bull advertised the arrival of two of the largest consignments of orchids ever made.  It was    

              estimated that two million were imported.

 

1878:    Laelia dominyana – described by Rchb.f. in Gard. Chron. X/332 1878 (www.ipni.org. shows this as an hybrid -

                                               no other record of this has been found of this hybrid .)

 

1879:     Cattleya dormaniana: Discovered by H. Blunt on mountains of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.   Blunt sent plants to the U.K.

Described by H.G. Reichenbach in 1882 who,  first considered it to be a natural hybrid; between           

C. bicolor x Laelia pumila.   Mr. Charles Dorman of Sydenham flowered the species which bears   

his name in l880.

 

1879:     Cattleya schofieldiana: Imported from Brazil and sold at Stevens rooms in 1879. Named by H.G. Reichenbach

                                                         after G. Law Schofield who brought the species into flower for the first time.

 

1879:     Lycaste locusta: Discovered by W. Davies in Peru.   First flowering in the U.K. by Veitch at Chelsea.

                                            Lost to cultivation until re-introduced by Sander to the Royal Botanic Garden Glasnevin

                                            during 1898.

 

1880:     Masdevallia Chelsonii: First Masdevallia hybrid. ( Masd. amabidia x Masd. veitchiana ) made by Veitch.

 

1880:     Phaius Humblotii: Discovered by Leon Humblot in Madagascar who sent specimens to Sander & Co.

 

 

1880:     Natural Hybrids – one Cypripediumselligerum and three Orchisbruniara; loreziana; regeliana – are listed

                                            as introduced during 1880 in the web site referred to above.

 

At the end of the above twenty year period a further sixty-seven genera (species) had become known.   Another milestone in Orchid history also came about – Dominy created the first man assisted bi-generic hybrid – Dossinimaria Dominy – 1861. (Refer to 1861 and 1856 for details).

 

1881:     Vanda sanderiana: Discovered by Roebelen at Darao, Philippines when collecting for Sander & Co.

                                                   Previously known as Euanthe sanderiana by which name some present growers prefer

                                                   to know this beautiful orchid.

 


1881:     Phalaenopsis stuartiana: Discovered by Boxall on Mindanao Isle - Philippines when collecting for Low & Co.

                                                            Also collected from Lake Mayrut -Mindanao Isle by D. Burke for Veitch & Co.

                                                            Has been used extensively in breeding programmes.

 

1881:     Anguloa Media: The hybrid of the genus from Ang. clowesii x Ang. ruckeri.   Registrant - Bowring.

 

1881:     Cattleya Calumnata: First hybrid produced on the European mainland. - by a Ms. Bleu of Paris.

                                                      (C. intermedia x C. aclandiae).

 

1881:     Ornithophora - genus described by J.B. Rodrigues.

                                           Type species: Orpha. quadricolor.

 

1881:     Warmingia - genus: Described by H.G. Reinchenbach.

                                                    Type species: W. eugenii.

 

1881:     Low & Co. received 1,000 masdevallia; maculata & wageneriana - from White and reported heavy losses of

                Phalaenopsis during transit.

 

1881:     Natural hybrids – Ophrys todaroana and Orchis braunii  are listed in the ipni web site as established in 1881.

 

1882:     Phalaenopsis sanderiana 'Alba': Introduced by Sander & Co. following discovery by Roebelen in the

                                                                         Philippines.   Originally believed to be a natural hybrid between

                                                                         Phal. aphrodite x Phal. schilleriana.

 

1882:     Cryptophoranthes - genus:  Described by J.B. Rodrigues.

                                                                Type species: C. fenestratus.

 

1882:     Dendrobium dearei:  Discovered on small islands off the coast of Mindanao Isle - Philippines by Colonel Deare

                                                      in whose honour it was named when described by H.G. Reichenbach.

 

1883:     Cattleya gaskelliana: First importations of this Venezuelan species were sold at Stevens rooms.                                                                                           Sander first flowered the species in cultivation and named it after Mr. Holbrook Gaskell

                                                       of Liverpool who had one of the finest collections in the U.K. at that time.

 

1883:     Cattleya nobilior: Described by H.G. Reichenbach in 1883. (Resembles C. walkeriana but is usually bifoliate).

 

1883:     Cattleya percivaliana: Native of Venezuela.   Introduced to U.K. by Sander & Sons, following description by                                                                   H.G. Reichenbach - 1882.   Discovered by J. Arnold collecting for Sander.   Named in 

                                                   honour of R.P. Percival of Birkdale, Southport. Lancs. An "alba" form is also known.

 

1883:     Odontoglossum crispum var’ Thompsonii’: First grown by Mr. Wm. Thompson of Walton Grange, Stone.                                                                                                             Staffs.   Founder member of the Manchester Orchid Society -                                                                                                                (Founded 1897) Exhibited his plant at Regents Park, London. -                                                                                                             Received AM/RHS.

 

1883:     Phalaenopsis marie: Discovered by Barbidge when collecting for Veitch from Jolo Isle -Philippines during his

                                                     1877/79 exploration.   Also found on Mindanao Isle, named after Mrs. Marie Barbidge by                                                              Warner and Williams.

 

1883:     Oerstedella endresii: Discovered by A.R. Endres in Costa Rica, and described by H.G. Reinchebach.

 

1883:     The genus Aceras was reported as having been crossed with the genus Herminium.   (there is no record of this

                in Sanders’ Lists - refer to The Handbook on Orchid Nomenclature and registration -1993. )

                (Refer also to the ipni web site which shows that this hybrid was introduced by Gremli.)

 

1883:     Natural hybrids – Laelia wyattiana and Serapias roselliiana are listed in the ipni web site, these would appear

                                                to be natural hybrids rather than man made.

 

1884:     Cattleya bowringiana: Introduced to the U.K. by Veitch who imported the species from British Honduras,

                                                        then a British Colony.   Described by J. O'Brien in 1885 and named after J.C. Bowring                                                                   a keen amateur grower of Windsor.

 

1884:     Sander received 3,000 Paphiopedilum curtisii from collector Ericsson.


1884:     Vanda Sanderiana - A plant with thirteen flower spikes bearing eighty large flowers was seen at the nursery of

                                                 Messrs. Backhouse at York.

 

1885:     Angraecum leonis: Discovered by L. Humblot in the Comoros. Described by H.G. Reichenbach.

                                                  Type species: Angcm. eburneum.

 

1884:     Dendrobium cruentum: Introduced to cultivation by Sander; possibly from Burma, but also prevalent in Thailand.

                                                        

1885:     The R.H.S. organised the first U.K. Orchid Conference at Westminster.

 

1885:     Cattleya deckeri: Described by Klotsch in 1885 as a native of Guatemala; Panama; Venezuala and Trinidad.

                                              A little known species, not often seen in collections.

 

1885:     Cattleya schroderae: Native of Colombia. Imported and named by Sander after the wife of a noted English

                                                      grower Baron Schroder who possessed a sizeable collection.

 

1885:     Vanda lowii: Seen at Ferriers - a specimen some six feet tall with one hundred and twenty, twenty-seven inch                                                                               leaves; seventeen spikes all over eight feet long bearing over four hundred flowers.

                                                                    Now known as Dimorphorchis lowii.

 

1885:     Spiranthes romanzoviana: this British/European Native orchid was collected from a station near Cork, Eire.

 

1885:     Orchis – hybrids: aschersoniana; dubia; haussknechtii; uechtritziana are listed in the ipni web site.

 

1886:     U.K. Orchid Conference: The second conference was held at Liverpool. Also organised by the R.H.Society.

 

1886:     Cattleya hardyana: A natural hybrid between (C. aurea x C. warscewiczii.).

                                                   First imported into U.K. with a shipment of C. warscewiczii and appeared in the collection

                                                   of Mr. G. Hardy at Pickering Lodge, Timperley, Cheshire, where it flowered and was                                                                      named after Mr.Hardy.   The same cross has been repeated in cultivation.

 

1886:     Phalaenopsis intermedia:   Natural hybrid between Phal. aphrodite x Phal. rosea. Proven by Veitch who                                                                                  flowered a repeat hybridisation some thirty-three years after importation of what is

                                                               considered the first recognised natural hybrid among tropical orchids.   Originally                                                                           collected in 1852 by T. Lobb - some four years before Dominy's first hybrid.

 

1886:     Sophrocattleya Batemaniana: Early bi-generic hybrid between Soph. grandiflora x C. intermedia, named after

                                                                     James Bateman.

 

1886:     Odontoglossum harryanum: Introduced by Horsman & Co. of Colchester. Described by H.G. Reichenbach

                                                                   and named in honour of Sir. Harry James Veitch.

 

1886:     Odontoglossum majale: Guatemalan species described by H.G. Reichenbach. Same species described by J.

                                                          Weather as Odm. platycheilum.

                                                          Now classified as Lemboglossum majale.

 

1886:     Paphiopedilum sanderianum: First discovered by Forstermann collecting for Sander & Co. in Borneo.

                                                                    Flowered after arrival & introduced by Sander.

                                                                     Re-discovered in 1986. ( A hundred years later.).

 

1887:     Phalaenopsis hieroglyphica: Described as a variety of Phal. lueddemanniana by H.G. Reichenbach.

                                                                    Raised to specific rank by H. Sweet in 1964.

 

 

1887:     Dendrobium trigonopus:   First flowering of this Burmese species was in the collection of John Day.

                                                             Endemic in Burma; Northern Thailand; Laos and Southwest China at higher elevations.

 

1887:     Vanda amesiana: Introduced by S. Low from Burma, Kampuchea & China.

 

1887:     Vanda kimballiana: Introduced by S. Low from Burma.

 


1887:     Intergeneric Hybrids: The following four new  intergeneric hybrids were registered:

 

                                                       Anoectogoodyera   -   (Anoectochilus x Goodyera)

                                                       Phaiocalanthe        -   (Calanthe x Phaius)

                                                       Sophrocattleya       -   (Cattleya x Sophronitis)

                                                       Zycocolax              -   ( Colax x Zygopetalum)

 

1887:      Cypripedium hybrids – some seven hybrids:  Arthurianum; Carrierei; ernestianum; Leeanum; Morganae;

                                                                                                Politum –(syn. Calophyllum) and tazanti.  Other than ernestianum

                                                                                                and tazanti appear to be man made as in Sanders List – 1946.  

 

1888:     Eulophidium - genus: Described by Pfitzer as a small genus of tropical African and Madagascan orchids with

                                                      one Brazilian species.

 

1888:     Scaphosepalum -  genus: Established by Pfitzer.   Type Species: S. ochthodes.

 

1888:     Epidendrum obrienianum: Primary hybrid between Epi. evectum x Epi. radicans. Raised by Seden.

                                                               (NOTE:Epi. evectum is now Epi. elongatum.).

 

1888:     Vandopsis - genus: Described by Pfitzer.

                                                   Type species: Vdps. lissochiloides - syn. Fieldia lissochiloides; Stauropsis lissochiloides &

                                                   Vanda batemanii.

 

1889:     On the 26th. April 1889 the Royal Horticultural Society founded its Orchid Committee - Two years after the

              Manchester Orchid Society, now the North of England Orchid Society was founded.

 

1889:     Cymbidium veitchii:  First Cymbidium Primary hybrid from Cym. eburneum x Cym. lowianum.

                                                     Raised by Seden working for Veitch after John Dominy’s retirement.

                                                     Only one other Cymbidium hybrid appeared during the nineteenth century.

                                                     (Refer to entries under 1892 and 1902.).

 

1889:     Miltonia bleuana: First hybrid of the species obtained by crossing Milt. vexillaria x Milt. roezlii.

                                                 Raised by Mons. Bleu of Paris – after whom it is named.

 

1889      Orchid seed germination: Hans Burgeff had already commenced work and N. Bernard started working on

                                                             the problem of seed germination.

 

1889:     Odontoglossum crispum:  Messrs. Prothero, Auctioneers acquired 100,000 plants and offered same for sale.

 

                NOTE: here were huge importations of Odontoglossum species into the U.K. between 1876 - 1896.

 

1889:     Intergeneric Hybrids:  Three new Bi-generic hybrids were registered:

 

                Brassocattleya -Digbyano-Mendelii                                (Brassavola Digbyana x C.  Mendelii)                           Maron

                     “        “        -Digbyano-Mossiae                 (Brassavola Digbyana x C.  Mossiae)                             Veitch

                Epicattleya      -Sedenii                                       (C. Bowringiana x Epidendrum radiata)                          “

 

1890:     Intergeneric Hybrid: Epiphronitis veitchii: The first inter generic between Epidendrum and Sophronitis was                                                                                                                            created by Seden at the Veitch Orchid Nursery. 

                                                                                   From Soph. Grandiflora  X Epi. radicans.

 


1890:     Odontoglossum wilckeanum:  Natural Hybrid from Odm. crispum x Odm. luteopurpureum.

                                                                     Also raised by Baron E de Rothschild of Armanvilliers, Paris.

                                                                     Possibly the first hybrid of the genus known to science.

 

                Despite massive importations of Odontoglossum species into the U.K. during the period 1876 -1896; as many

                as 100,000 per annum of Odm. crispum alone; - hybridisation between the species was slow to start.   Species used  in

              the earliest hybrids were Odms. crispum; harryanum; triumphs; pescatorei; luteo-purpureum & halli.

 

                Almost as soon as crosses between the species of the genus appeared successful hybrids between other genera

                with Odontoglossum were brought about:- The first - Odopetalum:  (Odontoglossum x Zygopetalum in 1895.).

                Following a period of nine years other intergenerics began to appear:

 

                                                Odontioda -                          (Odontoglossum x Cochlioda)         1904.

                                                Odontonia -                          (      "       “          x Miltonia )            1905.

                                                Odontocidium                      (    “      "          x Oncidium )             19ll.

 

After 1911 when the first tri-generic Odont.  Hybrid - Odontiodonia using  Odontoglossum x Cochlioda x Miltonia) was created and steady progress was made using Odontoglossum with many other genera -some forty plus times this century.

                We now have bi; tri; quad; quin; hex;sept; and nona genera from many combinations in the make up of complex

               hybrids.   How far can this go?

 

1890:     Cirrhopetalum robustum:  Discovered in New Guinea.   First flowering in cultivation in collection of Col. T. Clarke

                                                         of  Welton Place, Daventry; which was Awarded FCC/RHS in 1895.

 

1890:     Neomoorea irrorata: Flowered for the first time in cultivation at Royal Botanic Garden, Glasnevin. Eirie.

 

1890:     Diploprora - genus: Established by J. Hooker.

                                                    Type species: Dpra. championii.

 

1891:     Disa Veitchii FCC/RHS: First man assisted Disa hybrid named in honour of the raiser and awarded FCC/RHS.                                                      From Disa. racemosa x Disa. grandiflora. - The first Disa hybrid known to science.

1891:     Odontoglossum excellens: Man made primary hybrid from Odm. pescatorii x Odm. triumphans.   This man                                                                             assisted cross confirmed Reichenbach's hypothesis of it being natural hybrid also.

 

1891:     Eulophiella - genus: Described by Rolfe in "Lindenia' as a genus of only two species from Madagascar.

                                                    Type species: Eul. elisabethae.

 

1891:     Rodrigueziella - genus: Established by Kuntze.

                                                         Type species: Rdzlla. gomezoides.

 

1891:     Kew R.B.G. "Bulletin" recorded that 766 different species of orchids had flowered there.

 

1892:     Cymbidium Winnianum: The second and final hybrid of the genus to appear during the nineteenth century.                                                                          Produced by Winn from: (Cym. giganteum x Cym. Mastersii.)

 

1892:     Sophrolaeliocattleya Vetchii:  The first tri-generic hybrid.

                                                                      From Sophronitis grandiflora x Laeliocattleya Schilleriana

 

1892:     Cattleya Rex: Described by O'Brien in 1890 in the Gardeners' Chronicle as having been imported and

                                        flowered in the greenhouse of Horticulture International in Brussels.   Also imported by Sander

                                        & Sons where plants of this species flowered in 1892.

                                        (Then Considered to be difficult to cultivate.)   

 

1892:     Laeliocattleya Baroness Schroder: Hybrid from C. trianaei x L. jongheana.

 


1892:     Intergeneric Hybrids: Eight further Bi-generic hybrids were registered during the year:

                                                       Anacamptorchis     -      (Anacamptisa x Orchis)

                                                       Gymnigritell           -      (Gymnadenia x Nigritella)

                                                       Habenari-orchis     -      (Habenaria (=Coeloglossum x Orchis )

                                                       Loroglorchis           -      (Loroglossum (= Himantoglossum) x Orchis)

                                                       Orchiaceras           -       (Aceras x Orchis)

                                                       Orchigymnadenia  -       (Gymnadenia x Orchis)

                                                       Orchiplatanthera   -       (Orchis x Platanthera)

                                                       Orchiserapias        -       (Orchis x Serapia)

                                                                                               

1893:     Orchid Review - Founded by R.A. Rolfe. - Now the Official Orchid Journal of the Royal Hort. Society.

 

1893:     Lycaste Imschootiana: Early Lycaste Hybrid (if not the first), between: Lyc. cruenta x Lyc. Skinneri.

                                                        Raised by Alfred van Imschoot of Ghent, Belgium.

                                                        Awarded AM. at RHS. meeting on 12th. Dec. 1893, when exhibited by Linden.

 

1893:     Vanda Miss Joaquim: Early Vanda hybrid between V. hookeriana x V. teres.

                                                       Signalled the birth of the Singapore cut flower trade of vandaceous orchids.

 

1893:     Disa Kewensis: The second Disa hybrid.   (Disa. uniflora x Disa. tripetaloides).

                                           Raised at Kew R.B.G. Seed sown Nov 1891.   Flowered May 1893.

                                           (The first hybrid raised by Kew Royal Botanic Garden.).

 

1893:     Disa Premier: The third Disa hybrid.   (Disa. tripetaloides x Disa. Veitchii).

                                         Raised at Kew R.B.G. - Flowered Oct. 1893.

 

1893:     Laeliocattleya Cornelia: Hybrid between:   C. Labiata x Laelia pumila.

 

1893:     Grammatophyllum speciosum: Described by Blume as the largest orchid known to science - based on a plant he

                                                                collected from a forest in Java.   A plant was imported into England en route for the

                                                                Chicago Exposition, it was thought that it would not survive further travel and was

                                                                presented to Kew R.B.G. where it recovered & during 1907 produced racemes some

                                                                ten/eleven feet tall, the largest of which bore eighty-two flowers and forty buds.

 

1893  Anguloa Madouxiana - The second primary hybrid of the genus - registered by Linden. From:

                                                   Ang. Ruckeri x Ang. Uniflora.

 

1894:     Manchester Ship Canal: Opened during 1894 to make Manchester a major port and financial centre but there

                                                          is little or no evidence to suggest that this influenced orchid growing in the area.

                                                          Collections were comparatively well established in the area before this event.

 

                                                          The Manchester Orchid Society was in fact founded three years after by twenty nine                                                                       largely local enthusiasts.   This first Orchid Society later became The Manchester &

                                                          North of England O.S. during 1908, and in 1970 The North of England O.S. by which                                                                    title it is still known.

 

1894:     Disa Langleyensis: The fourth Disa hybrid -from Disa. racemosa x Disa. tripetaloides.

                                                   Raised by both Kew R.B.G and Veitch.

 

1894:     Vanda roeblingiana: Introduced by H. Low from the Philippines.

 

1894:     Intergeneric Hybrids: Seven new bi-generic and one new Tri-generic hybrids were registered during the year:

 

                                                       Calanthidio-preptanthe     -     (Calanthidium x Preptanthe)- (Both = Calanthe)

                                                       Epilaelia                            -     (Epidendrum x Laelia)

                                                       Haemari-anoectochilus     -     (Anoectochilus x Haemaria -(=Ludisia))

                                                       Haemari-macodes             -     (Haemaria x Macodes)

                                                       Limatopreptanthe              -     (Limatodes-(=Calanthe) x Preptanthe-(=Calanthe))

                                                       Phaiopreptanthe                -     (Phaius x Preptanthe - (=Phaiocalanthe))

                                                       Sophrolaelia                      -     (Laelia x Sophronitis

                                                Phaiolimatopreptanthe       -     (Phaius x Limatodes x Preptanthe)

 


1895:     Odopetalum: The first intergeneric hybrid using the genus Odontoglossum.

                                       Created by crossing an Odontoglossum with a Zygopetalum.

 

1895:     Coelogyne Veitchii: Discovered Western New Guinea by D. Burke - collecting for Veitch.

                                                    Awarded AM/RHS on August 27th. 1895.

 

1895:     Phalaenopsis lindenii: First collected by A. Loher from Luzon Island - Philippines and described by him in 1895.

                                                   He named the species in honour of Jean Linden of the then famous orchid nursery.

 

1895:     Calyptrochilum - genus: Established by F. Kraenzlin as a wide spread genus of two species from tropical

                                                           Africa - from Guinea to Sierra Leone to East Africa and southwards to Zambia.

                                                           Type species: C. preussii.

 

1895:     H.A. Burberry F.R.H.S. published "The Amateur Orchid Cultivators' Guide Book" (Price 2/6d.Nett.).

 

1895:     Intergeneric Hybrids:    Thirteen registered during the year: Twelve bi-gens. and one tri-gen.:

 

                                                        Catlaelia                      -               (Cattleya x Laelia) Regist’d before as Laeliocattleya.

                                                        Cysepedium               -               (Cypripedium x Selenipedium)

                                                        Epidrobium                 -               (Dendrobium x Epidendrum)

                                                        Epileya                         -               (Cattleya x Epidrendrum)

                                                        Odopetalum                 -               (Odontoglossum x Zygopetalum)

                                                        Phalanthe                    -               (Calanthe x Phaius)

                                                        Schombletia                -               (Bletia x Schomburgkia)

                                                        Sobraleya                    -               (Cattleya x Sobralia)

                                                        Sophroleya                  -               (Cattleya x Sophronitis)

                                                        Sophrovola                  -               (Brassavola x Sophronitis)

                                                        Zygocidium                  -               (Oncidium x Zygopetalum)

                                                        Zygolax                        -               (Colax x Zygopetalum)

                                                        Catlaenitis                   -               (Cattleya x Laelia x Sophronitis)-(Now Slc.)

 

1896:     Phalaenopsis gigantea: First collected from Borneo by Mantri Jaheri - the single plant survived until 1909 when it

                                                     was described by J.J Smith.  Re-discovered in 1937 at a different location in Borneo and

                                                     appeared in a few collections.  Now considered almost extinct in the wild.

 

1896:     Pelatantheria - genus:  Described by N. Ridley as a small genus of five or so species from S/E Asia; S. China

                                                         and Indonesia. Type species: Pthia. cristata.

1896:     Phragmipedium - genus: Established by R.A. Rolfe in “The Orchid Review” when he revised all the `slipper’

                                                            orchids placing the tropical American species in two genera: Selenipedium and

                                                            Phragmipedium.   The latter was again revised in 1903 by E. Pfitzer.   Others have made

                                                            further revisions in addition to a reversal to the former name Uropedium.   Dressler &

                                                            Williams made the case that reversal of such a well established name would cause

                                                            considerable confusion.

                                                          Type species: Phrag. caudatum.

   

1896:     Kew Royal Botanic Garden listed some 1800 species from some 200 genera under cultivation there.

 

1897:     Manchester Orchid Society founded. The first in the United Kingdom and believed to be the oldest Orchid

                Society in the World, a fact, which; has not been denied.   Its Centenary Celebration in 1997 was attended by

                many enthusiasts and professional growers from around the world.

 

1897:     Dendrobium Victoria Regina: Discovered by A. Loher who dedicated the species to Queen Victoria on the                                                                          occasion of her Golden Jubilee.   The species, was not described until 1897

despite being discovered at the same time as the Golden Jubilee of Queen  Victoria,

some ten years before.

 

1897      Ancisttrochilus - genus: Described by R.A. Rolfe in “Flora of Tropical Africa”

                                                          Type species: A.. thomsonianus.

 

1897:     Listrostachys - iridiflora: Described by Rolfe in "Flora of Tropical Africa".

                                                            Transferred to Bolusiella by Schletcher in 1918.

 

1897:     Hygrochilus genus: Described by Pfitzer in Engler's "Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien"


1897:     Phalaenopsis gigantea: From the first collection from Borneo by Mantri Jaheri - a single plant only survived

                                                          until larger quantities were collected from a different locations in Borneo in 1937.

 

1897:     Trevoria chloris - Discovered by Consul F.C. Lehman in Colombia - (Bot. Mag. t7805.).

 

1897:     Intergeneric Hybrids:  Four Bi-generic and two Tri-generic new hybrids were registered:

                                                        Epiphaius                                    -               (Epidendrum x Phaius)

                                                        Laeliodendrum                           -               (          “         x Laelia)

                                                        Maxillacaste                                -               (Lycaste x Maxillaria)

                                                        Phalbletia                                    -               (Bletia x Phaius)

        Brassocatlaelia                          -               (Brassavola x Cattleya x Laelia)

                                                        Sophrolaeliocattleya                 -               (Cattleya x Laelia x Sophronitis)

 

1898:     Dendrobium bellatulum: Discovered by A.Henry in Yunnan, China.   Kew R.B.G received specimens during

1900.  Also located in N/E India; South Burma and Vietnam.

 

1898:     Anguloa clowesii:  A plant owned by Major Joicey of Sunningdale Park, was awarded FCC/RHS on 12th. June.

                                             Reported to having had thirty spikes and thirty-three flowers - three of the spikes had two flowers

                                             each.   Usually a spike of this genus carries one flower only.

 

1898:     Odontoglossum Crispo-harryanum: Early Odontoglossum primary hybrid from Odm.Crispum x Odm. harryanum.

                                                                        Raised by C. Vuylsteke in Belgium.

 

1898:     Odontoglossum ardentissimm: Early Odontoglossum primary hybrid raised by E. Rothschild - (also by                                                                                               Vuylsteke) in 1902) from: Odm.crispum x Odm.Pescatorei).

 

1898:     Phalaenopsis Stuartiana-Mannii: The first yellow phalaenopsis hybrid.   From: Phal. mannii x Phal. stuartiana

                                                                           Raised by Veitch.

 

1898:     Disa Diores: The fifth Disa hybrid Raised by Veitch from: Disa. uniflora x Disa.Veitchii.

 

1898:     Intergeneric Hybrids: Two new Bi-generic hybrids were registered:

                                                                Cattleyodendrum                -               (Cattleya x Epidendrum)

                                                                Correvonia                           -               (Brassavola x Cattleya) –(Now Bc.)

 

1899:     Angraecum veitchii: The first hybrid from Madagascan species from Angcm. sesquipedale x Angcm. Superbum.                                                              Raised by Veitch.  ( Note the syn. of A. superbum is A. eburneum.).

 

1899:     Lycaste Janetae: Hybrid raised by a Mrs. Janet Ross of Florence, from Lyc. skinneri x Lyc. rossinae.

                                             First flowering in 1899.   Exhibited by Sander & Sons - 16.3.1915 & awarded AM/RHS.

 

1899:     Seed germination: Noel Bernard demonstrated wild orchid seeds germinating in the presence of mycorrhizel fungus; 

                also the symbiotic method of germination under artificial conditions.  This method however; did not become freely

               available until American botanist Lewis Knudson developed relatively simple methods and published his findings, first

               in a Spanish  Journal in 1921 then in English in the Botanical Magazine during 1922.  (Please refer to Lewis Knudson

               under 1922.)

 

1899;     Odontoglossum crispum: 100,000 plants of this species were imported from Colombia and sold at Protheroe's                                                                        Orchid Auction.

 

1899:     Intergeneric Hybrids: Two new Bi-generic hybrids were registered:

                                                                Calanthophaius                   -               (Calanthe x Phaius)

                                                                Zygobatemannia                 -               (Batemannia x Zygopetalum)

 

By the end of the nineteenth century a further 1012 genera (species) had become known; within each were from a few to hundreds specific epithets; in addition some 1010 orchid hybrids were known to science, sixty-eight were Bi-generic and five were Tri-generic; the remainder consisted of a few Natural Hybrids and hybrids within genera.   Names etc. can be found in the ‘List of Generic Names of Orchid Species’ and ‘List of Generic Names of Orchid  Hybrids’ which appear later in this document.

 

At the turn of the century as hybridising between genera was increasing and collecting from the natural habitat was diminishing;  orchidists turned their attention to the tongue twisting names ensuing from the creation of multi-generic hybrids from genera with names which were difficult to all but Latin Scholars.   It was then decided to use other names,

 

Usually the name of the creator; then adding  “ara” e.g. :- Adamsara; Burrageara; Linneara; Vuylsteakeara etc.

A further one hundred and thirty genera (species) became known during the last twenty years of the 19th.Century.


HIGHLIGHTS OF ORCHID HISTORY.

                                                                        1900 - 1999 AD.

 

1900:     Disa Watsonii - from D. Kewensis x D. uniflora. The 6th Disa hybrid.   Raised at Kew Royal Botanic Garden.

 

1900:     Angraecopsis - genus: Established by F. Kraenzlin and re-viewed by V.S.Summerhayes - 1951.

 

1900:     At the turn of the Century separate houses for warm; intermediate and cool culture were advocated.

 

1900:     Some say that fact is stranger than fiction, this would appear to be true in that but a single intergeneric orchid hybrid was registered during 1900-1901.   The one registered is given in “The Handbook on Orchid Nomenclature and  Registration “ 4th. Edition as “Sophrocatlaelia in Orch. Rev.8: 354 (1900)” - what is strange is the fact that there is no  such entry in Sanders’ List under the same heading.   Sanders’ List to 1946 does however give the following under `Sophrolaeliocattlya’ - Slc. Eros (Lc. elegans (Turneri) x S. grandiflora) as  egistered by Charlesworth during 1909.The Orchid Review reference reads “Messrs. Charlesworth and Co., of Heaton, Bradford, have succeeded in raising a  most charming little hybrid, which, under the name of Sophrolaelia x Eros - (Lc.), received a First-class Certificate from the R.H.S. on October 23rd.   The name, however, raises a rather curious question.   The parents are recorded (at page 348) to have been Laelio-cattleya elegans and Sophronitis grandiflora, and the corresponding hybrid between the latter and Laelio-cattleya x Schilleriana was called Sophrocattleya x Veitchii.   Neither of these names are strictly indicative of the origin of these hybrids, in whose parentage three genera are concerned.   The case of Brassocatlaelia  affords an analagous example, that hybrid being derived from Brasso-cattleyaLindleyana  a Natural hybrid and Laelio-cattleya x elegans, and following this precedent it appears to me that the two plants above mentioned must be called Sophrocatlaelia x Veitchi and Sophrocatlaelia x Eros.   This indicates both their origin and affinity, for as named at present they would appear to be different in their generic origin instead of being identical.   Specifically, even, the two  are very nearly allied, for they agree in being composed of Sophronitis grandiflora 1/2 (one half) and Laelia purpurata 1/4 (one quarter); the difference is that the remaining fourth of  S. x Veitchii was derived from Cattleya intermedia and of S. x Eros from C. Leopoldi.   Both are charming little plants.”    Signed:     “Argus”

 

1901:     Mendel, Gregor (Johann) - 1822/1884: 1901 marked the re-discovery of Mendel's work on the inheritance of

 characters.  Mendel is believed to be the founder of the science of genetics.

 

1901:    1st. edition of “Sanders Orchid Guide” appeared.

 

1902:    Cymbidium hybrids:  The first cymbidium hybrids of the twentieth century appeared, three in number after a

                                                     lean period of ten years:-

                                                     Cym. Lowio-grandiflorum from Cym.Lowianum x Cym. grandiflorum.    Veitch.

                                                     Cym. Lowio-Mastersii          “    Cym.Lowianum x Cym.Mastersii.           Charlesworth.

                                                     Cym. Wiganianum                “    Cym.eburneum  x Cym.Tracyanum.         McBean.

                                                     (Cym Wiganianum was raised by McBean but registerd by Sir. Frederick  Wigan. Bart.

               

A Very steady increase in cymbidium hybrids over next eighteen years yielded sixty new registrations only.

                1905; 1906; 1908; 1909 and 1913 being blank years.   One registration only during each of the years: 1903;

                1904;  1907;  1910 and 1912; along with four during 1911; seven during 1914; nine during 1915 eleven during           1916; four during 1917; seven each during 1918 and 1919 and three during 1920.

                                (Note: Details of each appear under the appropriate year as shown above.)

 

1902:     Disa Luna - from D. racemosa x D.Veitchii - the 7th Disa hybrid - Raised by Veitch.

 

1902:     Disa Elwesii - from D. Kewensis x D. Veitchii - the 8th Disa hybrid - Raised by Elwes.

 

1903:     Cymbidium Lowgrinum: hybrid raised by Measures from: Cym. Lowianum x Cym. tigrinum.

 

1903:     Angulocaste Bieverana: First intergeneric hybrid between Anguloa and Lycaste species.

                                                          From Ang. ruckeri x Lyc. skinneri.   Raised by De Bieve.

                (Note: Between 1903 and 1991 some forty-eight hybrids were produced from these genera.)

 

1904:     Cymbidium woodlandsense: Hybrid (Cym.Masterson x Cym.tracyanum ) raised by Sander.

 

1904:      Much use was made of specially designed earthenware containers for orchids and as illustrated

                in “Gardeners Assistant”


1904:     Odontioda: The first Odontioda was produced when Vuylsteke of Ghent, Belgium crossed:-

                                     Cochlioda noetzliana with Odontoglossum pescatorei to form Odontioda Vuylstekeae.

                                     This achievement led to some thirty-eight Odontioda being produced between 1904/1910:

                Name                                     Parentage                                                                    Raiser              Date:

                Oda.Vuylstekeae -              Cda. noetzliana    x   Odm.pescatorei             Vuylsteke             31.05.1904

                   “   Heatonensis -               Odm.cirrhosum    x   Cda. sanguinea              Charlesworth       06.03.1906

                   “   Bohnhofiae -                Odm.cirrhosum    x   Cda. Vulcanica                         "               25.09.1906

                   “   Bradshawiae -             Cda.noezliana      x  Odm. crispum                            "                08.01.1907

                   “   Devossiana -                Cda. noezliana     x  Odm. Edwardii               Graire                   29.10.1907

                   “   Craveniana -                Cda. noezliana     x  Odm. cordatum               Charlesworth       31.12.1907

                   “   Lutetia -                        Cda. noezliana     x  Odm. luteopurpureum               "                03.03.1908

                   “   Keighlevense -             Cda.noezliana      x  Odm. cirrhosum                        "                04.04.1908

                   “   Charlesworthii -          Cda. noezliana     x  Odm. harryanum                       "                26.05.1908

                   “   St. Fuscien -                 Cda. noezliana     x  Odm. Adrianae               Graire                  25.05.1908

                   “   Wickhamensis -           Odm. crispum       x  Cda. sanguinea              Bird                     23.06.1908

                   “   Thwaitesii -                  Cda. vulcanica     x  Odm. harryanum            Thwaite               21.07.1908

                   “   Chelseaensis -              Cda. vulcanica     x  Odm. crispum                 Bull                      07.01.1909

                   “   Gattoniensis -              Cda. noezliana     x  Odm. Kegelianna            Colman               09.01.1909

                   “   Goodsoniae -               Parentage not known                                        Goodson              09.03.1909

                   “   Ernest Henry -             Cda. noezliana     x  Odm. Queen Alexandra  Charlesworth       06.04.1909

                   “   Lambeauiana -            Cda. noezliana     x  Odm. Lambeauianum      Peeters                17.05.1909

                   “   Cooksoniae -                Cda. noezliana     x  Odm. ardentissimum       Cookson              25.05.1909

                   “   loochristiensis -           Cda. noezliana     x  Odm. glorios                   Vuylsteke            03.08.1909

                   “   Graireana -                  Cda. noezliana     x  Odm. rossii                        Graire                  31.08.1909

                   “   Cuprea -                       Cda. noezliana     x  Odm. cristatum                Sander                 22.02.1910

                   “   Seymouri -                    Cda. vulcanica     x  Odm. Uro Skinneri           Thwaites             22.02.1910

                   “   Cassiope -                     Odm.amabile       x  Oda. Heatonensis              Charlesworth      05.04.1910

                   “   Diana -                          Cda. noezliana    x  Odm. amabile                           "                     06.04.1910

                   “   Euterpe -                       Cda. noezliana    x  Odm. Uro Skinneri                  "                    06.04.1910

                   “   Beechense -                  Cda. noezliana    x  Odm. Rolfeae                     Tankerville         07.04.1910

                   “   Leeana -                        Cda. noezliana    x  Odm. crispo-Harryanum  Bull                     21.04.1910

                   “   Sensation -                   Oda. VuylstekeaeOdm. crispum                    Vuylsteke            30.04.1910

                   “   Ignea.-                           Cda. Noezliana    x  Odm. Lindenii                   Graire                   21.05.1910

                   “   King George -              Oda. VuylstekeaeOdm. Laudatum              Vuylsteke             24.05.1910

                   “   Royal Gem -                 Oda. VuylstekeaeOdm. ardentissimum      Vuylsteke            24.05.1910

                   “   Nevensis -                   Odm. nevadense   x  Cda. noezeliana              Thompson           21.06.1910

                   “   Seuenacca -                  Cda. noezliana     x  Odm. Hunnewellianum Crawshay             19.07.1910

                   “   Hermione -                   Oda. Heatonensis Cda. vulcanica               Charlesworth       ??.08.1910

                   “   Cecilia -                        Cda. noezliana    x  Odm. Wiganianum          Thwaites              13.09.1910

                   “   Wilsonii -                      Cda. vulcanica    x  Odm. nobile                            "                      13.09.1910

                   “   Daphne -                       Odm. Edwardii    x  Oda. Heatonensis            Charlesworth       ??.09.1910

                   “   Grata -                          Cda. Noezliana   Odm. tripudians               Sander                  ??.10.1910

                                                                                                               

1904:     Neomoorea genus: described by R.A.Rolfe in “The Orchid Reveiw” after he had previously named the

                                                  species Moorea to discover that that name had been given before to a distinct genus.

                                                  Type species: N. irrorata.

 

1904:     Odontoglossum crispum: At the sale of Mr. E. Ashworths' collection at Harefield Hall, Wilmslow, Cheshire

on 23/24th. March - McBeans paid 340 guineas for a plant - Odontoglossum crispum var. ‘Ashworthianum’.  Believed to be the highest price reached at an auction at that time.

 

1905:     Anguloa Dubia: Primary hybrid from. Ang. uniflora x Ang. clowesii - raised by Veitch but not registered until 1910.

 

1905:     Vanda luzonica: Introduced by Rolfe as a species from the Philippiners.

 

1905:     Spiranthes romanzoviana: Was collected in Londonderry. Other than a few stations in Ireland this species has

                                                               not been found elsewhere in Europe.   It was however discovered in 1805 by a Mr.                                                                         Drummond in a meadow at Bantry Bay.   In 1886 the meadow had been  ploughed                                                                          for potatoes and it was feared the orchid was lost to flora.

                                                         Re-discovered near Cork in 1885 & in Londonderry in 1905.

                                                              It was also recorded as growing in a few cold, upland bogs of North America.


1905:     Odontonia: A. De Lairesse created Odontonia by successfully crossing Odontoglossum with Miltonia.

 

1906:     Cattleya  jenmanii: Described by G. Rolfe and lost to cultivation until re-discovery by Dunsterville during his                                                              exploration of Venezuela and Guyana during 1969.

 

1906:     Sander issued his first 'List of Orchid Hybrids'.   He must have been the only person at that time to realise just

                how important his recordings of the creation of hybrids was going to be.

 

1906:     Coelogyne brymeriana: Primary hybrid from Coel. dayana x Coel. asperata.

                                                          Raised by Colonel Brymer of Doncaster after whom it is named.

 

1907:     Cymbidium Woodhamsiana: (Cym. eburneo - Lowiana x Cym. Lowiana) –hybrid, raised by Armstrong & Brown.

 

1907:     Ancistrorhynchus - genus: Established by Achille Finet. Revised by V.S. Summerhayes - 1944

 

1907:     Vanda sumatrana: introduced by Schlechter from Sumatra.

 

1907:     Dendrobium nobile , Micholitz sent 8,000 plants to F. Sander. 

 

1908:     Orchid Stud Book - published by Rolfe & Hurst; believed to contain details of all hybrids up 1907.

 

1908:     Orchis hircina:    "The Lizard Orchid" a plant with a thirty inch spike carrying eighty flowers was reported at                                                           Adisham - South East, England.   Now known as Himantoglossum hircinum of which genus

                                                it is the type species.

 

1908      Anguloa cliftonii: First recorded flowering in cultivation in the collection of W. Hernes and later for J. Talbot                                                             Clifton after whom it is named.

 

1908:     Germination: Hans Burgeff successfully germinated orchid seed 'in vitro' on an agar medium containing ground

                                        orchid tubers: 27% starch; 5% protein; and traces of sugar; minerals and micorrhizal fungii.

                                        He noted that fungi converted starch into sugar.

 

1909:     Burgeff (Germany) commenced his study of orchid mycorrhizal fungi, this continued for until 1959 (50 years.).

 

1909:     Noel Bernard attempted to isolate fungi and compared germination of infected and non-infected seedlings.

 

1909:     Dendrobium sanderae: Introduced into U.K. by Sander & Sons after their collectors sent plants from the

                                                     Philippines.   Described and named by R. Rolfe in “Gardeners Chronicle.

 

1909:     British Native Orchids: The following native orchids - all collected from stations in Sussex were exhibited

                                                          during the years 1908/1909:-

 

                                                                                Neottia nidusavis

                                                                                Listera ovata.

                                                                                Spiranthes autumnalis.

                                                                Cephalanthera ensifolia

“         pallens.

                                                                                Epipactis latifolia.

                                                                                Orchis pyramidalis.

     "    mascula. - refer to note below

                                                                                     "    latifolia.

                                                                                     "    maculata. (Now Dactylorhyza fuchsii).

                                                                                     "    ericetorum. (Now Dactylorhyza maculata).

                                                                                     “    ericetorum:(Heath Spotted orchid.).

                                                                                     “    morio

                                                                                     “    ustula

Ophrys  apifera.

                                                                                     "       aranifera. syn. Oph. spegodes.

                                                                                     "       muscifera.

                                                                                Herminium monorchis.    

                                                                                Habenaria conopsea. syn. Gymnadenia canopsea.

                                                                                         “       viridis. (Now Coeloglossum - Frog Orchid.)

                                                                                Platanthera chorantha - Greater Butterfly orchis.

                                                                                         "        bifolia   -     Lesser      "             "

                                                                                         (Flowers whiter than the greenish P. chorantha.) (cont’d.)

                                                                                Aceras anthropophorum also collected on the border with Kent.

 

                                 (Note:  1: Shakespeare referred to Orchis mascula and Orchid folklore in "Hamlet"):

 

                                                                "There with fantastic garlands did she come

                                                                 of crow flowers; nettles; daises and long purples.

                                                                 That liberal shepherds give a grosser name,

                                                                 But our cold maids do dead men's fingers call them".

 

                                 (Note:  2: Most botanists today restrict Habenaria to the sub-tropical species which markedly differ                                                              from British/European native species.)

 

1909: Between 1900-1909 some 57 generic names of new species and 28 generic names of 28 hybrids became known.

 

1910:  Cymbidium Pluto: Var. of Cym. woodlandsense:- possibly a selfling raised by Lt.Col. Sir. G. Holford. CIE. KCVO.

 

1910:  Kew Herbarium: During 1910 more than 16,000 specimens were donated or exchanged and ll,350 purchased.

 

1910:  Anguloa cliftonii: A specimen from the collection of Mr. H.T. Pitt received the award FCC/RHS.

 

1910:  Anguloa cliftonii: A specimen from the collection of Mr. J.G. Fowler produced six large flowers from a single

                                            bulb to earn award CC/RHS.

 

1910:  Miltonia Rogersonii: Named after Mr. Rogerson of Didsbury, Manchester.  A noted grower and member of the                                                               Manchester Orchid Society.

 

1910:  Spiranthe aestivalis: Collected from Chislehurst and the Channel Isles.

 

1910:  Orchis _ircine: Uniformly planted specimens, the work of a well known Kentish Botanist –alongside an old

                                        Roman Rd.   The plants had been imported from Norway specifically for this purpose.

                                        The species is also found at a number of other stations in the County of Kent.

                                        Now Himantoglossum hircinum – “Lizard Orchid” – said to “smell like a goat”.

 

1910:  Ophrys fusca: existed in chalky soil near the boundary of a coppice in Kent.

 

1910:  Corallorhiza innata: Growing at a few stations in Scotland.

 

1910:  Cypripedium calceolus: Considered to be extinct in the Wild.

 

1910:  The Manchester Orchid Society had a membership of 100 during 1910.  Believed to be the oldest Orchid

           Society in the world – founded in 1897 with 29 members.

 

1910:  Platystele – genus: Described by R. Schlechter.

                                             Type species: P. bulbinella.

 

1910:  On 11th.Oct. - Sir Joseph Hooker; in his 94th.year visited the R.H.S. Flower Show and admired the orchids

                                   on display.

 

1910       Between 1900-1910 some thirty-three Bi-generic hybrids and four Tri-generic hybrids were registered. Eighteen of

               the Bi-generics were Odontioda. (refer to entry 1904) & Sanders’ Lists..

 

1900/1910: Some sixty-five new species were authorised and recorded during this period.

 

1911:  Cymbidium Pauwelsii: Primary  hybrid raised by Pauwels, from Cym. insigne x Cym  lowianum.

 

1911:  Cymbidium Langleyense: Primary hybrid raised by Veitch from: Cym. devonianum x Cym. lowianum.

 

1911:  Cymbidium J. Davies: Primary hybrid raised by Fowler from: Cym. insigne x Cym. schroderi.

 

1911:  Dendrobium schuetzei:   Introduced from the Pilippines by Sander & Sons.   Described by Rolfe in “Orchid Review”

                                                       Awarded FCC/RHS - 1912.

 


1911:  Cymbidium Alexanderi: Hybrid from Cym. eburneo-Lowianum x Cym. insigne - Sanderi.

                                                        Growm by H.G. Alexander grower to Lt. Col. Sir. George Holford K.C.V.O. was

                                                        granted an Award of Merit by the R.H.S. Orchid Committee on 14th. March 1914. (Cont’d)

                                                        Described as having a very pretty flower with rose coloured petals and sepals, slightly veined.

                                                   The lip marked with large red spots, the side lobes margined with rose and  veined with a

                                                   slightly  deeper colour. This clone produced many hybrids eleven of which received AM. &

                                                        five  received  FCC. awards.

 

1911:  Cymbidium Alexanderi  - “Westonbirt” – also grown by H.G. Alexander had been used to produce three hundred

                                                                                  and eighty first generation hybrids by 1993 – each being used very many

                                                                                      times for third and fourth etc. generation hybrids.

 

1911: Odontioda Queen Mary -  FCC./RHS -  Hybrid from Oda. Vuylstekeae x Odm. Eximium. –  by  Vuylsteke.

 

1911: Odontioda  Sanderae: Hybrid from Cochlioda noezliana x Odm. percultum.   Raised by Sander.

                                                   This cross was remade by R. Dugger around 1983 and granted AM/AOS.

 

1911: Odontocidium: The first three of this new Bi-generic (Odontoglossum x Oncidium) were produced by

                                       Charlesworth & Co.- Odcdm. Epiphorum (Odm.Epicasta x Onc.corynophorum); Odcdm.

                                   Fowlerianum (Odm. Uro skinneri x Onc. tigrinum) & Odcdm. Hebe (Odm. cirrhosum x

                                   Onc. incurvum).

 

1911:  Officers of the Manchester Orchid Society were:  Chairman: Rev'd. J. Crombleholme.

                                                                                                    Vice  " : Mr. Ziba A. Ward.

                                                                                                    Treasurer: G.H. Pearce.

                                                                                                    Auditor: H. Thorpe.

                                                                                                    Secretary: H. Arthur.

                                 (Note: Rev'd. J. Crombleholme flowered Cymdidium Ruby a natural hybrid, then considered a                            

                                         species, and an early important red.)

 

1911:  Vuylstekeara: Early tri-generic hybrid from - Odontoglosum x Cochlioda x Miltonia was reported in Orch.Rev.

           19: 60 (1911) but the earliest record in Sanders’ List is Vuyl. Hyeana (Cda. noezliana x Odtna. Lairesseae) by

           J.Hye during 1912.

 

1911:  The first Quad-generic hybrids - recorded in “The Handbook on Orchid Nomenclature and Registration” as -

           “Adamara” - (Brassavola x Cattleya x Epidendrum x Laelia) and “Linneara” - (Brassavola x Cattleya x         

           Diacrium (=Caularthron) x Laelia) both as described in the Bulletin of the Soc. Roy. Bot. Belg. 47:402.

           Neither of these appear in Sanders’ List.

           (Note: Adamara is now Yamadara – Sander’s Lists – Addendum 1961-1970.)

           (Note: Linneara is now Iwanagara -      “            “    -           “       1986-1990.)

 

1911:  The last paper by Bernard (published posthumousely) reported the discovery of orchid phytoalexins –(the first

            phytoalexin effects to be observed )-(a term had not been used by botanists at that time.)

 

1912:  Cymbidium Schlegelii: Hybrid raised by McBean from: Cym. insigne x Cym. Wiganianum

 

1912:  Kew Herbarium: Received 32,000 donated specimens and purchased 5,000.

 

1912:  Kew Royal Botanic Garden: Many orchids were destroyed by the Suffragettes.

 

1912:  Lycaste Barringtonae: The only Lycaste from the Island of Jamaica.  Flowered in the collection of Colonel

                                                  Henty of Arundel.  Flowers are olive green with a light buff coloured fringed lip.

 

1912   Moscow Orchid Society founded.   Possibly the second Orchid Society - First A.G.M. was on 13th/Dec./1912.

 


1912:  Linnean Society: At a meeting of the society on 5th.Dec.1912 Mr. A.E. Bedford displayed photographs and

                                       talked about the following Native Orchids:-

 

                                                Orchis purpurea - found near Lewes.

                                                Himantoglossum - hircinum  - ditto Eastbourne.

                                                Ophrys aranifera - some sixty-five specimens growing in a colony of nine feet radius.

                                                                                  (Now known as Ophrys sphegodes.)

                                                Ophrys arachnites- found at Folkestone. (Now known as Ophfuciflora.).

                                                Malaxis paludosa. Did not state station.

                                                Liparis Loeslii.       "     "       "       “

 

 

 

1913:     Manchester Orchid Society: (Quote from “Orchid World” - lV/V):

 

                On 18th.December last when one is thinking more of vegetation being in its sleep rather than at its best over

                1000 well-grown orchids greeted members as they arrived for one of their fortnightly meetings at the Coal Exchange.

                Members of the society have been accused of commercialism without justification.   Where does the commercial spirit

              find root in these amateurs who month after month spend their money and time putting up large groups of their

                               choicest  orchids without further reward other than the edification and gratitude of their   fellow members who attend

meetings?

 

It cannot be 'gate money' for there is none. Nor do the admiring crowds of the fashionable public of Manchester do homage to the cult.  In connection with this phase, what splendid devotion has Mr. O.O. Wrigley of Bury, as shown, he presents many choice orchids at every meeting.   Many times a year groups of 150 from his greenhouses are displayed reminding one of a miniature Temple Show.   He has no further ambition, as he often states; than to know that he is giving pleasure to his fellow orchidists. Would that his health allow him to personally visit meetings and witness the glow of  admiration that his exhibits enkindle.

               

The Members are good and plucky buyers; the best of everything finds its way North, first into collections then on to

the Committee Table. The new varieties of Odontoglossum and Odontioda that have recently been submitted for

awards are bewildering in their kaliedoscopic tracery of colour.   So plentiful have these   beautiful varieties of almost

solid colour become that the sweet round-flowered xanthes and virginal forms are a relief to the eye.  

               

What a wealth of the newest varieties Mr. Thompson of Walton Grange, Staffordshire; must possess.

               

The Committee needs to have a critical eye, and a critical eye it has indeed, when a Cypripedium, the favourite orchid

 of the North; appears on the table - it is balanced and turned about, and handled with tender hands, its form, outline

 and colour are carefully measured and its quality discussed.

 

                There is no hurry, there is no human respect, its merits are commended and its faults condemned.

 

                The voting is open, by show of hands and no one is afraid of voting 'straight'.   

                It may be that the very love they have for their favourite 'Cyp' - its pet name, is partly the reason that

                Manchester has a reputation of being easier than the Royal Horticultural Society in its awards of merit.

                                                                                                               

                Manchester members cannot bear to see a plant relegated that appears to be an improvement on existing types, though

                the advance be slight.   Such a plant deserves recognition, which is the only encouragement the raisers and exhibitors

              need and get.

 

 

1913:     Ascocentrum - genus: Described by Schlecher.   From S/E Asia and Malaysia. Related to Vanda.

                                                       Type species: Asctm. miniatum.

 

1913:    Domingoa - genus: Described by Schlechter.as a very small genus of epiphytic orchids from the West Indies.

                                                  Related to Laelia, type species - Dga. hymenodes.

 

1913:   Neocogniauxia - genus: Established by Schlechter.

                                                        Type species: N. monophyllum =Trigonidium monophyllum.

 


1913:    Adaglossum: bi-generic hybrid by McBean, from:- Odontoglossum x Ada.   The fist was Adgcm. Juno from

Ada. aurantiaca x Odm. Edwardii - produced in 1912 and registered during 1913.   There was little     interest since Odm. Edwardii appeared to be dominant.   Ada  aurantiaca was also crossed with Odm. Pescatorei by a Mr. J. Adamson - member of the Manchester & North of England Orchid Society and not registered during 1926 as Adaglossum citrinum.   McBeans made a second attempt at crossing these genera to produce Adcgmnanum from Ada. aurantiaca x Odm. Phoebe and registering this in 1919.   Further crossings did not appear until 1993 when Adaglossum  Jersey `St.Helier' AM/RHS appeared from the Eric Young Orchid Foundation.   Interest re-awakened after 80 years.

 

1914:   Cymbidium Venus: Hybrid raised by S. Low & Co. from Cym. Holfordianum x Cym. insigne.

 

1914:   Cymbidium Sappho: Hybrid raised by Pitt. from Cym. Gattonense x Cym. Lowianum.

 

1914:   Cymbidium Nada: Hybrid raised by Col. Holford from Cym. eburneum x Cym. Lowio-grandiflorum.

 

1914:   Cymbidium Memoria P.W. Janssen: Raised by Sander from Cym. Gottianum x Cym. insigne.

                                                                                                               

1914:   Cymbidium Hanburyanum: Hybrid raised by Hanbury-from Cym. erythrostylum x Cym. Tracyanum.

1914:   Cymbidium Coningsbyanum: Raised by Hamilton-Smith from Cym. grandiflorum x Cym. insigne.

 

1914:   Cymbidium amabile: Hybrid raised by Sander from:Cym. insigne x Cym. Lowio - Mastersii.

 

1914:   Cattleya Atlanta: Hybrid from C. giga x C. Leopoldii bearing a spike of seventeen perfect blooms was

                                            exhibited at a meeting of the Manchester and North of England Orchid Society.

            The plant came from the collection of Mr. Z.A. Ward of Cringlewood, Northenden.

            Manchester, who regularly exhibited as many as one hundred and fifty orchids at each

            of the then fortnightly meetings.   Transportation was via a horse drawn boxed cart,

            (also called a caravan) to take the plants from his stoves to the Manchester Coal Exchange

            some six miles distant.

 

1914:     Cyrtorchis - genus: Described by Schlechter as a small genus of angraecoid African tropical orchids.

                                                   Type species: Cyrts. arcuata.

 

1914:     Diaphananthe - genus described by Schlechter.

                                            Type species Dpthe. pellucida.

 

1914:     Euanthe - genus:  Established by Schlechter and described by him as a monotypic genus to accommodate

                                                species accepted as Vanda, the distinction being the recordite lip.

                                                Type species: E. sanderiana -also known as Vanda sanderiana.

 

1914:     Jumellea - genus:  Described by Schlechter as a gernus of approx. forty species mainly from Madagascar.

                                                Type species: Jum. recurva.

 

1914:     Tridactyle - genus: Established by Schlechter as a genus of approx. forty-five species from Tropical and

                                                   South Africa.   Many of which were previously classified as Angraecum.

                                                   Type species: T. bicaudata.

 

1915:     Cymbidium Seamew: Hybrid raised by Col. Holford from: Cym. I'Ansonii x Cym. Parishii Sanderae.

 

1915:     Cymbidium sanderhurstiense: Raised by Armstrong & Brown from Cym. erythrostylum x Cym. Wiganianum.

 

1915:     Cymbidium Queen of Gatton: Hybrid raised by J. Colman from: Cym. insigne x Cym. Lady Colman.

 

1915:     Cymbidium albanense: Hybrid raised by Sander from: Cym. erythrostylum x Cym. insigne.

 

1915:     Cymbidium Garnet: Hybrid raised by Col. Holford from: Cym. Lowianum x Cym. Parishii Sanderae.

 

1915:     Cymbidium Floryi: Hybrid raised by Black & Flory from: Cym. eburneo-Lowianum x Cym. grandiflorum.

 

1915:     Cymbidium Castor: Hybrid raised by Hamilton-Smith from Cym. insigne x Cym. Woodhamsianum.

 

1915:     Cymbidium Butterfly: Raised by Col. Holford from: Cym. insigne x Cym. Lowio-grandiflorum.

 

1915:     Cymbidium Albatross: Hybrid raised by Sander from Cymbidium Gottianum x Cym. grandiflorum.

 

1915:     Lycaste aromatica: Exhibited by Messrs. Mansell & Hatcher at the Holland House Show - July 1915.

 

1915:     Lycaste Arthuriana: Hybrid from Lyc. macrophylla x Lyc. Balliae.   Awarded AM/MOS on 22.9.1915.

                                                    From the collection of Mr. R. Ashworth. M.& N.E.O.S.

 

1915:     Lyaste gigantea: Exhibited by Sander & Son at Chelsea Flower Show - 18.5.1915.

 

1915:     Lycaste Janetae:  1899 Hybrid from Lyc. skinneri   x Lyc. rossiana.    Awarded AM/RHS. 16/3/15.

                                           Exhibited by Sander & Son - described as having eight large flowers of light greenish yellow

                                           colour  minutely spotted with rose.   This hybrid  was originally raised by Mrs. Janet Ross of

                                           Florence - first  flowering during in 1899.

 

1915:    Anguloa Rolfei:    Considered a Natural Hybrid from Ang. ruckeri x Ang. cliftoni.

                                                Both species sent to U.K. by Kromer having been collected at the same location.

 

1915:    Oeoniella - genus: Established by Schlechter.

                                                Type species: Oenla. polystachys.

 

1915:    Disa Blackii: The ninth Disa hybrid from Disa. Luna x Disa. uniflora.

                                       Raised by Flory and Black following a gap of twelve years without an hybrid from this genus.

 

1916:    Wilsonara: Tri-generic hybrid by Charlesworth from Odontoglossum x Cochlioda x Oncidium.   The original

                                   cross was Wils. insignis from Odm. illustrissimum x Oncidioda Charlesworthii.

                                   Recorded on Gard.Chron.ser.3, 59: 315 (1916)

 

1916:    Cymbidium Niobe: Hybrid raised by Fowler from: Cym. eburneo-Lowianum x Cym. tigrinum.

 

1916:    Cymbidium Moira: Hybrid raised by Hassall from: Cym. Paulwelsii  x  Cym. Tracyanum.

 

1916:    Cymbidium Miranda: Hybrid raised by Col. Holford from: CymAlexanderi  x  Lowio-grandiflorum.

 

1916:    Cymbidium Egret: Hybrid raised by Sander from: Cym. Gottianum  x  Cym. Pauwelsii.

 

1916:    Cymbidium Diana: Hybrid raised by Hassall from: Cymeburneo -Lowianum x Cym. Pauwelsii.

 

1916:    Cymbidium Corona: Hybrid raised by Hamilton Smith from: Cym. Lowianum  x  Schlegelii.

 

1916:    Cymbidium Capella: Hybrid raised by Hamilton Smith from: Cym. Pauwelsii  x  Cym. Wiganianum.

 

1916:    Cymbidium Swallow: Hybrid raised by Sander from: Cym. Alexanderi  x  Cym  Pauwelsii.

 

1916:    Cymbidium Sybil: Hybrid raised by Hamilton Smith & Hassall from: Cymeburneum  x  Cym. Pauwelsii.

 

1916:    Cymbidium Vega: Hybrid raised by Hamilton Smith & Pitt from: Cym. Lowgrinum  x  Cym. Lowianum.

 

1916:    Cymbidium viridescens: Hybrid raised by J. Colman from Cymgrandiflorum x Cym. Lady Colman.

 

1916:     Lycaste awards:  On the 16th.Feb. the R.H.S. made the following awards:

 

                                                                Lyc. Balliae - CC/RHS.

                                                                Lyc. skinneri var. Mrs. G. Hamilton AM/RHS.

                                                                Lyc. skinneri var. Mrs. G. Hamilton FCC/RHS.

                                                                 (These were two separate plants.)

 

1916:     Lycaste Imschootiana – ‘Aurea’ -  (Lyccruenta x Lyc. skinneri) exhibited by A.J.Keeling & Sons of Bradford,

                                                                                                                              received AM/M. & N.E.O.S. on 13.4.1916.

 

1916:     Lycaste skinneri: Reported: two cases of plants with twin flowers, considered rare.

 

1916:     Rossioglossum - genus: Established by Schlechter

                                                          Type species: R. grande.( Previously known as Odontoglossum.)

 

1916:     Odontioda - Niobe "Perfection": hybrid by Armstrong & Brown from Oda. Bradshawiae x Odm. Jasper.


1917:     Cymbidium Ariadne: Hybrid by Armstrong  & Brown from: Cym. erythrostylum x Cym. ?

 

1917:     Cymbidium Chaffinch: Hybrid raised by Sander from: Cym. Doris x Cym. Gottianum.

 

1917:     Cymbidium Orion: Hybrid raised by Hamilton Smith from: Cym. Doris x Cym erythrostylum.

 

1917:     Cymbidium President Wilson: Hybrid by Sander from: Cym. Alexanderi x Cym. Lowianum.

 

1918:     Cymbidium Atlanta: Hybrid raised by Sander from: Cym. erythrostylum x Cym. Lowianum.

 

1918:     Cymbidium Beryl: Hybrid by Armstrong & Brown from: Cym. Lowianum x Cym. Pauwelsii.

 

1918:     Cymbidium Elfin: Hybrid raised by Sander from: Cym.Parishii Sanderae x Cym.Pauwelsii.

1918:     Cymbidium Lira: Hybrid raised by Hamilton Smith from: Cym. eburneum x Cym. Gottianum.

 

1918:     Cymbidium Pearl: Hybrid raised by McBean from: Cym. Alexanderi  x  Cym. grandiflorum.

 

1918:     Cymbidium Shillianum: Hybrid by Baron Schroder from Cym. Holfordianum  x  Cym. Pauwelsii.

 

1918:     Cymbidium Virgo: Hybrid raised by Hamilton Smith from Cym. Pauwelsii  x  Cym.Woodhamsianum.

 

1918:     Disa Italia: The tenth Disa hybrid by Flory & Black from: Disa. Blackii x Disa. uniflora.

 

1918:     Barbosiella - genus: Described by Schlechter as a genus of approx. twenty species from Costa Rica,

                                                    south to Brazil and Argentina.   Named in honour of Dr. Joao Barbosa Rodrigues-

                                                    Brazilian taxonomist and Director of Jardin Botanico - Rio de Janeiro from 1889.

                                                    Type species: B. miersii.

 

1918:     Bolusiella - genus: Described by Schlechter as a small genus of ten species from tropical Africa south to

                                                  Natal and named in honour of Sir. Harry Bolus (1834/1911) who produced “Icones

                                                  Orchidearun Ausro-Africanum”

                                                  Type species: several.

 

1918:     Chamaeangis - genus: Established by Schlechter as of approx. fifteen species from Madagasca; tropical

                                                        Africa; Mascarene Islands and Comoros.

                                                        Type species: several.

 

1918:     Cymbidiella - genus: Established by R.A. Rolfe in the “Orchid Review” pp.58.as a genus allied to Eulophiella.

Eulophia and Cymbidium.   Three species are known to science, all from Madagascar    

                                                 where it is epiphytic on Palm trees in wet forest with a long dry season..

                                                      Type species: Cymlaflabellata.

 

1919:     Professor Lewis Knudson (1884-1958) – America, commenced his study of and work on the asymbiotic

                                                                                        germination of orchid seeds. (Refer to articles under 1922.)

 

1919:     Cymbidium Argo: Hybrid raised by Hamilton Smith from: Cym. erythrostylum x Cym. Winnianum.

 

1919:     Cymbidium Brownie: Hybrid raised by Col. Holford from: Cym. Lowgrinum  x  Cym. Parishii sanderae.

 

1919:     Cymbidium Ceres: Hybrid raised by Hamilton Smith from: Cym. I'Ansonii  x  Cym. insigne.

 

1919:     Cymbidium Goldflake: Hybrid by Armstrong & Brown from: Cym. J. Davies  x  Cym. rosefieldense.

 

1919:     Cymbidium Norma: Hybrid raised by Hamilton Smith from: Cym. Dayanum  x  Cym. Winnianum.

 

1919:     Cymbidium Thrush: Hybrid raised by Col. Holford from: Cym. Holfordianum  x  Cym. Schlegelii.

 

1919:     Cymbidium Wagtail: Hybrid raised by Col. Holford from: Cym. Gottianum  x  Cym. Parishii Sanderae.

 

1919:     Symphyglossum - genus:   Established by Schlechter as a genus of six or so species related to Cochlioda and

                                                              from Venezuela; Colombia and Peru.

                                                              Type species Ssanguineum.


1910 – 1919: During this period 112 new genera (species) and 17 new generic name of hybrids became known,

 

1920:     Cymbidium Ariel: Hybrid raised by Hamilton Smith from: Cym. Ballianum  x  Cym. eburneo-Lowianum.

 

1920:     Cymbidium Ostrich: Hybrid raised by Col. Holford from: Cym. Gottianum  x  Cym Wiganianum.

 

1920:     Cymbidium Yellow Hammer: Raised by Col. Holford from: Cym. Gottianum  x  Cym. Lowianum.

 

1920:     Porroglossum - genus: Described by Schlechter as a genus of approx. 27 species from Venezuela and                                                                                  Colombia southwards to Peru and Bolivia.   Considered a close ally of Masdevallia.

                                                         Type species: Prgm. colombianum.

 

1920:     The circa 1911 - 1920 was not as fruitful as the previous one  in relation to intergeneric hybrid production.

                During 1911 three Bi-gen.; two Tri-gen. and two Quad-generics (The first known to science) gave the best year

                of  this period.   In all eighteen Bi-gen.; seven Tri-gen. and two Quad-generic hybrids were regisered.   1914 and

                1916 were blank years.

                Perhaps the incidence and effects of the 1914-18 Great War had something to do with this.   It is known that               very many collections (particularly warm growing specimens) were lost due to lack of coal for heating etc.

               

1911/1920: One hundred and thirty-three new species were introduced during this period.

 

1921:     Phalaenopsis fimbriata: Described by J.J. Smith.   First collected in Java by Tollens & cultivated at Buitenzorg                                                                   Botanic Garden.

 

1921:     Kew R.B.G.: Many orchids lost to cultivation through the use of sea water, taken from the River Thames                                                          during a long period of drought.

 

1921:     Vuylstekeara Edna Stamperland - FCC/AOS,RHS – Hybrid by Charlesworth from Miltonioda Hardwoodii x

                                                                                                            Oda. Charlesworthii.

 

1922:     Professor Lewis Knudson – (1884 – 1958) – Professor of  Plant Physiology – Cornell University.

                Much of what follows under this heading as been extracted  from an article by Professor Joseph Arditti  -

in Lindleyana – The Scientific Journal of the American Orchid Society – Vol. 5, No.1 – March 1990, and other publications listed below:

 

                Lewis Knudson is probably best remembered  by orchidologists for his development and introduction of the most

                commonly used  medium for the asymbiotic germination of orchid seeds known to this day as ‘Knudson C’

                His development of aseptic culture of orchid seeds ‘in vitro’ is without doubt the most important single factor of

The 20th. Century  that as led to man assisted germination and production of orchid species no longer available from  their natural habitat; of specific good clones from yesteryear, and of many thousands of  orchid hybrids now

being created by all and sundry to say little of the ever increasing ‘Pot Plant’ trade.

 

One blessing of such trade is that prices of individual plants (species and hybrids) are now such, that the average working man or amateur gardener/collector is able to acquire orchids year round or in the case of collectors built up a sizeable collection of species and hybrids from a moderate income in the interest of conservation etc.; quite apart from the joy of cultivating such beautiful plants and flowers within the home, the home garden or small greenhouse. 

 

Knudson’s first paper on asymbiotic seed germination was in Spanish in 1921 – A translation in English followed in 1922 and  heralded a new & exciting era in that success in the laboratory provided the means of science assisting nature in so far as the preservation of the species.   (refer to entry under 1961 - "The Laboratory")

This also led to much good work in connection with the preservation of species no longer existent in or collectable from the wild.

 

                He was awarded a Gold Medal by the American Orchid Society in 1922 for this work.

 

                (Note: Anyone desirous of deeper study of asymbiotic germination should study Professor Joseph Arditti’s –

                “Lewis Knudson (1884-1958): His Science, His Times, and His Legacy” – Lindleyana Vol.5,No.1. March 1990;

“An history of orchid hybridisation, seed germination and tissue culture” – Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society (1984) 89:359-381.

 

Orchid micropropagation the path from laboratory to commercialisation and an account of several unappreciated investigators” by Prof. Joseph Arditti F.L.S. and Abraham D. Krikorian of the State Uviversity of

New York” – BotanicalJournal of the Linnean Society (1996),122:183-241.”) – ( Compilers opinion: Anyone

studying the above documents can be assured the it  was one of L. Knudson’s students by the name of G. Rotor

who  produced the first orchid by tissue culture in 1949 (Phalaenopsis species and hybrids) some fifeteen years before the Frenchman G. Morel claimed to have done so in 1964. 

 

1922:     Robbins : Commenced developmental work on meristem culture alongside Proffessor Knudson's work.

                                  Sucess was not forthcoming until 1946 when E. Ball was successful with meristems of:-

                                  Tropaeolum-majus and Lupinus-albas.

 

NOTE: Professor Georges Morel of Paris University was the first to successfully apply the meristem technique to orchid cultivation via the genus cymbidium which of course is one of the earliest genera  known to science.   ( Refer to 1960/1.).

 

1922:     Disa Julia  A. Stuckey: The eleventh Disa Hybrid.   From Disa. uniflora x Disa. Italia.   Raised by Flory and  

                Black. (Does not appear to have been used yet in any later hybridisation – perhaps lost to cultivation.)

 

1924:     Otoglossum - genus: Established by R. Schlechter as a genus od some seven species found mainly in the

                                                     montane forests from Costa Rica to Peru.

                                                     Type species: Ohoppii.

 

1925:     Neobathiea - genus: Described by R. Schlechter as of some seven species from Central Madagascar and the

                                                    Comoros.

                                                    Type species: Nbthperriera - named after H. Perrier de la  Bathie who discovered it.

 

1925:     Neofinetia - genus: (Known to science from 1773).

                                                   Type species: Orchis falcata as described by Carl Thunberg in "Flora Japonica" in 1784.

                                                   See also Bot.Mag.-2097 1819 by J. Curtis.

                                                   Re-described Neofinetia falcata by H.H.Hu in 1925.

                                                   Refer to associated entries under: 1773;1784;1813;1819; and 1868.

 

1925:     Sobennikoffia - Founded by R. Schlechter as a small genus of some three species from Madagascar and                                                                 named after the maiden name of his wife Alexandra Sobennikoff.

                                          Type species: Sbk. fournieriana.

 

1925:     Sophronitella - Founded by R. Schlechter as a single species from east Brazil.   Was first described by Lindley

                                          in the Botanical Register (misc. No. 18) as Sophronitis violacea after discovery by G. Gardner

                                          orchid hunting in the Organ Mountains near Rio de Janeiro - 1840   Considered to be different

                                          from Gardner’s discovery.   Type species: Soph.. violacea.

 

1925:     Miltonia - Lycaena "Stamperland"  FCC/RHS, AM/AOS:   Primary hybrid registered by Charlesworth from: -

                                                                                                                  Milt. Lord Lamborne x Milt. Princess Margaret.

 

1926:     Julian Constantin - claimed that asymbiotic seedlings would not bear flowers.

 

1926:     Amesielle - genus: Until 1926 known as Angraecum  philippinensis when it was transferred to present name

                                                  which was not finally confirmed until 1972 by by L.Garay.

                                                  Named after Professor Oakes Ames who established the Orchid Herbarium at Harvard                                                                   University where  he worked for fifty or so years contributing much to Orchidology.

 

1927:     Burrageara: Quad-generic hybrid by Black & Flory- from: Cochlioda x Miltonia x Odontoglossum x Oncidium.

                                      Burr. Windsor - from Odtna.Firminii x Oncda.Cooksoniae was the first.   Named after

                                      Albert C. Burrage (1859-1931) the first President of the American Orchid Society.

 

1927:     Cypripedium: Mr. G.F. Moore of Bourton on the Water member of the Manchester & North of England

                                        Orchid Society possessed what was at that time considered to be the Worlds finest collection of

                                        this genus prior to his demise during 1927.

 

1927:     Laeliocattleya: A specimen raised by Knudson using asymbiotic method of germination flowered during 1927.                                                    (Note: Julian Constantin's 1926 claim refuted).

 

1927:     Manchester & North of England Orchid Society Secretary H. Arthur, formerly of Blackburn, took up residence at

             The Bungalow, 44, Mere Rd. Blackpool.

 

1920-1929: Some 84 new species and 9 new generic names of hybrids became known during this period.

 

1930:     Prof. L.Knudson reported further successes of flowering orchids grown from seed germinated via the

                "in vitro" technique he had developed.


 

1930:     Haraella - Described by Y. Kudo as a genus of two species only based on a plant owned by Yoshi Hara.                                                       Known only in Taiwan. Type species: Hal. odorata and Hal. retrocalla.

 

1930:     Vanda merrilii: introduced by Quisumbling from the Philippines.

 

1930:     Pterichis costaricensis: Described by Lindley – 1840.   Little is known of this species which  was believed to be

                                                          the only one of the species until 1982 when P. lea was discovered by L. Gomez & P. Jong

                                                     Gomez.

                                                          Species grow in very moist boggy areas of the Paramo, l0,000 feet above sea level.

 

1930:     The circa 1921-30 did not witness a great deal of hybridising activity.   Two years 1923 and 1930 were blank.

                Some thirteen Bi-generic hybrids only were registered .   A redeeming feature is perhaps the appearance of the

              Third (1922) and fourth (1927) Quad-generic hybrids after a ten year period since the two in 1911.   These were:

 

                                Potinara     -  Gratrixiae (Bc. Mrs. J. Leemann x Sl. Gratrixiae)

                                BurragearaWindsor (Odtna.Firminii x Oncda.Cooksoniae)

 

1931:     Vuylstekeara Cambria "Plush" FCC/AOS-RHS: (Vuyl.Rudra x Odm.Clonius) - created and registered by

                                                                                                                                                            Charlesworth & Co. 

( Considered to be the most meristemed orchid todate.   Many thousands have been sold as disposable “pot plants” at    

Garden centres etc. in addition to serious growers.   A very interesting “True Story” on this and its “sport”appears in  Orchid Review-Vol. 107 No.1225 - high-lighting the high degree of variation of colour within this hybrid. )

 

1932:     Epigeneium - genus: Established by Gagrepain as a medium sized genus of tropical orchids of Asia.

                                                   Originally placed in Sarcopodium.

                                                     Type species: E. fargesii.

 

1933:     Cymbidium Dingledon: The first miniature cymbidium hybrid. Raised by S. Low & Co.

                                                          From - C. Alexanderi x C. devonianum.

                                                          Signalled a new era of hybridising the genus.

 

1935:     Sphyrarhynchus - Established by R. Mansfield as a small genus of two species from Tanzania.

                                              Type species: Sschliebenii.

 

1935:     Odontobrassia: Bi-generic hybrid by McLellan from Brassia x Odontoglossum.

 

1936:     Rangaerii - Described by V.S. Summerhayes as a small genus of six or so species from widespread locations

                                     of tropical Africa - one of which is from South Africa.

                                     Type species: Rgs. muscicola.

 

1936:     Colmanara: Tri-generic hybrid by W.W.G. Moir from - Miltonia x Odontoglossum x Oncidium.

 

1937:     Sanderara: Tri-generic hybrid by Sanders from: Brassia x Cochlioda x Odontoglossum when

                                    Brs. Lawrenceana crossed with Oda. Grenadier produced Sand. Alpha.

                                               

1930-1939: During this period 32 new genera and 20 new generic names of hybrids became known.

 

1940:     Nageliella - A two species genus from Central America described by L.O.Williams and named in honour of

                                     Otto Nagel who collected many orchids from Mexico.

                                     Type species: Nglpurpurea.

 

1940:     The circa 1931-40  was also a lean period regarding Hybridisation activity having two blank years 1932 and               1934; a single Bi-gen. in each of 1931 and 1933; followed by six Bi-gen. in 1935; five Bi-gen. and two Tri-gen.

during 1936; three Bi-gen and one Tri-gen. in 1937 followed by two and five Bi-generics during 1938 and 1939 respectively.   A total of twenty-three  Bi-gen. and three Tri-generics in ten years.

 

1942:     Cymbidium Minuet: Early miniature cymbidium hybrid, which greatly influenced; further hybridisation for                                                                    miniature specimens.

                                               Raised by H.G. Alexander of Westonbirt from Cym. insigne x Cym. pumilum.

 

1942:     Odontonia Boussole "Blanche": raised by Vuylsteke from Milt. Princess Mary x Odm. Nabab.


1943:     Odontonia Berlioz "Lecoufle" AM/RHS. : Raised by Vuylsteke from Milt. Aurora x Odm. Nabab.

 

1944:     Rudolfiella - Originally described by Lindley during 1836 as Bifrenaria aurantiaca ( Botanical Register -

                                       (t. 1875). from Guyana and growing in the Duke of Devonshire’s collection.   Was transferred

                                       by F.C. Hoehne during 1944 to its present generic name.

                                       Type species: Rud. aurantiaca.   synnonyms: Lindleyella aurantiaca - Bifrenaria aurantiaca.

 

1944:      Potinara: Formerly known as Brassosophrolaeliocattleya came known to science. First reported in Bol.Circ.

                                  Paul. Orch.1:191   Sanders’ list gives Pot. Dawn (Soph. Dorothy x Blc. Heliolata) registered by

                                  Schroder as the 1944 arrival.   The same reference gives many more of this quad-generic prior to

                                  1944.

 

1945:     Flask culture: Knudson produced medium for flask culture and made it available to get this method of                                                                 cultivation under way.   This is considered by orchidologists interested in the preservation of species no

                                    longer available from the wild to be the most important development for some considerable time.

                                        His "C" medium was introduced and is now used, and greatly appreciated world-wide.

 

1946:     Meristem Culture: First report describing E. Ball's success with Tropaeolum majus and Lupinus albus.

                                                 Work on this development continued at the University of California for fifteen or so years

                                                 (Refer to entry: 1960/1 - Morel).

 

1949:     During the period 1940 – 1949, largely dominated by the Second World War, some 35 new genera and 9 new 

              generic names of hybrids were recorded.

 

1950:     The circa 1941-1950 was perhaps the leanest period of all time since 1856 and undoubtedly the 1939/1945 War

                can be said to be responsible for much of the decline in orchid activity.   Years 1941 to 1943 were without any

                registration.   A single Quad-generic hybrid was recorded in 1944 along with 6 new species.  During 1945 –1949  

              some 14 new generic names of species and 7 new bi-generic hybrids became known.

 

1951-1959; During this period 14 new species were established and some 41 new generic names were given to hybrids,

                    of these 32 were bi-gens.; 7 were tri-gens. and 1 was a quad-generic.

 

1954:     World Orchid Conference: First W.O.C. took place at St. Louis, Missourie U.S.A.- 15/16/17th. Oct.

                                                               Hosted by American Orchid Society.

 

1958:     Cattleya mooreana: Discovered by Lee Moor in Peru. Lost to cultivation immediately after flowering.

                                                    Re-discovered twenty or so years later by D. Allison.

 

1958:     Cattleya Hybrids: Natural and man assisted -

                                                Adams and Anderson published a list of twenty-six natural hybrids known to science and

                                                also a list of 238 Primary hybrids produced over a period of one hundred and two years.

 

1960:     Circa 1951-1960 was more fruitful in that seventy-three Bi-gen.; eight Tr-gen. and three Quad-generic hybrids

                became known and registered.   The renewed activity led to a thirty year period of exception activity.

 

1960:      Prof. G. Morel (France) reported successful culture of an orchid shoot tip. (Meristem Culture).


1961       The Laboratory - 1899/1961:

 

                Laboratory techniques have since 1961 assisted man in his quest for more & better orchids in two directions:

 

                a) Seed germination & development which prior to the end of the l9th. Century was something of a mystery

                    few growers understood despite the reports of Salisbury in 1802; Dean Herbert in 1847; David Moor in

                    1849 & John  Dominy  from 1852.

 

   During 1899 French botanist Noel Bernard made known his discovery that fungal infection & its presence was

                  necessary for successful germination.   He with German botanist Hans Burgeff improved knowledge of this,

   but it was not until 1922 when American botanist Lewis Knudson made known his development of  techniques

   of relatively simple methods, first published in a Spanish journal then re-published in the Botanical Magazine  

   in English a year later that the laboratory was able to influence matters. (Refer to 1922.).

 

   Science had now taken over the mysteries of nature & thus ensured that the preservation of the species fast      

   becoming unobtainable from the wild was now possible, to say nothing of the commercial interest, since almost   

   100% of orchid seed could now be germinated & grown on in he laboratory, whereas in nature very many seed

   were lost during the process of "pod burst" & consequent scattering of seed where less than an estimated 10%

   came to fruition.

                                                                                               

b) Clonal propagation beyond the division of plants & the development of dormant eyes on back bulbs came to            

    the fore during the 1960s'.   Georges Morel, French botanist published methods of clonal propagation by means    

    of shoot-tip" culture, now referred to as meristem culture.  He based his work on orchids on that of American    

    botanist Dr. E.A. Ball who had successfully propagated non-orchid plants.                                      

 

Thanks to the pioneering work of scientists: Bernard; Burgeff; Knudson; Ball & Morel we now have the means of

propagating very many orchids from desirable, selected and award winning clones from seed or from a single shoot

                It is interesting to note that Morel's first orchid meristem was from the genus Cymbidium one of the first orchids

               known  to science.

 

1966:     Helleriella nicaraguensis, described by A.D. Hagsater, as the only species in the genera.

 

1966:     Withnerara: Quad-generic hybrid by M. Yamanda - from - Aspasia x Miltonia x Odontoglossum x Oncidium.

 

1967:     Cattleya araguaiensis: Founded by Pabst, collected from the Araguaia River area of Eastern Brazil.

 

1968:     Degarmoara: Tri-generic hybrid by L.R.de Garmo from - Brassia x Miltonia x Odontoglossum.

 

1968:     Liparis draculoides: Collected by E.W. Greenwood from the Ixtlan - Oaxacu area of Mexico attempting to prove

                                                    that Dr. W. Stoutamire, G. Pollard and P. Hallbeng had in fact discovered a new species a year

                                                before.   Species considered distinguishable from Lip. fantastica and Lip. cordiformis

 

1969:     Cattleya jenmanii: Originally discovered during 1906 and lost to cultivation.   Re-discovered by G.C.K. Dunsterville

                                             when he found Cattleya Guayana which was confirmed "jenmanii" by Prof.  Garay.  

                                             Original specimen was described by Rolfe.

 

1969:    During the period 1960-69, 37 new species and 161 generic names given the hybrids; this period witnessed the  

             creation of  first Quin - generic hybrids, - 4 during  1969:

 

                Dewolfara -          (=Shiguerara) from (Ascocentrum x Ascoglossum x Euanthe (=Vanda) x Renanthera x Vanda).

                Giddingsara -       (=Onoara) from (Ascocentrum x Euanthe (=Vanda) x Renanthera x Vanda x Vandopsis).

                Gilmourara -        (= Lewisara) from (Aerides x Arachnis x Ascocentrum x Euanthe (=Vanda) x Vanda).

                Huntara from -    (Arachnis x Euanthe (=Vanda) x Renanthera x Vanda x Vandopsis).

 

1970:     Beallara: Quad-generic hybrid by W.W. Moir from Brassia x Cochlioda x Miltonia x Odontoglossum.

 

1970:     Kingidium - genus: Established by P.F. Hunt in Kew R.B.G. "Bulletin" - (pp97) as a species closely

                                                   related to Phalaenopsis and previously known as Kingiella (Rolfe).

                                                   Type Species. K. decumbens.

 

1972:     Lagerara: Tri-generic hybrid by Scardfield Jnr.- from - Aspasia x Cochlioda x Odontoglossum.


1973:     Rodriglossum: Bi-generic hybrid by Wyld Court Orchids (Sir. W. Cooke.) from Odontoglossum x Rodriguezia.

 

1974:     Oncidium durangense: Classified by Eric Hagsater who spent much time and effort to prove that this species                                                                      was not Oncdm. reflexum.   It was not until 1974 after collecting specimens  from

                                                         New Mexico, that he was able to affirm Oncdm. durangense as a separate species

 

1975:     Barbosaara: Quad-generic hybrid by W.W. Moir from - Cochlioda x Gomesa x Odontoglossum x Oncidium.

 

1975:     Odontorettia: Bi-generic hybrid by H. Winter from Comparettia x Odontoglossum.

 

1975:     Dresslera - genus: The three species formerly known as Catasetum; were placed in this new genus by C.

                                                 Dodson.

                                                 Type species: D. dilecta.

               

1975:     Helleriella guerrerensis: Described by R. Dresden and E. Hagsater as the second species of the genus.

 

1976:     Cattleya kerri: The second most recent discovery the genus. Discovered during 1976 - in Bahia, S/Brazil.                                                              Described by Breiger & Bacalho, also by Fowlie & Duveen in 1986.

                                                                                                               

1976:     Oerstedella ornata: Collected by Dr. C.C.Luen and Mr. H.Butcher from above Guadalupe, Chiriqui, Mexico.                                                                Described by Dressler in 1981.   Considered a new species having several distinct features.

 

1976:     Goodaleara: Early Quin-generic hybrid by W. Moir from Brassia x Cochlioda x Miltonia x Odontoglossum x                                                 Oncidium.

 

1976:     Bakerara: Quad-generic hybrid by Beall from - Brassia x Miltonia x Odontoglossum x Oncidium.

 

1977:     Meristem Culture: The most comprehensive review of the system to date appeared in "Orchid Biology:

                                                  Reviews and Perspectives" - edited by Professor  J. Arditti.

                                                  The genus Paphiopedilum as thus far resisted such culture

 

1977:    Vanalstyneara: Quad-generic hybrid by W.W. Moir from:- Miltonia x Odontoglossum x Oncidium x

                                      Rodriguezia.

 

1978:     Maclellanara: Tri-generic hybrid by McLellan from: Brassia x Odontoglossum x Oncidium.

 

1979:     Odontoglossum hortensiae: Described by R. L. Rodrigues whilst making a systematic study of the orchids                                                                                  of Costa Rica.   He became aware of two distinct species of  Odm. cordatum and                                                                               named one in honour of his wife.

 

1979:     Cambellara: Tri-generic hybrid by G. Black from: Odontoglossum x Oncidium x Rodriguezia.

 

1979:    The period 1970-79 brought about the registration 87 new species and 232 new generic hybrid names.

 

1980:     Dendrobium tangerinum:   Originally classified as Den. stresiceros.   Described as a new species by Dr. P. Cribb                                                                      in the Orchid Review.

 

1980:     Aspodonia: Tri-generic hybrid by R. McLellan from:- Aspasia x Miltonia x Odontoglossum.

 

1980:     Wingfieldara: Tri-generic hybrid by Beall from: Aspasia x Brassia x Odontoglossum.

 

1980:     Odontioda Nicholas Andrew: Raised by K. Andrews from - Oda. Heatonensis x Oda. Fire Dance.

 

1980:     Intergeneric Hybridisation: Reached its peak during the period 1971-1980 with a count of 24 more inter-gens.

                                                                 than the previous circa bringing a total of 228 Intergeneric hybrids into being.

                                                          These being:  102 - Bi-gen.; 85 - Tri-gen.; 30 - Quad-gen. and 11 - Quin-gen.

               

                                                                 During 1974: 31- Bi-gen.; 23 - Tri-gen.; 11 - Quad-gen. and 2 - Quin-gen. were

                                                                 registered making 1974 the best  year numerically up to that date.

.

1981:    Oncidium exalatum: Described by E. Hagsater who received specimens collected by Dr. R.L. Dressler from

                                                    Cerro Tute in Venaquas, Panama

 


1981:     Odontioda Shelley: Raised by Keith Andrews from Oda. Heatonensis x Odm. pescatorei.

 

1981:     Oncidium fasciculutum: Hagsater seperated this Guatemalan species from  Oncidium oblongatum as

                                                          Described by Lindley in 1844.

 

1981:     Phragmipedium besseae: Discovered in Ecuador, also found in neighbouring Peru.   This after much study

                                                            and work by the late Don. Wimber and the Eric Young Orchid Foundation has

                                                            resulted in many new hybrids.

 

1981:     Oesrtedella fuscina: Described by Dressler in 1981 having acquired specimens at a market at El Valle de  Anton –

                                               Said to have been collected from the mountains north of El Valle between 22- 29th. March

 

1981:     Blackara: Quad-generic hybrid by G. Black from Aspasia x Cochlioda x Miltonia x Odontoglossum.

 

1981:     Disa Kirstenbosch Pride: The 12th. Disa hybrid, also the 4th Primary Disa hybrid; from Disa. cardinalis x

                                                             Disa. uniflora.

                                                             Produced by John Winter at Kirstenbosch Botanic Garden some fifty-nine years                                                                              after the 11th. Disa hybrid.

 

1982:     Odontoglossum candidulum: Originally described as Odm. nebulosum by Reichenbach in l867, then as Odm.                                                                                nebulosum var ‘Candidissimum’ by Veitch in 1887 - (probably an error in translation) and 

                                                                    as Odm. apterum var ‘Candidulum’ by La Llave & Lexarza.

                                                                    Finally described as Odm. candidulum by Halbinger in 1982.

 

1982:     Cattleya tenuis: The last of the genus to be discovered.

                                            Described by Campacci & Vedovello & more fully by Fowlie in 1986.

 

1982:     Disa Hybrids - registered during 1982

                Disa Linda -      From Dsa. caulescens x Disa. uniflora, the 13th.Disa hybrid and the 5th Primary hybrid of the genus.  

                                        Raised by H.E. Meyer.    Disa Linda was produced sometime before it was registered during 1982.

 

                   “   Phobos -    From Disa. Luna x Disa. Linda, the 14th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by O.P.H. Augustin.

 

                  “    Deimos -    From Disa. venosa x D. tripetaloidos, the 15th-(and the 6th Primary)-Disa hybrid.

                                                                                                                Raised by O. P. H. Augustin.

 

  “   Helmut Meyer - From Disa. Kirstenbosch Pride x Disa. uniflora, the 16th Disa hybrid.   Raised by H.E. Meyer.

 

                 “   Betty's Bay - From Disa. Diores x Disa. uniflora, the 17th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by J. van Nickerk.

 

                 “   Foam - From Disa. Betty's Bay x Disa. uniflora, the 18th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by J. van Nickerk.

 

                 “   Tribett - From Disa. tripetaloides x Disa. Betty's Bay, the 19th. Disa hybrid .  Raised by J. van Nickerk.

 

                 “   Kewbett - From Disa. Kewensis x Disa. Betty's Bay, the 20th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by J. van Nickerk.

 

                 “   Diorosa - From Disa. Diores x Disa. racemosa, the 21st. Disa hybrid.   Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 

1982       Banfieldara: Tri-generic hybrid by Beall - from - Ada x Brassia x Odontoglossum.

 

1982:     Doncollinara: Tri-generic hybrid by Featherhill from - Cochlioda x Odontoglossum x Rodriguezia.

 

1982:     Richardsonara: Tri-generic hybrid by Scardefield from - Aspasia x Odontoglossum x Oncidium.

 


1982:     Brilliandeara - Gary: The first sexageneric orchid hybrid was registered by W.W.G. Moir on 16th.June.1982

                                                      Brlda. Gary was not only the first sexageneric orchid hybrid it was also the first sexageneric

                                                 hybrid in the whole of the plant and animal kingdoms.   The parents from it came were

                                                 Forgetara  Mexico x Burrageara Sambu River.   The hybridisation took place on 

                                                      12th.February.1976.

                                                 Fgtra. Mexico - (Brapasia - Serene x Milt.- Fortaleza) - all three from lower elevations and all

                                                                                                                                           have sixty chromosomes.

 Burr. Sambu River - (Mtdm.- Aztec Gold x Oda.- Isabella) is a combination of two different

 bigenerics:- Mtdm. Aztec Gold - (Onc. - powellii x Mtdm. - Aristocrat).   In total six genera: Aspasia; Brassia; Cochlioda; Miltonia; Oncidium;  and Odontoglosuum

 

NOTE: The above information was extracted from “The Orchid Review” - Vol.91 No.1074 pp.130 -April 1983.

 

1983:     Baumannara: Tri-generic hybrid by Baumann from - Comparettia x Odontoglossum x Oncidium.

 

1983:     Alexanderara: Quad-generic hybrid by R. Dugger from Brassia x Cochlioda x Odontoglossum x Oncidium.

 

1983:     Baldwinara : Quad-generic hybrid by Scardefield-from Aspasia x Cochlioda x Odontoglossum x Oncidium.

 

1983:     Stewartara: Tri-generic hybrid by G. Black from Ada x Cochlioda x Odontoglossum.

 

1983:     Disa hybrids reistered during the year:

 

                   “   Unilangley - from Disa. uniflora x Disa. Langleyensis, the 22nd Disa hybrid.   Raised by J. van Nickerk.

 

                  “    Diorlangley - from Disa. Diores x Disa. Langleyensis, the 23rd. Disa hybrid   Raised by J.van Nickerk.

 

                  “     Watpride - from Disa. Watsonii x Disa. Kirstenbosch Pride, the 24th Disa hybrid. raised by J.van Nickerk.

 

                  “     Carbett - from Disa. cardinalis x Disa. Betty's Bay, the 25th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 

                  “     Nelmarie - from Disa. Luna x Disa. Watsonii, the 26th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by O.P.H. Augustyn.

 

                  “    Johanna Augustyn - from Disa. Diores x Disa. Watsonii, the 27th Disa hybrid.   Raised by O.P.H. Augustyn.

                                                                                                                                                                                               

                 “      Dione - from Disa. Watsonii x Disa. Langleyensis, the 28th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by O.P.H. Augustyn.

 

                 “      Hanna Meyer - from Disa. Veitchii x Disa. Diores, the 29th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by O.P.H. Augustyn.

 

                 “      Riette - from Disa. Watsonii x Disa. uniflora, the 30th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by O.P.H. Augustyn.

 

1984:     Disa hybrids registered during 1984:

 

                “      Unimeyer - from Disa. uniflora x Disa. Helmut Meyer, the 31st. Disa hybrid.   Raised by H.E. Meyer.

 

                “      Tricaul -  from Disa. Tripeloides x Disa. caulescens, the 32nd. and the 6th Primary Disa hybrid.

                                         Raised by H.E. Meyer.

 

                “      Trifoam - from Disa. tripeloides x Disa. Foam, the 33rd. Disa hybrid. Raised by E.R. Orchard.

 

                “      Kewpride - from Disa. Kewensis x Disa. Kirstenbosch Pride, the 34th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by

                                            L. Vogelpoel.(cont’d.)

 

                “      Tricard - from Disa. tripetaloides x Disa. cardinalis, the 35th and the 7th Primary Disa hybrid.   Raised by                                                  L. Vogelpoel.

 

                “      Watbett - from Disa. Watsonii x Disa. Betty's Bay, the 36th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 


1984:     Lepanthes genus:  Four new species collected in Colombia & described by C. Luer; J. Luer; R. Exobar &

                                                E. Valencia. : 

 

                                                Lths. gemina; Lths. orion; Lths. panope & Lths. troglodes.

                                                All flowered within a few months of collection.

 

1986:     Cattleya tenuis: The latest Cattleya species to be discovered (refer to 1982) – described more fully by Fowlie &

                                            accepted for registration.

 

1986:     Gomoglossum: Bi-generic hybrid by R.B. Cole from - Gomesa x Odontoglossum.

 

1986:     Odontopilia:  Bi-generic hybrid by Carlock - from Trichopilia x Odontoglossum.

 

1986:     Disa hybrids registered during 1986:

 

                   “   Langdiorosa - from Disa. Langleyensis x Disa. Diorosa, the 37th. Disa hybrid....Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 

                  “    Unidiorosa - from Disa. uniflora x Disa. Diorosa, the 38th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by S. & M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Collette Cywes - from Disa uniflora x Disa. Unilangley, the 39th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by S/M Cywes.

 

                  “    Kewosa - from Disa. Kewensis x Disa. racemosa (white), the 40th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 

                  “    Kewpridosa - from Disa. Kepridex x Disa. racemosa, the 41st. Disa hybrid.   Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 

                  “    Lunosa - from Disa. Luna x Disa. racemosa, the 42nd. Disa hybrid.   Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 

                  “    Cardior - from Disa. cardinalis x Disa. Diores, the 45th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by S/M Cywes.

                                                                                                               

                  “    Unikewbett - from Disa. uniflora x Disa. Kewbett, the 44th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by S/M Cywes.

 

                  “     Kewfoam - from Disa. Kewensis x Disa. Foam, the 45th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by S/M Cywes.

 

                  “     Trikew - from Disa. tripetaloidesDisa. Kewensis, the 46th Disa hybrid.   Raised by H.E. Meyer.

 

                  “     Carven - from Disa. cardinalis x Disa. venosa, the 47th. and the 8th. Primary Disa hybrid.   Raised by E.R.                                Orchard.

 

                  “     Veitchbay -from Disa. Veitchii x Disa . Betty's Bay, the 48th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

                                                                                                                                                                                               

                  “     Unifoam - from Disa. uniflora x Disa. Foam, the 49th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 

                  “      Carveitch - from Disa. cardinalis x Disa. Veitchii, the 50th. Disa hybrid - Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 

                  “      Kewdior - from Disa. Kewensis x Disa. Diores, the 51st. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Gywes.

 

1987:     Carpenterara: Tri-generic hybrid by Evenglades -from Baptistonia x Odontoglossum x Oncidium.

 

1987:     Disa hybrids registered during 1987:

 

                  “      Marlene Cywes - from Disa. Hanna Meyer x Disa. uniflora, the 52nd. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.                                                          

                  “      Linette Banks - from Disa. cardinalis x Disa. racemosa, the 53rd.& the 9th. Primary Disa hybrid.

                                                      Raised by D. Banks.

 

                  “      Jack Jannese - from Disa. Linette Banks x Disa. uniflora, the 54th. Disa hybrid - Raised by D. Banks.

 

                  “      Pixie Castle - from Disa. Langleyensis x Disa. Kewensis, the 55th. Disa hybrid - Raised by G. Sobey.

 

1988:     Johnyeearra (Jya): Red Delight - (Izma. Fujiko x Pot. Mem. Hajime Hironaka).  The 2nd. Sexa-generic orchid.                                           Consists of Brassavola x Cattleya x Epidendrum x Laelia x Schomburgkia x Sophronitis.

 


1989:     Disa hybrids registered during 1989:

 

                  “    Sunset - from Disa. Betty's Bay x Disa. Diores, the 56th. Disa hybrid - Raised by G. Sobey.

 

                  “    Veitchcaul - from Disa. Veitchii x Disa. caulescens, the 57th Disa hybrid - Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 

                  “    Langmeyer - from Disa. Langleyensis x Disa. Helmut Meyer, the 58th. Disa hybrid - Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 

                  “    Kirstendior - from Disa. Diores x Disa. Kirstenbosch, the 59th. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Monterey - from Disa. Helmut Meyer x Disa. Foam, the 60th. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Theo Kirsch - from Disa. Kirstenbosch Pride x Disa. Foam, the 61st. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Trilune - from Disa. tripetaloides x Disa. Luna, the 62nd. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Watkew - from Disa. Kewensis x Disa. Watsonii, the 63rd. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M Cywes.

 

 “     Bernard Podlashuk - from Disa. Watsonii x Disa. Unilangley, the 64th. Disa hybrid -Raised by S/M.  Cywes.

 

                  “    Danielle Thomas – from Disa. Diores x Disa. Unikewbett, the 65th. Disa hybrid – Raised by S/M Cywes.

 

                  “    Joe King – from Disa. Diores x Disa. Unidiorosa, the 66th. Disa hybrid – Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Sydney Black – from Disa. Helmut Meyer x Disa. Diores, the 67th. Disa hybrid – Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    PuiY's - from Disa. Foam x Disa. Diores, the 68th. Disa hybrid - Raised by Pui Y. Chin.

                                                                                                               

                  “    Tridior - from D. tripetaloides x Disa. Diores, the 69th. Disa hybrid - raised by H. Koopowitz.

 

                  “    Daphne Vogelpoel - from Disa. Tricard x Disa. Diores, the 70th. Disa hybrid - Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 

 

1980 – 1989:   125 new genera (species) and 172 generic names of hybrids were recorded during this period.

 

1990:     Disa hybrids registered during 1990:

 

                  “    Sister Henrietta - from Disa. Unikewbett x Disa. Veitchii, the 71st. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Simia Eliovson - from Disa. Betty's Bay x Disa. racemosa, the 72nd. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Robert Cywes - from Disa. Riette x Disa. uniflora, the 73rd. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Kristo Pienaar - from Disa. Veitchii x Disa. Watsonii, the 74th. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Ken Hicks - from Disa. Hanna Meyer x Disa. Watsonii, the 75th. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Langley Rose - from Disa. Unilangley x Disa. Diores, the 76th. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

1991:     Angulocaste: Between 1903 and 1991 forty-eight intregeneric hybrids from Ang. x Lyc. were recorded. 

 


1991:     Disa hybrids registered during the year:

 

                  “            China Sun - from Disa. uniflora x Disa. cardinalis, the 77th. Disa hybrid - Raised by Pui Y Chin.

 

                  “            Jimmy Orchard - from Disa. Carven x Disa. uniflora, the 78th. Disa hybrid - Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 

                  “            Coriane Blanc - from Disa. Betty's Bay x Disa. Riette, the 79th. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “            Brenda Anderson - from Disa. Bernard Podlashuk x Disa. Diores, the 80th Disa hybrid – Raised  by                                                                                S/M.Cywes.  

                  “           David van Merwe - from Disa. Blackii x Disa. Diores, the 81st. Disa hybrid - Raised by   S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “           Cape Town - from Disa. Unidiorosa x Disa. Watsonii the 82nd. Disa hybrid - Raised by  S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “           Ciorette - from Disa. Riette x Disa. Diores, the 83rd. Disa hybrid - Raised by  S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “           Joey Enslin - from Disa. Diores x Disa. Marlene Cywes, the 84th. Disa hybrid - Raised by  S/M. Cywes.

 

  “           Monterey Swan - from Disa. Hannah Meyer x Disa. Diores, the 85th. Disa hybrid - Raised  by S/M. Cymes.

 

                  “           Easter Bonnet - from Disa. Veitchii x Disa. Diorosa, the 86th. Disa hybrid - Raised by  S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “           Noyo - from Disa. Kirstenbosch x Disa. Unifoam, the 87th. Disa hybrid - Raised by  H. Burkhardt.

 

1992:     Disa hybrids registered during 1992:

 

                  “    White Christmas -.from Disa. Riette x Disa. Langley Rose, the 88th. Disa hybrid - Raised by  G. Sobey.

 

                  “    Arnold Kottler - from Disa. Blackii x Disa. Betty's Bay, the 89th. Disa hybrid Raised by  S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Estelle Yack - from Disa. Unikewbett x Disa. Riette  the 90th. Disa hybrid - Raised by   S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Sea Lord - from Disa. Foam x Disa. Betty's Bay, the 91st. Disa hybrid - Raised by  S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Sid Cywes - from Disa. Marlene Cywes x Disa. Foam, the 92nd. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Stewart Sutherland - from Disa. Marlene Cywes x Disa. uniflora the 93rd. Disa hybrid - Raised by                                                                    S/M.Cywes. 

 

                  “    Artiste - from Disa. Watsonii x Disa. Riette, the 94th. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Contantia - from Disa. Kewdior x Disa. Betty's Bay, the 95th. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Kalahari Sands - from Disa. Foam x Disa. Unifoam, the 96th. Disa hybrid - Raised by S/M. Cywes.

                                                                                                                                                                                               

                  “    Southern Cross -  from Disa. Marlene Cywes x Disa. Betty's Bay the 97th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by S/M.                                                    Cywes.

 

                  “    Sunnybrae - from Disa. uniflora x Disa. Unitribett, the 98th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 

                  “    Table Mountain - from Disa. Kewdior x Disa. Unikewbett, the 99th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by S/M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Unitribett - from Disa, uniflora x Disa. Tribett, the 100th  Disa hybrid.   Raised by L. Vogelpoel.

 

                  “    Sandra Goldberg - from Disa. Marlene Cywes x Disa. Riette, the 101st. Disa hybrid.   Raised by S/M.                                                                          Cywes.

 

                  “    Engen - from Disa. Diores x Disa. Kewbett, the 102nd Disa hybrid.   Raised by S./M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Lang Hanna - Disa. Hanna Meyer x Disa. Langleyensis, the 103rd. Disa hybrid.   Raised by H.Koopowitz.

 

                  “    Margaret Ann Rundle from Disa. Kewdior x Disa. Diores, the 104th. Disa hybrid. Raised by S./M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Mendocino - from Disa. Kewfoam x Disa. Noyo, the 105th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by Acme.

 

                  “    Safmarine - from Disa. Foam x Disa. Riette, the l06th. Disa hybrid.   Raised by S./M. Cywes.

 

                  “    British Petroleum - from Disa. Kewensis x Disa. Riette, the 107th  Disa hybrid. Raised by S./M. Cywes.

 

                  “    Suzette James - from Disa. Kewidor x Disa. uniflora, the 108th. Disa hybrid.  Raised by S./M. Cywes

 

1995:     Vacherotara - Roguebrune Star - (Ctna. Keith Roth x Roth. Diademe) Sexa.-gen. - Registered by M. Vacherot.

                                         Consists of :Brassavola x Broughtonia x Cattleya x Epidendrum x Laelia x Sophronitis.

 

1996:     Monkhouseara - Adelaide - (Zcx. Elfin Jade x Hmwsa. June) Sexa. gen. - Registered by Adelaide.

                                             Consists of: Aganisia x Batemannia x Colax x Otostylis x Zygopetalum x Zygosepalum.

 

1997:     Mooreara - Jane Cofelt - (Lyon. Forecaster x Hasgw. Hunabu Bronze) Sexa.-gen- Registered by T.W.Moore.

                                     Consists of: Brassavola x Broughtonia x Cattleya x Laelia x Schomburgkia x Sophronitis.

 

1999:      Intergeneric Hybridisation: The period 1991-1999 again witnessed a slowing down in registrations

                compared to  previous years.   63 - Bi-gen.; 24 - Tri-gen.; 21 - Quad-gen.; 5 - Quin.-gen.and 3 -  Sexa- generic hybrids 

                were new to science in addition and significantly to the introduction Heptad  and a Nonad generics:

 

1990-1999:  During this period 79 new genera (species) and 139 new generic names of hybrids were recorded; the most

                    notable of these is without doubt the creation of three Heptad hybrids – one in 1991 and two in 1995 and

                    one Nonad hybrid also during 1995 – details :-

 

                Heptad generics:           

 

1991:     Masonara (Msna) - Maurice - (Agwa. Alan x Hmwsa. Netta) created & Registered by Georg Black.

                                                                     Consists of: Aganisia x Batemannia x Colax x Ostostylis x Promanaea x                                                                                                                Zygopetalum x Zygosepalum.

 

1995:     Gladysyeeara (Glyn.) - Jocelyn - (Lesl. Joyce x Pot. Kodau Orange) Reg’d. by J.K.H.Yee.

                                                                          Consists of: Brassavola x Broughtonia x Cattleya x Cattleyopsis x Diacrium x                                                                                                     Epidendrum x Laelia.

 

1995:     Yeeara (Yra) - Lavender Beauty - (Jya. Red Delight x Otr. Hunabu Flash Point) Reg’d by J.K.H.Yee.

Consists of: Brassavola x Broughtonia x Cattleya x Epidendrum x Laelia x Schomburgkia x Sophronitis.

               

Nonad generic:

 The first multi-generic hybrid with nine elements in its ancestry:

 

1995:     Sallyyeeara (Sya) - Pamelyn - (Lesl. Joyce x Jya. Red Delight.) - Registered by John.K.H. Yee

                                                                  Consists of: Brassavola x Broughtonia x Cattleya x Cattleyopsis x Diacrium x                                                                                                    Epidendrum x Laelia x Schomburgkia x Sophronitis.

 

Another milehouse in Orchid History to come about during the later years of the 20th. Century is the fact that the computer

appears to have taken over much of the recording of detail of both species and hybrids.   However the Orchid Revue and its Supplement continue to provide detail of hybrids in printed format.

 

Index Kewensis appears to have gone electronic – publication of the printed version does not appear to have been published after 1995; however the Kew Botanic Garden’s Orchid Research Newsletter, published twice yearly and containing details of new species being established is available via the internet: tp://www.rbgkew.org.uk/herbarium/orchid/

 

Another very useful web site giving detail of both species and hybrids is: http://ww.ipni.org

 

(NOTE: Registrations of species and hybrids to Nov.2004 are included in the Lists  which follow under Sections 3. and 4. –      

               these may be searched by ‘year’).

 


HIGHLIGHTS OF ORCHID HISTORY;

2000 A.D.

 

2000:   Some 10 new Natural Genera (species) and 13 new generic names of hybrids were registered during the first year of the

            21st Century.

 

2001:  Some 22  new Natural Genera (species) and 17 new generic names of hybrids were registered during the  2nd  year of the      

           21st. Century.

 

2002:  Some 37 new Natural Genera (species) and 7 new generic names of hybrids were registered during the 3rd. year of the

           21st. Century.

 

2003:  Some 26 new Natural Genera (species) and 129 new generic names of hybrids were registered during the year.

 

2004: Some 16 new Natural Genera (species) and 65 new generic names of hybrids were registered up to 23rd.Nov.2004 –

and September 2004 respectively.  Records from 24th.Nov. 2004 in the case of species and September 2004 in the case of  hybrids until the end of the year are not available as yet.

 

 

(NOTE: All of the species and hybrids under 2000/2001/2002/2003/2004 can be searched by ‘year’ in the following :List of

              Orchid Species (Natural Genera) & List of Generic Names of Orchid Hybrids.)

 

(NOTE: The above and in fact all known orchid species and hybrids  – well worth viewing for additional information; appear in the following web sites.

 

                                www.rbgkew.org.uk/herbarium/orchid - for species and hybrids as lists by name in alphabetical order in the

                                                                                                       twice yearly produced ‘Orchid Research Newsletters’

                               

                                www.rhs.org.uk/plants/registration­­­_orchids.asp - for hybrids by name or parentage.

 

                                www.ipni.org - for names of all plants.

 


 

Section 2:  Personal Profiles of Notable Orchidists of Yesteryear:

 

Reverend John Clowes, M.A. - 1777-1846.

Sometime Fellow of the Collegiate Church - Manchester.

Broughton Old Hall, Kersall. Manchester.

Noted collector and cultivator of orchids.

 

The Rev. John Clowes, M.A. inherited the Broughton Estate in 1811, as "next of kin in line" on the death of his older brother Samuel – (1775-1811) the third Samuel Clowes to reside at Broughton Old Hall; High Sheriff from 1809 who married Dulcibella, daughter of James Wilkinson Esq. of Newcastle during 1801.   There was no issue from this marriage.‑

                         

Family Tree:

 

          Samuel Clowes of Manchester  = Ann, daughter of

          was, at the date of his will                       | Roger Meakin of

          Aug.15th.1727 - Lord of the  | Manchester. -

          Manor of Booths - county                      | Gentleman.

          Lancaster and possessed cons-               |

          siderable landed property in                   |

          Manchester, Gorton, Worsley                |

          and Tildesley.                                          |

      ________________________________ |_____________________________

      |                                                        |                               |                               |               |

  Sam.Clowes                       Thom.Clowes       John Clowes         Joseph Clowes      Anne Clowes

  of Ridgefield &                Of Ridgefield,     William Clowes    married

  Chadwick & Smedley                                     married Eleanor    S.Birch

  married Mary sister                                         d. of R.Taylor      of

  & co-heiress of E.                                            Merchant of         Ardwick

  Cheetham Esq. of                                            C. of London.

  Castleton. 

  ____|______________________________________

  |                                                         |                              |

 Sam.Clowes of Broughton Hall       Edward                  Mary - married 1st to ?

 Sheriff 1777. ob.Jan.17th 1801       died s.p.                 Hilton Esq., then to Thom.

 Married Rachel daughter & co-                                       Cross Esq. of Shaw Hill

 heiress of William Legh Esq.                                         co. Lancaster.

 of West Houghton.

  ______|____________________________________

  |                                                         |                              |

 Sam.Clowes of Broughton               William                  Mary - married J. Livesey Esq

 Liet.-Col. Royal Lancashire             died s.p.                 of Blackburn.

 Fencibles. ob.Oct.5th.1799 -                           |             

 Married Martha daughter of                                           Francis - married Rev.

 J. Tipping Esq. of Manchester.                                       Henry Brown of Firby.

 ob. 1790.

  ________|_________________________________________________________

  |                                           |                                             |                                                |

 Sam.Clowes of                   Rev.John Clowes                 Wllm. Legh Clowes             Mary - married

 Broughton &                    of Broughton &                  of Broughton &                  Gen.Sir. Geo.

 Warmsworth Hall               Fellow of the                        Colonel - Light                    Scovell of

 co. York. born                     Collegiate Ch'ch                  Dragoons.-1779                   Sandhurst.

 1775. High She-                 Manchester.                          married to Antonia              Martha -

 riff 1809.                             1777, died                            Henrietta daughter               married her

 Married Dulci-                    unmarried Sept.                   of Rev. Chas.Shut-              cousin - Sam.

 bella daughter                     28th.1846                             tleworth Holden of              Chetham Hilton Esq.

 Jas.Wilkinson                                                              Aston Hall - Derby.            Frances - married -

 of Newcastle.                                                                Died 1862.                         Rev’d. Joseph Bradshaw

 Deceased 22nd                                                                                                             Rector of Wilmslow. Ches.

 July 1811.                                                                                                                      

 No issue from this union.                                                                                                                            

 

 The family continued through the issue of the nine children of Col. Wm. Legh Clowes and Antonia Henrietta.


The Rev.John Clowes, M.A. 1777-1846, did however have two cousins with the same fore-name and of the same calling; both were very active in the Church and remained so; he was however, considered to be more of a business man and a socialite who became prominent in local affairs and a leader of the Broughton and Cheetham Society also the Manchester Society.   The locality looked upon him equally as much as they did the then Earl of Wilton of Heaton Hall, Manchester.

 

One of his monuments is in St. John's Church, off Wellington Street, Higher Broughton where his remains lie interred; another is Great Clowes Street linking Manchester City Centre with the Broughton area now in the neighbouring City of Salford.   He inherited considerable wealth with the estate and was a generous benefactor.   His influence locally, as Lord of the Manor at Broughton Old Hall was such that only large houses with spacious gardens both front and rear were permitted in the immediate area and particularly along Bury New Road which ran from the "Grove Inn" to Strangeways which was outside the Broughton estate and where very different types of property, mainly shops; became erected.

 

In orchid annals the Rev. John Clowes, M.A. was an ardent collector, extremely knowledgable and well able to direct his skillful grower - Mr. William Hammond who was considered not to be well educated, but; who compiled a catalogue of all orchids being grown at Broughton Old Hall, in alphabetical order giving also the place of origin.

 

The collection was considered by some of the leading botanists of that time to be better than the collection at Chatsworth House also that at Ston House.   During 1842, when the catalogue was produced the collection was of one hundred and fifteen genera :-

 

Acanthophippium                 - 3 species from  Ceylon (1) and Sylhet (2).

Acroperas                             - 1     "          "     Xalapa.

Aganisia                               - 1     "          "      Demerara.

Aporum                                - 1     "          "      India.

Anaectochilus                       - 1     "          "      Ceylon.

Angraecum                           - 7     "          "      Cape Coast (1); Mauritius (1) and Sierra Leone (5).

Aspasia                                 - 2     "          "      West Indies.

Arundina                              - 1     "          "     India.

Aeranthus                             - 1     "          "      Mauritius.

Aerides                                 - 4     "          "      India (3); Phillippine Is. (1).

Arpophyllum                       - 1     "          "      Guatemala.

Barkeria                                - 1     "          "              "

Batemannia                           - 1     "          "      Demerara.

Bifrenaria                             - 3     "          "      Brazil (2) and Guiana.   

Bletia                                     - 7     "          "      China (1); Guatemala (1); La Guayra (1); Trinadad (1) and West Indies (3)

Bolbophyllum                       - 6     "          "      India (3) and Sierra Leone (3).

Bonatea                                 - 1     "          "      Cape of Good Hope.

Brassavola                           -17     "          "      Brazil (2); Demerara (1); Guatemla (3); Guiana (1); Honduras (2); La Guayra (1);

                                                                           Maracaibo (1); Mexico (1) and West Indies (5).

Brassia                                 -10     "          "      Demerara (5); Guatemala (1); Jamaica (2); Organ Mts. (1); Surinham (1).

Broughtonia                         -  2     "          "      Jamaica (1) and Mexico (1).

Burlingtonia                         -  4     "          "      Brazil (3) and Demerara (1).

Bromheadia                         -  1     "          "      Singapore.

Calanthe                              -  3     "          "      Indian Is. (1); Sylhet (2).

Camarotis                            -  1     "          "      India.

Catasetum                            -26     "          "      Brazil (12); Demerara (1); Guatemala (3); Guiana (4); La Guayra (1); Mexico (1);

                                                                           Para (1); Rio Janeiro (1) Sertas (1) and Trinidad (1).

Cattleya                                -17     "          "      Bahia (1); Brazil (9); Guatemala (1); Guina (2); La Guayra (1); Maracaibo (1);

                                                                        Mexico (1); Puerto Cabella (10.

Cirrhaea                              -  8     "          "      Brazil (7); Xalapa (1).

Cirrhopetalum                     -  5     "          "      Ceylon (1); India (2); Manilla (2).

Caelia (Coelia)                    -  2     "          "      Jamaica (1); Guatemala (1).

Coelogyne                            -16     "          "      India (12); Nepal (2); Singapore (1) Sylhet (1).

Cleisostoma                         -  2     "          "      Philippine Is. (1); Ceylon (1).

Chysis                                  -  1     "          "      Venezuela.

Comparettia                         -  2     "          "      Guatemala (1); Spanish Main (1).

Coryanthus                          -  3     "          "      Guiana (2); St. Vincent (1).

Cycnoches                            -  5     "          "      Guatemala (1); Honduras (1); La Guayra (2); Surinham (1).

Cymbidium                           -16     "          "      Ceylon (2); China (3); India (2); Mount Ophir (2); Nepal (4); Sinapore (1); Sylhet Cryptochilushilus                -  1     "          "      Nepal.

Cyrtochilum                         -  6     "          "      Guatemala (4); Mexico (1), Peru (1).

Cyrtopodium                        -  1     "          "      Maracaibo.

Cyrtopera                             -  1     "          "      Mexico.

Dendrobium                         -28     "          "      Bombay (2); Ceylon (6); Himalaya (1); India (14) New Holland (4); Singapore (1).

Dendrochilum                      -  2     "          "      Manilla (1); Singapore (1).

Dichaea                               -  1     "          "      Guiana.

Dicrypta                               -  3     "          "      Brazil (1); Demerara (1) Jamaica (1).

Dinema                                 -  3     "          "      Guatemala (2); Jamaica (1).

Disa                                      -  3     "          "      Cape of Good Hope (3).

Epidendrum         -61     "          "      Bahama (1); Brazil (6); Essequebo (2) Guatemala (13); Guiana (6); Honduras (2);

Jamaica (5);  Mexico (12); Oaxaca (1); Pernambuca (1); S/America (1); St. Vincent (1); Tortola (1); West Indies (9).

Eria                                      -10     "          "      Ceylon (2); China (1); India (5); Philippine Is. (1); Singapore (1).

Eulopia                                -  3     "          "      Ceylon (1); Sierra Leone (2).

Fernandezia                         -  4     "          "      Guatemala (2); Trinidad (2).

Galeandra                            -  3     "          "      Demerara (1); Guatemala (1); Sierra Leone (1).

Geodorum                            -  1     "          "      Sylhet.

Goodyera                             -  3     "          "     Nepal (1); N/America (1); S/America (1).

Gongora                               -  8     "          "     Demerara (3); Guiana (3); Oaxaca (1); ?????? (1).

Govena                                 -  2     "          "     Brazil (1); Mexico (1).

Grammatophyllum              -  2     "          "      Luzon (1); Pulo Dinding (1).

Grobya                                 -  2     "          "      Brazil (2).

Hartwegia                            -  2     "          "      Guatemala (1); Mexico (1).

Hexopea                               -  2     "          "      Guatemala (2).

Houlletia                              -  1     "          "      Brazil.

Huntleya                              -  1     “          “     Guiana

Ionopsis                               -  1     "          "      ?

Isochilus                              -  2     "          "      West Indies (1); St. Joseph's Swamps (1).

Laelia                                   -  8     "          "      Brazil (1); Costa Rica (1); Mexico (6).

Leptotes                               -  1     "          "      Brazil.

Liparis                                 -  3     "          "      India (2); New Holland (1).

Lissochilus                           -  3     "          "      Cape of Good Hope (3).

Maxillaria                            - 47    "          "      Brazil (19); Demerara (4); Guatemala (3); Guiana (4); Jamaica (2); Mexico (3); -

Oaxaca (2); Organ M'ts. (2) Rio Janeiro (1); S/America (1); St. Vincent (1); Trinidad (1); Vera Cruz (1); Xalapa (3).

Macradenia                          -  1     "          "      Guatemala.

Masdevallia                         -  2     "          "      Brazil (1); Organ M'ts. (1).

Megaclinium                        -  3     "          "      Sierra Leone (3).

Miltonia                               -  5     "          "      Brazil (3); Organ M'ts. (1); Tejuca (1).

Mormodes                            -  5     "          "      Caraccas (1); Guatemala (2); Oaxaca (2).

Monomeria                          -  1     "          "      Mexico.

Nanodes                               -  1     "          "      Brazil.

Neottia                                 -  2     "          "      West Indies (2).

Notylia                                 -  3     "          "      Demerara (2); Trinidad (1).

Octomeria                            -  1     "          "      Brazil.

Odontoglossu                       -  8     "          "      Brazil (1); Guatemala (4); Oaxaca (3).

Oncidium                             -51     "          "    Brazil (14); Demerara (1);Guatemala (10);Guiana (2); Jamaica (4); La Guayra (1);                                                                                 Maracaibo (1); Mexico (3); Monte Video (1); Oaxaca (1); Organ M'ts. (1);

                                                                          Puerto Cabella (1); Rio Janeiro (3); St. Ann's (1);  Surinham (1); Tortloa (1); -

                                                                          Trinidad (2); West Indies (3).

Ornithidium                         - 2     "           "      Demerara (1); St. Vincent (1).

Ornithocephalus                  - 2     "           "      Brazil (1); Guiana (1).

Oeceoclades                        - 1     "           "      Brazil.

Paxtonia                              - 1     "           "      Philippine Islands.

Pachyphyllum                      - 2     "           "    Guiana (1); Mexico (1).

Peristeria                             - 6     "           "      Demerara (1); Mexico (1); Panama (1); Rio Janeiro (1); Spanish Main (2).

Pelexia                                 - 1     "           "      Chili.

Pesomeria                           - 1     "           "      Mauritius.

Phaius                                 - 6     "           "      Ceylon (1); China (1); Inia (4).

Phalaenopsis                       - 1     "           "      Manilla.

Pholidota                             - 6     "           "      Ceylon (1); India (4); Singapore (1).

Pleurothallis                       - 9     "           "      Brazil (3); Guiana (2); Jamaica (1); Mexico (3).

Pogonia                               - 1     "           "     India.

Polystachya                         - 2     "           "      India (1); Sierra Leone (1).

Ponera                                 - 1     "           "      Mexico.

Prescottia                            - 1     "           "      ?

Renanthera                          - 1     "           "      China.

Rodriguezia                         - 9     "           "      Brazil (6); Guatemala (1); Paraguay (1); Trinidad 1).

Saccolabium                        - 5     "           "      China (1); India (2); Malabar (1); Manilla (1).

Sarcanthus                          - 3     “           “     China  (3)

Scaphyglottis                       - 2    "            "      Demerara (2).

Schomburgkia                     - 3    "            "      Honduras (1); Jamaica (1); Puerta Cabella (1).

Sobralia                               - 4    "            "      Guatemala (1); Guiana (1); Mexico (2)

Specklinia                            - 2    "            "      Brazil (1); Guiana (1).

Sarchchilus                          - 2    "            "      Manilla (1); New Holland (1).

Stanhopea                            -21   "            "      Brazil (2); Guatemala (4); La Guayra (1); Mexico (5);  Oazaca (1); Peru (1)

                                                                          Puerto-Cabella (1); Spanish Main (2); Trinidad (1); Xalapa (3).

Stenia                                  - 1    "            "     Demerara.

Stelis                                    - 2    "            "      Guatemala (1); Jamaica (1).

Stenorhynchus                     - 2    "            "      Jamaica (2).

Sophronites                         - 2    "            "      Brazil (2).

Tetrapeltis                           - 1    "            "      India.

Trichopilia                          - 1    "            "      Mexico.

Trias                                    - 1    "            "      India.

Trichocentrum                     - 1    "            "      Brazil.

Trigonidium                         - 4    "            "      Demerara (3); Honduras (1).

Vanda                                  - 4    "            "      India (3); Philippine Islands (1).

Vanilla                                 - 2    "            "      India.

Zygopetalum                        - 9    "            "      Bolivia (1); Brazil (6); Demerara (1); Trinidad (1).

 

The name Clowes is perpetuated by the genus Clowesii containing five species: Anguloa clowesii; Brassia clowesii; Epidendrum clowesii; Miltonia clowesii and Odontoglossum clowesii.

                                                                                                                      

The collection was bequeathed to the Queen to form part of the Royal Collection at Kew Royal Botanic Garden, transported under the direction of Sir. W. Hooker, FRS. - President of the Royal Botanic Gardens to form the basis of the collection there at that time.

 

The following report on the Last Will and Testament appeared in the Manchester Guardian on 23rd.Dec.1846 and is reprinted :-

 

The Will of the Late Rev. John Clowes. M.A. - The entire collection of orchideous plants which belonged to the Rev. John Clowes M.A. of Broughton Hall, Manhester he has directed should be transferred to, and form part of the Royal Collection at Kew, and bequeaths them to Her Majesty.    His collection was considered one of the finest in the Kingdom.   He made his will on March 9th. last and has added five codicils, the last he made in September, a fortnight before his death.  He has left various pecunary bequests to his nephews and nieces.   To his sister Lady Scovell £2,000.   To his sister Mrs. Frances Bradshaw £5,000 absolutely and the interest on £10,000 for life, and then to be divided among her children., also £10,000 in trust, the interest for Mrs. Eliza Bradshaw, wife of his nephew, Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Bradshaw, and then to her children.   Specific bequest of plate to his brother Legh Clowes Esq.   Liberal legacies to his servants and workmen.  The residue, real and personal to his nephew, the Rev. Samuel Bradshaw M.A. Rector of Grindon, Stafford, one of his executors.   Besides the property in York, for which there is a separate grant of probate, the funded and personalty within the province of Canterbury, paid a duty on £35,000.   The family estate, to which the deceased succeeded on the death of his elder brother, included nearly the whole of the township of Broughton with Kersal.


James Bateman, FRS.;FLS.;FGS.; - 1811 - 1897.

Patriarch of Orchid Worthies.

 

Born on July 11th.1811 at the home of his mothers parents at Redival, near Bury, Lancashire; later to move with his parents, John and Elizabeth to Knypersley Hall, Staffordshire, where he was reared.

 

His grandfather, also named James; had acquired the Knypersley and nearby Biddulph Vicarage estates during 1810 whilst building up a family fortune as an ironmonger in Manchester, starting with £4,000 advanced by his father and progressing to the ownership of an iron foundry and mill for drawing wire, also an interest in an iron furnace and collieries at Dukinfield, Cheshire; and an ironworks at Acton Bridge, Cheshire.   In addition he was the largest importer of Swedish and Russian iron in the country.

 

During the 1780's grandfather James formed a liaison with William Sherratt, a successful engineer, forming a partnership which built an extensive ironworks in Salford producing steam engines which rivalled those of Matthew Bolton and James Watt of Soho, near Birmingham.   Bateman & Sherratt also produced steam engines, boilers and a wide range of iron products in a factory at Shelton in the Potteries.  His interests were not only confined to iron and coal, he constructed three large cotton mills in Manchester and a range of warehouses known as Bateman's Building.   He later joined the Banking House of his life long friend, a Mr. Wilson and spent the latter part of his life in his native Westmorland.

 

The estates at Knypersley and Biddulph had been acquired for their mineral and industrial prospects, containing plentiful reserves of coal at the Childerplay Colliery, later known as Victoria Pit.   James Bateman was brought up amid delightful countryside surrounding the estates which are in close proximity, with parents more interested in country pursuits than in coal and iron which led to the leasing of the colliery to Robert Heath during 1857.   Heath became a successful iron and coal master and eventually acquired Biddulph Grange also.

 

John, the father of James, played a leading role in the local community; maintaining the fabric of St. Lawrence's Church, Biddulph; of which he was patron.  He helped to finance the "toll" road which improved travel between Manchester and the Potteries.   He supplied daily soup to those in need and the unemployed and he served as the High Sheriff of Staffordshire and was patron of local Learned and Philanthropic societies.  

 

It is no wonder that James Bateman developed an early love of flowers and gardens under the guidance of his mother at Knypersley.   His interest in orchids began when he was merely eight years of age, in a country lane when walking with his mother who told him that the distinctive flower he had focussed his attention to was orchis mascula somewhat abundant thereabout.   He became fascinated with both the and the flower with spotted leaves and speckled flower.

 

Ten or so years later when a student at Magdalen College, Oxford he visited Fairburn's nursery to be confronted with Renathera coccinea -  which sealed what was to become a deep and lasting interest in orchids.   He acquired this plant, which was a division of one growing in the garden of Prince Leopold (later King of the Belgians) at Bushey Park, Hertfordshire.   During 1832, when twenty-one years old, he met George Loddiges of Hackney at a meeting of the Horticultural Society and commenced building up a collection.

 

In 1833, whilst still a student at Oxford, with the help of his father he engaged Thomas Colley - Fairburn's foreman, to search for and collect orchids from British Guiana.   Colley sent some sixty species to Knypersley Hall - twenty or so of which were new to science; and included Oncidium lanceanum which had driven collectors mad when it was first discovered in Surinam by J.H. Lance, a barrister and long time acqaintance.

 

Colley, knowing that F. Henchman, on a similar mission for Low's Clapton Nursery, was only a few days behind him, stripped  a heavily populated tree of Oncidium lanceanum bare; very much with the later approval of his sponsor who some time later stated without regret "That this species had not been found in British Guiana before or since".   It is recorded that many of his U.K. confederates were "prepared to go down on bended knee for a bit, offering their greatest

treasures in exchange”.

 

At the same time, the son of a Scottish clergyman - George Ure Skinner who had a trading company in Guatemala, was encouraged by one John Gould to take an interest in the birds of that Country.   When John Bateman saw some of these birds, which Skinner had sent to the Natural History Museum in Manchester, he immediately despatched a letter suggesting that he (Skinner) also took an interest in the flora of Guatmela particularly plants akin to the sketches he enclosed with his letter.   Very soon afterwards the first very carefully packed consignment of many orchids arrived at Knypersley Hall, all were at that time unknown to science.   The young Bateman requested Dr. Lindley to name one of the discoveries after Skinner - Barkeria skinneri – by which name the species  is still known.   Another plant from this first consignment was Odontoglossum bictoniense - the first plant of this species to arrive in the U.K. alive, it flowered in the collection of Lord Rolle of Bicton, having been passed to his Lordship by the generous Bateman who continued to received orchids from Skinner.


Most of the forty orchids illustrated and described in John Bateman's "Orchidaceae of Mexico and Guatemala" the largest ever botanical book (an elephant folio); also one of the most magnificent; had been collected by Skinner.

 

Bateman was twenty-six years old when the first part of the book was published in 1837.   Its appearance firmly established his reputation at home and abroad, as a botanist; and was more than likely instrumental in his election as a Fellow of the Royal Society.   Five additional parts of the book appeared at intervals over the next five or six years.   All but three of the colour plates were from paintings by Mrs. Augusta Withers - Flower Painter in Ordinary to Queen Adelaide - (Dowager Queen from June 1837) .   The remaining paintings were by a Miss Drake.   One hundred and twenty-five copies only were produced.                         

 

James Bateman made many orchid friends at home and abroad and visited those at home resulting in the naming of many of the orchids he was receiving from Skinner in their honour:

 

Oncidium cavendishianum   - after the 6th. Duke of Devonshire said to have the largest collection in the world   

                                                              at Chatsworth House. Derbyshire.   Some thirty or so miles from Knypersley Hall.

Cycnoches egertonianum      - after Sir. Philip Grey Egerton.

Epidendrum stamfordianum  - after the Earl of  Stamford of Enville - Staffordshire and Dunham Massey,   

                                                    Cheshire.        

Stanhopea mantiana             - after the Professor in Munich.

Cattleya skinneri                   - named by Lindley to commemorate both William Cattley and George Ure Skinner.                                                             

On receipt of a copy of the prospectus of Bateman's book the Duke of Devonshire wrote "I cannot express to you how much I am delighted by your spendid work, or how grateful I am to you for having named such a beautiful orchid after me".

 

James Bateman's influence in orchid circles continued to flourish and sometime around 1835 his friend and fellow collector the Rev. J.T. Huntley of Huntingdonshire informed him that he wished to dispose of his collection for monetary reasons.   Bateman suggested to the Duke of Devonshire that Huntley's orchids were worth acquisition and that his friend did not wish to see them split up amongst nurserymen and resold.   Bateman knew that at least fifty of Huntley's species were not in the Duke's collection, also that many of them were rare species unlikely to become available for some time.   This entrepreneurial action, probably inherited from his grandfather; led to an exchange of correspondence between the Duke and Huntley resulting in Paxton, the Duke's gardener, being sent to Kimbolton, returning to Chatsworth and advising the Duke to pay the requested sum of £500.   The Duke offered £400, to be increased later to £500 to be paid over three years.   John Gibson the Duke's collector travelled to Kimbolton to transfer the entire collection.

 

It is also recorded that the Duke and Bateman exchanged many plants in addition to orchids.   Large tropical fruit bearing trees which had outgrown the stove at Knypersley were transferred to the Great stove at Chatsworth around November 12th. 1841.   John Gibson was paid £5.16s.4d. expenses for this task according to the Chatsworth day book.

 

At the age of twenty-seven James Bateman married Maria Sibylla, daughter of the Rev. Rowland Egerton -Warburton of Norley Bank, Northwich, Cheshire on April 24th.1838.   The Egerton -Warburtons were one of Cheshires most distinguished families with strong gardening tradition and experience, his bride was no exception and other members of her family had been responsible for notable gardens at Tatton and Oulton Parks.   Maria Sibylla's particular interest was in herbaceous plants, roses, lilies and ferns.

 

The first years of the marriage were spent at Knypersley Hall with his parents and they jointly did much pleasing work in the gardens and grounds.   The stoves contained many tropical rarities in addition to John's extensive collection of orchids ably cared for during his absence by his gardener John Sherratt.   

                                                  

The first child of the marriage, named John; was born in 1839, followed by Rowland during 1840 with Robert and Katarine following.

                    

After Rowland's birth James and Maria Sibylla moved from Knypersley Hall to the Biddulph Vicarage Estate acquired along with Knypersley by his grandfather.   The residences of these adjoining estates are in the order of two miles distance.   The house into which they moved stood on the site of a nearby farm or grange which at one time had belonged to Hulton Abbey - which has something to do with the name Biddulph Grange by which name the house and garden are still known.   This house was the Biddulph Vicarage, previously occupied by his uncle the Rev. William Holt - Vicar of Biddulph 1831 until 1873 who had recently moved into a smaller house in Hurst Road, Biddulph.

 

It appears that James and his wife set about altering and extending the vicarage property at various times to become the Italian style mansion overlooking the extensive and remarkable garden he and his wife created.   It would appear that his collection of orchids remained in the stove at Knypersley Hall.


The Batemans were greatly assisted in their task by Edward Cooke who Bateman had met during 1847 at Kew.   Cooke also fell under the spell of orchids.   Bateman and Cooke met and became friendly with Nathaniel Ward an enthusiastic grower of ferns; their association led to the adaption of growing cases to become known as Wardian Cases for the cultivation of orchids, which allowed many orchid lovers without "stoves" to grow their treasures in the home.

 

James and his wife were both deeply religious; their son Rowland devoted his life to the Church as a missionary and eventually returning to his native Biddulph to become the Vicar.

 

Bateman sold his first collection of orchids to raise money with which to build the Church and school of St. John the Evangelist at Knypersley and quickly built up a second collection of orchids.   He also built the Church and Parsonage at nearby Biddulph Moor and he was for some time the patron of the Church of St. Lawrence at Biddulph.   He was an active local preacher and some of his sermons were published.   He believed that Rome was iniquitous and that Darwin , with whom he took issue in his introduction to his Monograph of Odontoglossum - 1864-74, had got it all wrong.   Nevertheless he provided Darwin with orchids for his research.

 

James Bateman lectured to members of the Royal Horticultural Society frequently.   In 1864 the subject of one of his lectures was on the requirement of cool growing conditions for some orchids, and he suggested that the day was not far distant when there would be no plant species left and the likes of Lindley; Reichenbach, Bentham and Hooker would have no work.   He strongly believed that hybridisation by man was interfering with the work of God.

 

In addition to lecturing he contributed a number of articles published in the "Gardeners Chronicle" during 1862-1864 under the pen name of Serapias.   These, along with his lecture delivered to the R.H.S. at South Kensington on May 3rd.1864 are reprinted in Orchid History Reference Paper No. 10 by R.M. Hamilton of Richmond B.C. Canada.

This lecture did much to convince many collectors and growers that many orchids being subjected to the conditions of the stove house did in fact need cooler conditions to grow well, flower and survive.  Prior to this there had been very many losses.   He also wrote about and illustrated orchids in Curtis's Botanical Magazine under the editorship of Hooker.

 

During 1868 the Batemans rented "The Ferns", Hyde Park Gate South, from their great friend Edward Cooke to enable the now asthmatic Maria Sibylla to spend winters away from Biddulph, this also suited Bateman and some of his work and horticultural activities.  His wife's health deteriorated further and in 1884 another move to Worthing was undertaken.   They created yet another garden containing specific features to enable particular plants to grow well.

 

Mrs. Bateman died at Worthing on May 4th.1895.   James surprisingly remarried the following year and resided at Spring Bank, Worthingith his second wife Ann, about whom nothing is recorded.   This union did not last long - this remarkable Victorian Gentleman once referred to by Sir. Harry Veitch as the "Patriarch of Orchid Worthies" died at Worthing on November 27th. 1897 aged 86 years.   His remains were interred at nearby Broadwater.

 

His name lives on in orchid annals through the genus Batemannia a genus of five species from the Amazon basin.

 

It is perhaps, out of respect for this great man that the genus bearing his name did not receive the attention of the hybridists during is lifetime.

                                               

The genus has of course been used on seven occasions at least in the production of intergeneric hybrids:

                          

          1889 - Zygobatemannia - Mastersii

                        1967 - Bateostylis - Silver Star

                        1973 - Palmerara - Raymond Palmer

                        1975 - Downsara - Psythenis                      

                        1976 - Durutyara - Gregor Duruty

                        1980 - Hamelswellara - Mem. Edmund Harcourt

                        1983 -          “              - June

                        1988 -          “              - Netta

                        1991 -          “              - Margaret

                        1994 -          “              - Sellicks Hill

                        1995 -          “              - Aussie Quest

                        1996 -          “              - Jilly

                        1991 - Masonara        - Maurice


George Ure Skinner – 1804 -1867.

 

Son of a Scottish clergyman born at Newcastle on Tyne who worked for a time, in the retailing business in Leeds, Yorkshire.

 

During 1831 at the age of twenty-seven he crossed the Atlantic Ocean for the first of forty or so times and became a merchant in Guatemala, where he resided for most of his life - other than when revisiting the U.K.

 

Through the persuasion of a friend - John Gould, ornithologist and writer he took an interest in the birds of that country and sent many to the  U.K. which after taxidermal treatment were exhibited in Natural History  Museums.

 

It was after seeing some of these at the Manchester Natural History Museum James Bateman FRS.; FLS.; FGS, became interested in the Guatemalan merchant and within in few days he despatched a letter containing pencilled sketches of orchids requesting G. Ure Skinner to search for same when undertaking his bird hunting activities.   Skinner responded magnificently not only collecting orchids himself, but; by employing natives of that country to do so.

 

Skinner soon became a leading, if not; the most successful orchid hunter ever, sending numerous consignments to Bateman residing at Knypersley Hall, Staffordshire.

 

The first carefully packed boxes to arrive at Knypersley contained many orchids new to science at that time; packages continued to arrive and be received with enthusiasm and gratitude; thus forming a unique friendship.   Each consignment contained species not before encountered.   The showy Central American orchids impressed James Bateman and his many orchid friends and formed the basis for the mammoth elephant folio book produced by Bateman and entitled: "Orchidaceae of Mexico and Guatemala" compiled between the years 1837-1843 in addition to further works "Monograph of Odontoglossum"- 1864-1874 and "Second Century of Orchidaceous Plants" - 1867.

 

During the Autumn of 1866 after spending some time in his native land Skinner set out for his twentieth journey, before retiring; to the Central Americas to collect orchids and other exotic plants for his friends in the U.K. which included Sir. William Hooker who had been the recipient of orchids for so time along with Bateman, also James Veitch of the famous nursery J. Veitch and Sons.

 

It is recorded that on Boxing Day 1866 he was collecting orchids in Panama; on January 4th. 1867 he was catching butterflies and two days later he wrote to James Veitch that he had spent Epiphany Sunday at Paraiso (Paradise) where he had seen a scarlet passion flower of great beauty, but seedless; from which he had removed two cuttings and set them in earth to root.   Also that he had seen another passion flower of equal interest emitting the perfume of a thousand violets from which he had removed a flowering and seeded branch.

 

The letter stated that a package on its way to the nursery contained  Epidendra; Ionopsis and various Pleurathalis in addition to flowers and seed of the purple and white passion flower and some flowers from the scarlet species.

 

His letter concluded with information that he was leaving Panama on Jan. 10th. 1867 en route for Guatemala where he expected to arrive eight days later on Jan 18th.

 

He died from Yellow Fever on Jan. 9th.1867 - no doubt contacted during this his intended last collecting expedition.

 

James Bateman in his Memorial Lecture, for his great friend, delivered to the Royal Horticultural Society on February 19th.1867, at South Kensington, London. stated that George Ure Skinner had been responsible for introducing more new orchids into Europe than any other individual.

 

The name of Skinner lives on via:

                   

                    Barkeria Skinneri.

                    Cattleya Skinneri.

                    Lycaste Skinneri.

                    Odontoglossum uro skinneri

 

Note: The substance of the Memorial Lecture to G.U.Skinner; correspondence from him to his daughters during his last voyage, a poem by him and other interesting reading relevant to his travels appear in "Orchid History Reference Paper No. 7" compiled by R.M. Hamilton, 9211 Beckwith Rd., Richmond, B.C. Canada - V6X 1V7.   This and other O.H.R.P's may be obtained from the author or from P.O. Box 3232, Blaine WA, U.S.A. 98230.

 


Carl Linnaeus (Carl von Linne.) - 1707-1778.

 

Carl Linnaeus - known as Carl von Linne after enoblement; son of a Lutheran Pastor, was born at Stenbrohutt, Smaland, Sweden on May 23rd.1707 at a time when less than twenty orchids were known to science.

 

His father had mapped out a career for his son in the Church he himself served, the son was determined to become a doctor and botanist at a time when botany was largely a branch of medicine.   The young Lannaeus eventually did what he wanted to do and studied for his chosen career first at Lund, and then from 1728 at Uppsala University.

 

Despite being very poor and having bad health which persisted throughout his life, he was extremely hard working and he developed an orderly mind and approach to all he undertook.   This impressed both fellow students and his tutors and by May 1731 he had been appointed deputy to professor Olof Rudbeck the younger.   Within a year he became a very popular lecturer often attracting up to four hundred students to his lectures.   He also acted as tutor to Rudbeck's three sons and lived with the family in the house adjoining the Botanical Garden of the University, this house was taken over by him when he eventually replaced Rudbeck.   The garden there, with the one at the house that he lived in during the last twenty years of his life, a charming country home at Hammarby, some ten kilometres distance are maintained today as they existed; as a memorial to him.

 

During 1732 Linnaeus undertook his first and probably, his greatest adventure - a four month expedition to Lapland; during which he endured great hardships, but the curious streak in his character helped him to complete his mission to the point where he boasted about his ordeals and exaggerated the distances travelled, which at that time was without mechanical aids.   He returned with valuable collections of plants in addition to other specimens and copious notes about, 'inter alia,' the "Lapps" way of life and diseases in cattle.

 

From 1735 to 1738 he travelled extensively in Germany, Holland, England and France.   In Holland he took his doctorate and published several books including the first edition of his "Systema Naturae".   The manuscript so impressed J.F. Gronovius of Leyden that he paid the cost of printing.

 

In Holland he won the friendship of the famous Boerhaave who introduced him to George Clifford the rich Burgomaster of Amsterdam, whose wonderous garden Linnaeus described in "Hortus Ciffortianus" in 1737.

 

In England during 1736, he visited Sir. Hans Sloane, Philip Millar of the Apothecaries Garden at Chelsea, and Dillenius at Oxford.  An unconfirmed report states that when in England the beholding of a heath prolific with common gorse 'ulex europaeus' caused him to fall to his knees in thanksgiving.  Following his return to Sweden he practised medicine in Stockholme, made a very happy marriage and in 1741 became the Professor of Medicine and Botany at Uppsala where he remained until retirement.   There was also a Professor of Medicine and Anatomy at the University.

 

An extremely successful and popular teacher, considered to be ahead of his time in his lectures on diet; hygiene and other topics who attached himself to his students by taking a keen personal interest in each of them.   Some he encouraged to travel to the ends of the earth, as his apostles and in search of knowledge and specimens.   Deep was his grief over those who died in such causes.

                                               

He wrote and published a great many works, mainly in Latin.   He is most renowned however, as the greatest naturalist of his age; classed alongside John Ray and Charles Darwin as the three greatest naturalists of modern times.

 

His perceptive and orderly mind, combined with an immense capacity for study and industry, made him the supreme systemalist and classifier of all time.   Plants; animals; minerals and diseases were described and classified by him during his lifes work.

 

One of his two main works, for which the world is still extremely grateful - "Species Plantarum - 1753" - classifies plants according to the numbers of their male and female organs - stamens and pistils.

 

To Linnaeus every species was, in the main,-(though he recognised possible changes through altering conditions or hybridisation)- a separate and individual creation of God, unrelated; in the family sense of the word, to any other.   Given such a conception the Linnaeus sexual classification of plants provided an index of great value both then and now.

 

"Species Plantarum" was timely since interest in plants was developing rapidly and prior to the publication of this work botanists did not use real names but relied on a single noun and a string of descriptive adjectives to describe plants.     

 

Thanks to his binomial system every plant; and later every animal, was given a two word name.   In the case of plants a generic name, signifying the genus or group of closely similar plants to which it belongs and the specific epiphet, or 'kind' within the genus.   Linnaeus applied this principle to such good purpose that modern botanical/zoological nomenclature began with the publication of his two main works and continues to this day


In addition a vast number of scientific names in current use are of his invention.   Our dept to him on each and every facet of his work is of immense proportion.

 

A fitting memorial to this great man perhaps comes from the custom to append to every scientific name - an abbreviation denoting the scientist who invented the name.  "L" for Linnaeus is still, some 290 years after his birth; the commonest of such acknowledgements.


John Lindley - 1799 - 1865.

 

One time Professor of Botany - University College, London and Profectus Horticulture of the Chelsea Physic Garden.

 

Born near to Norwich, County Town of Norfolk, East Anglia, England on Feb. 5th. 1799 to become the founder and editor of the "Gardeners Chronicle" which became the leading horticultural journal of the 19th. Century.

 

Other literary works by him include:

 

                                               "Orchidearium Sceletos" - 1826.

                                               "Genera and Species of Orchidaceous Plants" - 1830-1838.

                                               "Sertum Orchidaceum" - 1837-1842.

                                               "Folia Orchidacea - 1852-1859.

 

Perhaps best known for his work on orchids and the many that he classified and named.

 

As a teenager he was an acquaintance of Sir. William Hooker - 1785-1865; who was also born at Norwich.   During 1818 he was appointed assistant librarian to Sir. Joseph Banks who recommended him to William Cattley to become editor of his Collectavea Botanica - a catalogue of plants in the Cattley collection - completed in 1821.

 

Shortly after the death of Sir. Joseph Banks in 1820 Lindley became the Garden Assistant Secretary to the Horticultural Society which eventually led to his appointment in 1826 to the Assistant Secretary-ship of the Society at both Chiswich and London.

 

It was Lindley who separated the genus Cattleya from Epidendrum in 1823 when Epidendrum violaceum was introduced to Europe from Rio de Janeiro via the nursery of Loddiges of Hackney.

 

William Cattley to whom the new genus was dedicated by Lindley was a generous patron of horticulture and an enthusiastic collector of orchids and other rare plants whose collection eventually became the basis of the Royal Exotic Nursery which later became the London nursery of J. Veitch and Sons.

 

One cannot read far into Orchid literature without coming across the name Lindley which is perhaps an apt memorial to a leading botanist of his time.   A library at the Royal Horticultural Society also commemorates his work and name.


 

Willaim Spencer "Hart" Cavendish - Marquess of Hartington -

The 6th. Duke of Devonshire. 1790 - 1858.

Lord Chamberlain and Privy Councillor.

 

Born the son & heir of William Cavendish the 5th. Duke of Devonshire and the Duchess Georgina on May 20th. 1790, in a house belonging to the Marquess de Boulainvilliers, in the western suburb of Paris at a time when the French Revolution was reducing Europe to turmoil.

 

The title The Marquess of Hartington is bestowed on successive first sons of the Dukes of Devonshire.   Christened William, after his father; and Spencer, after his mother's maiden name; exactly a year after his birth.   The baptism took place at St. George's Church, Hanover Sq., London., in which parish Devonshire House a London home of his parents lay.

 

Destined for great things from the age of four when dressed in full regimental regalia he reviewed the Derbyshire Militia.   At eight he entered Harrow School and became a school fellow of Lord Byron.   Outwardly apathetic and resilient - inwardly sensitive and delicate.   Having been brought up mainly in the company of the opposite sex he did not develope manly pursuits and exercise despite being quite roguish at times as a young boy when he often climbed onto the roof of Chatsworth House and scoffed at servants sent up to fetch him  down.   Even then he was somewhat very reserved at times.

 

From Harrow he was sent to a "crammers" establishment near to Deal and came under the influence of a Rev. Smith; also under the influence of Francis Tavistock a fellow pupil who exercised a "man of the world" attitude which "Hart" was at pains to emulate.

 

In 1807 he entered Trinity College at Cambridge as a "nobleman" paying higher fees and making the gift to the college of a piece of plate valued more than twenty guineas gained him an M.A. degree for a minimum of work and without taking an examination.

 

On succeeding to the title - The 6th. Duke of Devonshire - in 1811 at twenty-one years of age he inherited family estates and properties at Chatsworth and Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire; Bolton Abbey in the West Riding and Londesborough Hall in the East Riding of Yorkshire; Lismore Castle at County Waterford, Ireland; Chiswick House in Middlesex; Burlington House and Devonshire House which were both in Mayfair.   Each of the country properties were set in countless acres and the London properties were of great value.   These investments brought in an income of £100,000 per year leaving him with a net income of some £40,000 to spend.   He travelled well, often bringing back to Chatsworth, his main country seat; many valuable "objets de art" thereby becoming an avid collector of medals, coins, books, sculptors and later orchids.

 

The Bachelor Duke became a generous patron of Horticulture and many other causes in addition to being extremely benevolent to his family and others in need.

 

During the summer of 1826 the Duke engaged the twenty-three year old Joseph Paxton as his Head Gardener at twenty-five shillings per week which was almost twice the going rate for such a position at that time.

 

Paxton who later received a Knighthood; not only advised the Duke on horticultural matters but on all manner of things eventually being appointed manager of all the estates and financial adviser who made many decisions for his master who had become more and more involved in politics and matters of state as the Lord Chamberlain and Privy Councillor - offices in which the Duke earned much esteem as a negotiator of considerable understanding and talent.

                                               

During the spring of 1830 Paxton supervised the moving of a large weeping ash tree from Derby to the North Court at Chatsworth which faces the entrance to the house.   This forty year old tree had branches and roots extending up to thirty-seven feet long needing a specially constructed horse drawn conveyance.  Expected at Chatsworth on Good Friday but arriving there on Easter Sunday after the removal of gates and gateposts using forty or so labourers the tree was successfully replanted and stands to this day.

 

By 1835 the Duke had become sufficiently interested in orchids and through the influence of his friends James Bateman of Knypersley Hall, Staffordshire and Dr. Nathaniel Wallich working as the Director of the Calcutta Botanic Garden, to

despatch one of his under gardeners John Gibson to collect orchids from Cherapungi.  Gibson returned via the Cape of Good Hope with some eighty species which had been transported in specially designed "wardian" type cases which were easily transportable and capable of being on deck by day and below deck by night or during rough seas.

 

This consignment the first of many, later including new species from the Americas; formed the basis of what was to become the worlds largest collection of orchids under cultivation, rivalling those of James Bateman at Knypersley Hall; & the Rev. John Clowes at Broughton Hall, Manchester and many other growers known to have large collections.  

 

So numerous was this collection becoming that the Duke and Paxton had to consider building extra accommodation for them.   The result of their interest and planning resulted in the erection of the large conservatory or great stove as it became known.   Work on this began during 1836 and was completed in 1841.

 

This huge glasshouse was 227 feet long; 123 feet wide and 67 feet high, covering some 34.000 square feet of floor area and the largest glass building in the world at that time.   Sited away from the house its expanse demanded the clearance and levelling of a huge area of hillside to the east of the Canal Pond.   The two stage curved steel framework formed a nave and two aisles which combined Paxton's aesthetic ability with his engineering skill.  Covered by three quarters of an acre of ribbed glass panels laid by what Paxton called the ridge and furrow technique, the stove contained seven miles of cast iron pipe fed by an elaborate system of eight underground furnaces fired by coal transported direct to the site by a railway track.   It had doors at each end large enough to the Duke's horse drawn carriage to enter.

 

Completed in 1841 the Duke described the finished structure "The most glorious building of modern times"; in all probability it was the forerunner to the design of the Crystal Palace, also erected by Paxton to house the Great Exhibition of 1851 organised by the Prince Consort - Albert; and possibly a direct result of the Royal visit to Chatsworth from the 1st. to the 4th. of December 1843 when Queen Victoria was driven through the Great Stove specially illuminated by 14,000 lamps; to view the magnificent spectacle the Duke and his staff, under Paxton's direction had created.         

 

By this time the stove not only contained orchids; it housed Amherstia nobilis which Gibson had brought back from Dr. Wallich was now thriving with its huge vermilion red flowers with yellow spots, in addition to tropical fruit trees which had outgrown Bateman's stove at Knypersley Hall.   The two often exchanged orchids and other rare plants during their friendship despite being some thirty miles distant.

 

Paxton was somewhat apprehensive when informed of the Queens' intended visit at a time when he was on extensive excavations to set up what became the Queen's Rocks; forming a strid; laying pipe-work and moving 100,000 cubic yards of earth to form a reservoir behind the Stand Wood fed through several miles of pipe-work to feed it and thereby create sufficient water at a pressure great enough to project water vertically to a height of 260 feet from a fountain in the Canal Pond, the water eventually overflowing to feed the canal.

 

Sadly the grandeur of the worlds largest collection of orchids under cultivation did not hold the interest of the 7th; 8th and 9th Dukes to the same extent.   During 1919 the 9th. Duke demolished the Great Stove by explosives the collection having become greatly diminished through lack of interest, finance and the sever shortage of coal brought about by the need to use all available fuel to sustain the manufacture of arms for the 1914-18 First World War.   However orchids on a more modest scale have continued at Chatsworth House where the Sheffield and District Orchid Society hold their Annual Show under the Patronage of the present Duke.

 

The name of William Spencer Cavendish - The 6th. Duke of Devonshire lives on in orchid history via the species: Cymbidium devonianum; Dendrobium Devonianum; Galeandra devoniana; Stanhopea Devoniensis and last but not least Oncidium cavendishianum named in his honour by his friend James Bateman who presented him with a plant sent to Knypersley by G. Ure Skinner.

 

 


William Thompson, Esq. 1870? -1920. Grower & Hybridist.

Walton Grange, Stone, Staffordshire.

 

One of the founder members of the Manchester Orchid Society – William Thompson noted amateur orchid enthusiast was in residence at Walton Grange, Stone, Staffordshire - from around 1870 until 1916.   His home was but a few miles from the Duke of Sutherland's Estate at Trentham Gardens where an extensive collection of orchids were to be seen.   The sight of this collection stimulated his interest resulting in the formation of a lasting friendship with Mr. Zadok Stevens the Duke's orchid grower and the building up of the extensive collection at Walton Grange.

 

Early interest centred around Odontoglossums of the famous Pacho type, which lasted throughout the forty or more years he devoted to his main hobby.   Records prove him to have been a very active member of the Society during its formative years rarely missing one of its fortnightly shows and travelling over forty miles each way to do so; often mounting medal winning displays and gaining many awards for individual plants.   His grower Mr. J. Howes, also a member; gained many Certificates for Culture as was the practice at that time.

 

He visited "Stevens Rooms" quite often making large purchases, one record accredits him with the acquisition of eight hundred plants of Odontoglossum cirrhosum - the entire shipmen imported.   Walton Grange became noted for cultivating large plants, one being Odontoglossum naevium majus in an eighteen inch diameter pot - bearing twenty-four flower spikes was recorded.   Another; Odontoglossum crispum "var. Thompsonii" gained a Certificate of Merit at the Regents' Park Exhibition in June 1883.   Other fine plants originating from the Walton Grange Collection were Odm. crispum –var ‘Arthur Briscoe’; Odm. crispum var ‘ The Earle’; Odm. Crispum var– ‘Queen Empress’ and Odm. crispum - solum.   William Thompson considered Odm. crispum var ‘Queen Empress’ one of the best in cultivation at that time and Odm. crispum - solum a unique orchid on account of its wonderful lip which was entirely blood red.

 

On one occasion he suffered a severe set back when an overhead hot water pipe burst and ruined two thousand seedling plants from his best stock.

 

It would be untrue to record that the Walton Grange Collection was mainly "odonts", it boasted many fine "cyps"; "catts" and Laelia.   Laelia Perrinii "Alba" flowered regularly, Laelia tenebrosa  var “Walton Grange" originated there - this single plant - the only one known at the time was said to have provided divisions from which all plants of this species in cultivation for some years to follow.   Masdevallia found a happy environment at Walton Grange where good examples of Masd. Harryana; Masd.Veitchiana; the lovely and useful Masd. tovarensis which Thompson crossed with Masd. Veitchiana to produce Masd. McVittiae (named after his married daughter).

 

Miltonia also thrived - Milt. vexillaria; Milt. Stevensii which was raised by Thompson from Milt.. Roezlii x Milt. vexillaria   var "Leopoldii" a generous grower which flowered profusely.                  

                                                               

Cypripediums occupied two large houses where all the best hybrids of the time thrived.

 

William Thompson's activity with the Manchester Orchid Society appears to have come to an end on March 2nd. 1916.   Records held show him to have gained the following prizes and awards during the years 1910-1916:

 

               Gold Medal for Cypripedium Mirun, syn Eurybiades mirum.  (Alcibiades (superbum) x Hera (New Hall Hey))

               F.C.C. Fifty-four - (nine at one show).

               A/M.   One hundred and eight - (ten at one show).

               Silver Gilt Medals for Group Displays - Six.

               Large Silver Medals  "   "       "             - Eleven.

               Silver Medals        "   "       "                 - Sixteen.

               Bronze Medal         "   "       "               - One.

               Awards of Appreciation                        - Four.

               Cultural Certificates to grower Mr. J. Howes - Five.

 

During his period of orchid activity W. Thompson produced thirty-five quality hybrids which he registered an doubtless many more he did not register being the perfectionist he was.   Of these eighteen were Oncidiinae; sixteen were Cypripedioidea and a single Epidendreae - Masdevallia McVittiae (named after his married daughter and now

considered to be allied to the sub-tribe Pleurothallidinae)

 

Even by the standards of today a record for which any grower would be justly proud.

 

A complete list of Thompson's hybrids can be obtained from the R.H.S.Orchid Information System on computer C.D.ROM Disc., as in the case of all originators and registrants.


J. J.  Holden, Esq.

Auburn House,

Southport. Lancs.

 

The Auburn House Collection - Southport.

 

This Southport Collection assembled quickly by J .J. Holden early member of the Manchester Orchid Society was considered by many to be a better collection than a previously known Southport collection belonging to R.P. Percival after whom Reichenbach and O'Brien named Cattleya percivaliana that lovely, large, fragrant, rosy purple fine veined flower with a maroon/yellow veined lip, a golden yellow veined maroon disc and rich velvety magenta coloring at the apex as described by H.G. Reichenbach during 1882 - as a variety of .C. labiata; but raised to the rank of a species in its own right; by O'Brien a year later. (See illustration in Manual of Cultivated Orchid Species pp. 249 by Bechtel, Cribb and Launert.

 

The owner was displaying plants at the Society's fortnightly shows during the period 1910-1916 as records held prove.   He could have been attending these meetings before 1910 but as stated elsewhere the earliest of records along with those of the period 1916 – 1921 were destroyed in an incendiary bomb fire during an air raid on Manchester during the 1939-1945 War.

 

The orchid houses at Auburn House were situated quite near the sea and were in fact built on sea shore sand.   Holden considered the saline atmosphere was good for his plants.

 

The cattleya house contained a large amount of hot water piping part of which passed through the rain water tank within.   Some two hundred "Albino" cattleya were kept at one time including :- C. Harrisoniana alba; C. labiata alba; C. Warneri alba; C. Amesiae; C. labiata ‘Empress’; C. Fabia alba; and C. Maggie Raphael alba; C. Holdenii - hybrid from C. intermedia x C. warneri alba, reported as carrying thirteen flowers in 1911; C. Mossiae Warneri, C. luddemanniana ‘alba’ var ‘Stanleyi’ and many other albino cattleya hybrids including the noted C. Susan Hye de Crom; C. Queen Maud and an excellent variety of C. Hardyana ‘Countess of Derby’ to be seen alongside C. Trianae, C. Mossiae - ‘Holdenii’; C. labiate ‘Peetersii’, C. Hardyana ‘Mossiae and many unique Brassocattleya hybrids.

 

Hanging from the roof of this house was a large specimen of Trichopilia Backhouseana.

 

The Odontoglossum house of this enthusiastic amateur also contained many fine plants.  Odm. crispum in many of its first forms including: Odm. crispumLindenii’; Odm. crispum ‘Lucianii’; Odm. crispum ‘Holdenii’; Odm. crispum xanthotes – ‘Warburtonii’ to name but a few were to be seen in addition to very many hybrids of a wide range of colours including Odm. amabile "Holden's var." considered to be one of the very best forms of the beautiful  Odm. harryanum.

 

The Cypripedium house contained hundreds of species, varieties and hybrids:Cyp. Aeson giganteum, Cyp. Dreadnought; Cyp. insigne "Harefield Hall var.".   Rare varieties: Cyp. Actaeus Bianca; Cyp. Holdenii with its broad dorsal and Cyp. The King alongside Cyp. farrieanum; Cyp. Baron Schroder; Cyp. Minos Youngii; Cyp. Gaston Bultel; Cyp. Archie Neil;

 Cyp. Leeanum ‘Corona’;  Cyp. Berkleyanum; Cyp. Dora Crawshaw the almost white form of Cyp. Boltonii and many others.

 

In addition a number of Dendrobium species and hybrids; several Bulbophyllum virescens; Cymbidium erythrostylum; and Lycastes represented by Lyc. Skinneri Alba; Lyc. Lucianii superbum and Lyc. Mary Gratrix all form a part of an extensive collection brought together over a comparatively short period of time to become well established under the expert care of Holden's grower Mr. R. Johnson.

 

As far as can be ascertained from records - J.J.Holden produced three hybrids only:

 Paph. Holdenii (callosum x maudiae) - 1909

                             C. Holdenii (C. intermedia Alba x C. warneri Alba) - 1911

                             C. Queen Mary (C. mendelii x C. warneri) - 1911.

 

Successes at the Manchester  Orchid  Society Meetings are recorded as follows for the period 1910 - 1913:

 

First Class Certificate:       Nov. 23th. 1911   - Odm. Bronze Dragon.

Jan. 12th. 1912      -     "    Delhi (Odm. augustum x Odm. eximium)

Mar.  7th. 1912     -     "    In memorium King Edward.

May.  2nd. 1912    - Bc.     Mariae var "Maggie".

 

Award of Merit:

Sep. 22nd. 1910   - Odm. Excellens var Auburn House.

                 "       “         “          “      W. R. Lee (Odm. amabile x Odm. crispum).

               Oct.     6th. 1910 - C.      Hera superba.

                                                                              "        Iris illuminata.

                                                                              Cyp.   Bleriot.


Nov. 30th. 1911   -  C.     O'Brieniana ‘ alba’.

Dec. 20th. 1911   -  Cyp.  Aurora Borealis.

Jan.  25th. 1912    -  C.      Holdenii "Purity".

                                                                        - Odm. King George V.

Feb.   8th. 1912    -  Cyp.  Birkdalense

Feb. 22nd. 1912   -  Lc.    Amabilis.

                                                                       -  Odm. Lambeauianum "Holden's var."

Mar.    7th. 1912 -  C.      Cappei.

Apl.    4th. 1912   -  Bc.    Mariae var "Maggie"

                                                                      -  C.     Schroderae var "Luminos"

Apl.  18th. 1912   -  Odm. "The Premier".

Jan.    2nd. 1913   -  Cyp.  Mrs. F.  Sander.

 

Silver Medal:

Feb.  8th. 1912 - C.  Countess of Derby - (Alba form of C. Hardyana)

 

Award of Appreciation:

Jan.  2nd. 1913 - Lyc. Skinneri var "Her Majesty".

 

 

Considered not to be a bad record for a man in a hurry.


Samuel & Mary Gratrix.

West Point,

Whalley Range,

Manchester.      

                  

This husband and wife team were founder members of the first Orchid Society - The Manchester Orchid Society, which had members from all over the British Isles, changed its name to the Manchester & North of England Orchid Society around 1908 and again changed to The North of England Orchid Society during 1972.   Samuel Gratrix was President of the Society during 1926-27-28.   It is recorded that he was interested in horticulture from an early age, and that he and his wife created a beautiful large garden at their home "Westpoint" - Whalley Range some three miles from the City Centre at a time when Manchester was the "workshop of the world".   They attempted to grow peaches, nectarines, apricots and other fruits which grow abundantly in warmer climes.   The lack of success in such ventures brought about disenchantment and they turned their attention cool growing orchids.

 

He and his wife Mary, who was equally interested; quickly amassed and established one of the finest collections of Cypripediums known to science at that time.   These were grown in pots placed on slatted wooden shelving sitting atop lead lined troughs filled with coke standing in water.   Each trough had its individual inlet and outlet stop cocks and drain to prevent stagnation.   Shading was provided by wooden lath roller blinds fixed externally.

 

Notable Cypripediums grown at Westpoint included the very early hybrids: Cyp. Nitens (insigne x villosum) produced by Veitch in 1877, Cyp.Leeanum - 1884; Cyp.Beckmannii - 1891; Cyp.Aeson giganteum - 1892; Cyp.Thompsonii - 1898; Cyp.Germain Opoix - 1899;  Cyp.Fulshawense - 1903; Cyp.Mrs. Cary Batten - 1903;  Cyp.Bridgei - 1906; Cyp.Moonbeam - 1907; Cyp.Acteus Bianca - 1908; Cyp.Alcibiades "Gratrix var." - 1908; Cyp.Dreadnought - 1908; Cyp.Queen Alexandra – 1908*; Cyp.Curtmanii "West Point var." 1909; Cyp.Mrs. F. Sander - 1909; Cyp.Waterloo - 1909; Cyp.Lord Woolmer - 1910; and Cyp.Victor Hugo – 1910.

 

Other orchids in the West Point Collection from the eighteen eighties to the mid nineteen twenties included:

 

Dendrobium: Den.Schneiderianum - 1887; Den.Wiganiae - 1896; Den.Melpomene - 1900; Den.Wardianum - ?; Den.nobile Virginale - ?; Den.chessingtonense - 1903; Den.Sanderae - 1908; Den.Atherton - 1917* & Den. Gratrixianum - 1919*.

Odontioda: Oda.Brunette II - 1919*; Oda.Hertha - 1921*; Oda.Cyclops - 1922*; Oda.Viscount Lacelles - 1922*; & Oda.Le Papillon - 1923*; Oda. Metis ; Odontoglossum: Odm.ardentissimum album - 1898; Odm. Excellens Nat. Hybrid.; Odm.loochristiense - Nat.Hybrid,; Odm.Pescatorei album - ?; Odm. crispum-anthotes "Warburtonae" - ?; Odm. Veitchiana - ?; Odm. Mariae - 1911; Odm.Mary Gratrix albino form - 1916*; Odm.Adrianae - Nat. Hybrid - 1918; Odm.Wilckeanum - Nat. Hybrid - ?; Odm. Grand Monarch - ?*; Odm. Perfection (Leonard Perfect) - 1918; Odm.Empress of India - 1918; Odm. crispum - "S. Gratrix var." - 1920;  Odm.- Brittannia - 1921; Odm. Britain’s Monarch – 1922; Odm.St.Hilda - 1923*.

 

A separate house contained Cattleya and allied genera where both species and hybrids were grown to perfection by Mr. T. Brown who also had charge of the seventeen acres of grounds.        

                                                           

Species listed: C  Iris; C. Mossiae; C. Percivaliana Alba;  C. SchroderaeL. gouldianaL. purpurata.

                                                         

Hybrids listed: C.Fabia, C. Mary Gratrix - 1897*; Lc.Amelia - 1898*; Bc.Digbyano-Mossiae - 1899; Bc.Mrs.J.Leeman - 1902; Lc.Jeanett -1903*; Lc.Duchess of Connaught - 1913; Lc.West Point Rex - 1918*; Bc.Enchantress -1919*;

C. Bridesmaid - 1919;  Blc.British King - 1920*; Slc.Moonbeam - 1920*; Lc.Dragonosa - 1921*; Lc.Golden Palatine

- 1921*; - 1921; Bc. British Queen - 1922*; Bc.Lady Rachel - 1922*; Bc.Queen of England - 1922; Slc.Thyone - 1923*; Lc.Canhamiana alportense - ?.

 

All of the foregoing marked with * are hybrids produced by Samuel Gratrix and his wife as are the following Cypripediums:

 

S.Gratrix - 1898; walleyense -1899; Mary Amellia - 1902; Miss.Balfour - 1902; Monsieur de Curte-alportense - 1904; Woottonii westpointense - 1905; Ellis Markendale - 1910; Queen Mary - 1910; Marquis of Landsdowne -1910; Alport - 1911; Magog -1912; Mary Gratrix - 1912; Princess Patricia - 1913; West Point Monarch - 1913; Lloyd George - 1917; Sir. H. Rawlinson - 1917; Duke of York - 1920; Climax - 1920; Caryville - 1920; Montcalm - 1922; Britain's Monarch - 1922; Admiral - 1922; Ionian - 1922; Odin - 1922; Papyrus - 1923; Madrigal - 1923; Queen Maud - 1923; Windsor - 1923; Peter Pan - 1924; Robin - 1924; The President - 1924; Valkrie -1924; Toreador - 1925; Victoria - 1925; Columbus - 1926; and Prince David - 1927.


As hybridists' Samuel and Mary Gratrix could be described as prolific paphanatics having produced 40 cypripedium hybrids between 1889 and 1927, six of which are accredited to Mary, she also created : one Cattleya; one Brassocattleya; one Laeliocattleya; one Odontioda and one Odontoglossum - totalling eleven hybrids alongside the thirty-four Cypripedium; one Cattleya; two Brassocattleya; three Brassolaeliocattleya; two Dendrobium; six Laeliocattleya; five Odontioda; four Odontoglossum and two Sophrolaeliocattleya hybrids a total of fifty-nine or seventy hybrids between them in forty-five years of orchid activity.  Mrs. Gratrix personally cared for all the seedlings.

 

Society records researched covering the period 1910 - 1916 show them to have gained the following awards:

 

First Class Certificates - M.O.S./M. & N.E.O.S.:

 

Oct.  06th.1910    -              C.           Ellis Markendale.

Nov. 17th.1910    -              Cyp.        Queen Mary (Aeson giganteum x insigne).

Jan.  05th.1911    -                “           Alport Regina.

   “               “       -                 “           Sunbeam.

Dec. 28th.1911    -                “           Royal Sovereign.

   “               “      -                 “           Helen II var Westburt.

Jan.  12th.1912    -              Odm.      crispum x xanthotes ‘Gratrixiae’.

   “               “                       Cyp.       unamed seedling (Hirsutissimum x aurem Hyeanum)

Jan.  25th.1912    -               “            Alcibiades ‘Gratrix's var.’

Nov. 28th.1912    -               “            Maudiae var John Martindale Gratrix.

Jan.  16th.1913   -               “            Princess Patricia of Connaught.

Feb.  06th.1913   -               “            King Ferdinand.

Apl.  03rd.1913    -              Odm.      Harlequin ‘West Point var.’

May. 01st.1913    -              Blc.         Triune "Gratrixiae".

Nov. 05th.1914    -              C.           Petersii alba ‘West Point var.’

Apl.  01st.1915    -               Den.       Thwaitesiae ‘Veitch's var.’

Jun.  17th.1915    -              Cyp.       Curtisii Sanderae.

Oct.  7th.1915      -              C.           Peetersii ‘West Point var.’

 "      21st.1915     -              "             Fabia var.’ Samuel Gratrix.’

Dec. 16th.1915    -               Odm.      crispum var. ‘Luna umbra’.

Jan.  06th.1916    -              Cyp.       Cavalier var. ‘ Mrs. Samuel Gratrix’.

 "      20th.1916    -              C.           trianae ‘General Townsend’.

Apl. 13th.1916     -              Odm.      crispum ‘ Alport Emperor’.

  “               “        -               Den.       Thwaitesiae  ‘West Point var.’.      

  “               “         -              Oda.       General Townsend.

  “               “         -               Odm.      crispum xanthotes ‘Cloth of Gold’.

Apl. 27th.1916     -              C.           Brenda var  ‘Gratrixiae’.

   “              “       -               Slc.         Niobe.

May. 11th.1916   -              Bl.          Digbyano purpurata  ‘West Point var.’.

Jun.   01st.1916    -              C.           warscewiczii var ‘Gratrixiae’.

Oct.   05th.1916  -              "             Venus var ‘Mary Gratrix’.

 

Awards of Merit - M.O.S./ M. & N.E.O.S.:

 

Jan. 25th.1912      -              Cyp.         Black Knight.

  “                "       -                 “           Princess Wilhelmina.

Mar. 21st.1912     -              Lyc.        Susan (Natural Hybrid).

  “                “       -               C.           Suzanne hye ‘Gratrix's var.’.

  “                “       -               Cyp        Prince Albert var.’Alport Derby’.

Oct.  03rd.1912    -               “            Troilus "West Point var.".

Dec.  05th.1912   -               “            Lion.

   “               “       -                “            Queen Maud.

Jan. 16th.1913      -               “            Snowdon Range.

Feb. 06th.1913     -              Odm.      Harlequin.

   “              “        -                 “           Eximium var. ‘Ellis Martindale’

Feb. 20th.1913     -              Oda.       Zephyr  ‘West Point var.’.

   “              “        -               Cyp.       Duke of Marlborough.

Mar.  3rd.1913     -              Oda.       Zephyr  ‘West Point var.’.

   “              “        -               Cyp.       Duke of Marlborough.

Apl.  03rd.1913    -              C.           Gratrixiae.

   “              “        -               Lyc.        Fairy Footsteps.

   “              “       -               Bc.          Mdm. Chas. Maron  ‘West Point var.’.


Apl.  03rd.1913    -             Odm.      Royal Purple.

May. 01st.1913    -              Lc.          Duchess of Connaught.

Sep.  24th.1914    -              C.           Sybil var  ‘Sir. John French’.

Oct. 15th.1914     -              “             Fabia alba var.  ‘Lady Jellico’.

   “              “        -               Lc.          St. Gothard ‘West Point var.’.

Nov. 19th.1914    -              Cyp.       Acteus ‘Ethel’.

   “              “        -                 “           Royal George.

Dec. 17th.1914    -                “           Romulus var. ‘Gratrixiae’.

   “              “        -                 “           Bessie.

Jan. 21st.1915      -                “           Longford Hall.

Mar.  4th.1915     -                “           West Point Beauty.

Apl.  1st.1915       -                “           Rossettii  - "Mary Gratrix".

Oct.  7th.1915      -              C.           Amiel ‘West Point var.’.

Oct. 21st.1915      -               “            Lady Veitch var. ‘Mrs. S. Gratrix’.

Dec.  2nd.1915     -              Odm.      Percultum ‘Black Knight’. 

   “              “        -               Oda.       Diana ‘West Point’.

   “              “        -               Cyp.       Troilus ‘The Tiger’.

Dec. 16th.1915    -              C.           Evelyn Sander.

   “              “        -               “             Dragon.

Jan.  06th.1916    -              Cyp.       Nydia var. ‘ Gratrixiae’.

Feb. 20th.1916     -              C.           Octave Doin var. ‘ West Point’.

Apl. 27th.1916     -              Odm.      crispum "var. ‘Virgin Queen’.

   “              “        -               C.           Dominiana  ‘West Point var.’.

Jun. 15th.1916     -              Oda.       Earl Kitchener.

   “              “        -               Lc.          General Brusiloff.

Sep. 21st.1916     -              Cyp.       Actaeus var. ‘ Majestic’.

   “              “        -               C.           Venus var. ‘ Mary Gratrix’.

                                                           

 

Medals - M.O.S./M & N.E.O.S.:

 

Silver Gilt Medal:

 

Apl.  3rd.1913 - Group Display.

 

Large Silver Medal:

 

Feb. 20th.1913 - Group Display.

Mar.  6th.1913 -   “            “

Jan.  6th.1916 -    “            “

 

Silver Medal:

 

Mar. 21st.1912 - Group Display.

Feb.  6th.1913 -     “           “

Dec. 16th.1915 -    “           “

Sep.  7th.1916 -     “           “

 

Gardener's Prizes - M.O.S.:

 

Cultural Certificate and Bronze Medal:

 

Mar. 21st.1912 - Mr.T. Brown -   Odm. crispum  ‘Samuel Gratrix’.

Jun.  3rd.1915  - Mr.W.W. Field - Den. thrysiflorum.

Dec. 16th.1915 -  “      “        “    - L. gouldi


Richard G. and Mrs. Thwaites,

`Chessington' Christchurch Rd.,

Steatham Hill, London. S.W.

 

R.H.S. Orchid Committee Member - 1904 on.

 

Early member, if not a founder member of the Manchester Orchid Society who possessed what was known at that time as the `Chessington Collection' the striking feature of which was the beautiful hybrids produced there.

 

Very few species only, but those that were in the collection were fine specimens, grown well and used for hybridising.   Whilst R.G. Thwaites studied and consulted to avoid repeating crosses already made and purchased plants purely for his main interest of producing first class hybrids.   It was his wife who actually did the pollinating and tended the young seedlings.   Like all early hybridists the Thwaites had many failures alongside many notable successes as listed in datal order below:

 

1903 -     Dend.    Chiron         –       ( Den..nobile x Den.Victoria Regina )

   “              “         Thwaitesiae –       ( Den. Ashworthii (spendidissimum grandiflorum) x Den. Wiganiae )

1904 -        “         Blackianum -        ( Den. Findleyanum x Den. Wiganiae )

   “          L..          Gwennie      -        ( L. Cowanii x L. Jongeana )

1906 -    Lc.          Oriens         -         ( C. trianae x L. Cowanii )

1907 -    Bc.          Thwaitesii   -         ( B. Digbyana x L. grandiflora )

   “    -     Odm.      tigrinum     -          ( Odm. Fascinator x Odm. harryanum )

1908 –    Bl.          Cecilia        -         ( B.Digbyana x L.pumila (praestans) )

   “    -     Oda.       Thwaitesii   -         ( Cda.vulcanica x Odm. harryanum )

   “    -     Odm.      Neternense  -        ( Odm. Hunnwelianum x Odm. Pescatorei )

   “    -       “          Thwaitesii   -         ( Odm. Ardentissimum x Odm. harryanum )

1909 -    Sc.          Blackii        -         ( C. Hardyana x Soph.grandiflora )

   “    -      “           Thwaitesii  -          ( C. mendelii x Soph. grandiflora FCC/RHS )

1910 –    C.           Blackii        -         ( C. gaskelliana x C. mendelii )

   “    -     Oda.       Seymourii   -         ( Cda.vulcanica x Odm. uro-skinneri )

   “    -       “          Wilsonii     -          (   “        “          x     “    Pescatorei )

   “    -    Odm.      Argon        -          ( Odm. amabile x Odm. Edwardii )

   “    -      “           Blackii       -          (    “   Pescatorei x  “   . Rossii )

   “    -    Sc.          Roupelliara –        ( C.    F.W. Wigan x Soph. grandiflora )

1911 -   Den.        Mirandum   -         ( Den. Thwaitesii x Den. Wiganiae )

   “    -   Oda.        Latona        -         ( Cda. Bradshawiae x Odm. crispo-harryanum )

   “    -     “            Zephyr        -         (   “     noezliana x  Odm. Wilckeanum )

1912 -   “             Rolfei          -        (   “     vulcanica x Odm. Hunnewellianum )

   “    -   Odm.       Thwaitesiae  -       ( Odm. harryanum x Odm. Rossii )

1913 -   Oda.        Isis              -         ( Cda. vulcanica x Odm. Rolfeae )

   “    -   Odm.       Meredithiae -        ( Odm. Rossii (rubescens) x Odm. venustulum )

1914 -   Den.        Frederickii   -        ( Den. fimbriatum x Den. Thwaitesii )

   “    -   Oda.        Crispilia      -         ( Cda. Cecilia x Odm. crispum )

   “    -    “             Fuscimium  -        (   “    Fuscien x    “     Eximium )

   “    -    “             Rosalie        -        (   “    noezliana x “     Thwaitesii )

   “    -    “             Rubia          -         (   “    Charlesworthii x Odm. Sanderae )

   “    -  Odm.         Vulcirrha    -         ( Odm. cirrhosum x Odm. Vuylstekei )

   “    -   Slc.          Dorilla        -         ( L. pumila x Sc. Doris )

   “    -   C.             Pretoria       -         ( C. Dowiana x C. Peetersii )

1915 -  Bc.            Mildred       -         ( B. Digbyana-Schroderae x C. schroderae )

   “    -  Lc.            Firenze        -        ( L. Carmencila x C. Mira )

   “    -  Oda.         Prunella      -         ( Cda. Thwaitesii x Odm. harryanum )

   “    -    “              Vulcan.       -         (   “     noezliana  x    “    .Clytie )

   “    -  Odm.        Chloe          -         ( Odm. Groganiae x Odm. crispum )

   “    -     “             Clovis         -         (    “.    Eximium x      “  . Clytie )

   “    -     “             Cluny         -          ( Odm. Lambeauianum x Odm. Wilckeanum )

1916 - Sc.             Popaeea      -         ( C. Empress Frederick x Soph. grandiflora )

   “    - Slc.             Corona        -         ( Soph. Dorila x Lc. rubens )

1917 -Odm.          Ferentum     -        ( Odm.     ?      x Odm. Thompsonianum )

   “    - Sc.             Ramilles      -        ( Soph. Warnhamensis x C. Empress Frederick )

1919 –Oda            Livinia        -         ( Cda. Thwaitesii x Odm. amabile )

   “        “               Saturn         -         (   "    Sanderae x Odm. Argon )

   “    - Odm.         Goneri         -      ( Odm. Chieftain x Odm. maculatum )

   “    - Rolf.           Rbescens     -        ( Bc. Mrs.J.Leemann x Sc. Blackii )


1919 -    Sc.          Sistron       -          ( C. Adula x Soph. grandiflora )

   “    -     Slc        Souvenir    -          ( Lc. G.S. Ball x Soph. grandiflora )

1920 -    Oda.       Atalanta     -          ( Cda. Latona x Odm. Atalanta )

   “           “           Elisabethae -         (  “      Bradshawiae x Odm. Thwaitesii )

   “           “           Siskin         -          (  “      Charlesworthii x Odm. Sanderae )

   “           “           Violette      -          (   “     Thwaitesii x Odm. Percultum )

   “    -     Odtcm.   Thwaitesii -           ( Odm. crispum x Onc. tigrinum )

   “    -     Odm.      Autumnalis  -        ( Odm. crispum x Odm. Swietinicolor )

   “    -     Slc.         Maratara     -         ( Sl. Marathon x C. Octane Doin )

   “           “            Raphaelae    -        ( C. Maggie Raphael x Sl. Psyche )

   “    -    Lc.          Estelle   -               ( L. glaucus x C. Empress Frederick )

1921 -   Lc.           Santos    -              ( L. Pizarro x C. mossiae )

   "    -   Sc.           Atranta   -              ( Sc. Thwaitesii x C. Atlanta )

   “          “             Miltonii  -              ( Sc. Atreus x C. schroderae )

1922 -  C.             Goveri    -              ( C. gaskelliana x C. schilleriana )

   “          “             Octavia  -               ( C. Fabia x C. Octave Doin )

   “    -  Sc.            Pamela   -              ( Sc. Doris x C. trianae )

1923 -  Oda.         Ilona     -                ( Cda. Cooksoniae x Odm. crispo-harryanum )

   “    -  Sc.            Jean      -                ( Sc.  Thwaitesii x C. Iris )

   “        “               Rupert  - ( Sc. Roupelliana x C. Maggie Raphael )

1924 - Oda.          Induna  -                ( Cda. Thwaitesii x Odm. Rolfeae )

   “        “               Miala  -                  (    “        “          x Odm. Eximium )

 

Seventy-two hybrids, many of which were used in later breeding programmes on account of their quality; over a period of twenty-one years is a record to be proud of and which was in line with many other members of the Manchester & North of England Orchid  Society who collectively did so very much to promote orchid cultivation and hybridising in the U.K. and elsewhere during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.


 

The Wrigley Alliance - Pre 1856-1955:

      

O.O. Wrigley - (Pre 1856 - 1916) of Bridge Hall, Bury. Lancs.   Founder member of the Manchester Orchid Society.   Early hybridist and owner of a fine collection.

    

Mrs. Marion Bruce - (Nee Wrigley) - O.B.E. - (1863 - 1932).   First daughter of O.O.Wrigley

Widowed after a few years of marriage to Mr. Harry Bruce, paper manufacturer of Edinburgh and returned to Bridge Hall.

      

                               Miss. Constance Wrigley - (1867 - 1955).   Second daughter of O.O. Wrigley.

 

Both daughters continued to maintain the fine orchids at Bridge Hall, creating over the period 1914 -    1955 many hybrids.

 

Father & daughters were members of the Manchester Orchid Society.   (O.O. Wrigley was a founder)

                              

                               Miss. C. Wrigley served as President of the Manchester & North of England O.S. -1937-1939.

 

      

This formidable partnership of O.O. Wrigley. Esq.; Mrs. M. Bruce and Miss. Constance Wrigley and their association with the Manchester & North of England Orchid Society commenced with the foundation of the Manchester Orchid Society on 23rd. April 1897 when O.O. Wrigley attended the inaugural meeting, and continued from 1918 via the involvement of his two daughters, all of Bridge Hall, Bury.

 

O.O. Wigley. Esq. does not appear in records after 1916,  Mrs. Bruce  after 1932 and Miss. C. Wrigley last signed the attendance register as President on 31st. March 1939.   The obituary of Mrs. Marion Bruce appeared in the Bury Times of Saturday April 30th. 1932. listing the many good causes and societies that this Lady who was decorated with the O.B.E. for nursing services to war wounded housed in one of her residences, which she attended daily to assist with the nursing of servicemen and for which she was also created a Lady of the Grace of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.   She was also the President of the Bury Nursing Division of the St. John Association and a leading member of many such local institutions.

 

Constance Wrigley assisted her sister with the nursing of war wounded servicemen for which she received an M.B.E.

Despite the fact that she appears to have stopped attending meetings of the Manchester & North of England O.S. as the

Manchester O.S. was then known; Sanders Lists of Orchid Hybrids credits her with the creation and registration of hybrids up to 1941.

 

Summary of their respective individual/joint achievements in the field of hybridising reveals:

 

                                               O.O.Wrigley. Esq.               -     16 hybrids - 1899/1914.

                                               Mrs. M. Bruce.                    -       3    "        - 1918/1920.

                                               Mrs. Bruce/Miss. Wrigley.   -   167    "        - 1918/1934.

                                               Miss. C. Wrigley.                 -   172    "        - 1932/1941.

 

O.O. Wrigley. Esq.:

 

In addition to the following hybrids created by this founder; as early as 1856; records, would appear to show him as one of the leading members during the formative years in that he regularly mounted very large displays of up to 150 orchids from his extensive collection at Bridge Hall at the fortnightly meetings of the Manchester O.S.   He was the recipient of many awards for such displays in addition to awards for individual plants.

 

He was assisted by his grower, Mr. E. Rogers, himself; the recipient of many medals and cultural awards.

 

Hybrids:

 

Cyp.  Ignotum                      -               ( Cyp. tonsum x      ?                                                                     - 1856.

  "      Zeno                           -               ( Cyp. Boxallii x Cyp. tonsum                                                      - 1899.

Lc.    Wrigleyi                      -               ( C. bowringiana x L. anceps                                                       - 1899.

Cyp.  Iago                             -               ( Cyp. Dayanum x Cyp. villosum                                                  - 1899.

  "     Buryense                     -               ( Cyp. Swinburnei x Cyp. venustum                                             - 1902.

  "     Melia                                            ( Cyp. Calypso(Oakwood) x Cyp. insigne(Sanderianum)          - 1902.

  "     Rogersii                       -               ( Cyp. Lawrenceanum x Cyp. Swanianum )                                  - 1902.

  "     Wrigleyi                      -               ( Cyp. Charlesworthii x Cyp. villosum )                                         - 1902.

  “.    Brunette                      -               ( Cyp. Lathamianum x Cyp. Wottonii )                                       -1905.

  “     Phryne                         -               ( Cyp. Argus x Cyp. exul )                                                             - 1907.

L.      Rogersii                      -               ( L. Cowanii x L. dayana )                                                            - 1908.

Cyp.  Invincible                   -               ( Cyp. hirsutissimum x Cyp.  M.de Carte )                                 -  1911.

  "     Constance Wrigley    -               (Cyp. insigne (Harefield Hall) x Cyp. Minos(Youngii)             - 1912.

  “     Jessie II                       -               ( Cyp. Thompsonii x Cyp Vill-exul )                                          - 1914.

  "     Symetry                       -               ( Var. of Moonbeam )                                                                     - 1914.

Lc.   Goldilocks                   -               ( C. Harrisiana x L. Cowanii )                                                        - 1914.

                                                         


Mrs. M. Bruce:

 

Is named in Sanders' List of Orchid Hybrids as the sole originator of three hybrids during the period 1918/1920 in addition to being named as a partner to Miss. C. Wrigley.   A partnership which produced 167 hybrids between 1918/1934 described more fully below:

 

Hybrids:

 

Slc.    Sax Oriole                   -              ( Lc. Golden Oriole x Sc.  Saxa )                                                  - 1918.

Cyp.  Roth Maud                  -              ( Cyp. maudiae x Cyp. Rothschildianum )                                  - 1919.

  "     Yadia                           -              ( Cyp.Hera (New Hall Hey) x Cyp. Draco )                                 - 1920.

 

Mrs. M. Bruce and Miss. Constance Wrigley:

 

During the period 1918/1934 these two ladies jointly originated 167 orchid hybrids across 15 genera; 122 - Cypripedium; 2 - Brassocattleya; 2 - Brassolaeliocattleya; 8 - Cattleya; 3 - Cymbidium; 2 - Dendrobium; 15 - Laeliocattleya; 1 - Miltonia; 2 - Odontioda; 3 - Odontoglossum;1 - Oncidioda; 1 - Potinara; 2 - Rolfeara; 1 - Sophrocattleya and 2 - Sophrolaeliocattleya.   An average of 10.7 per year as listed below in alphabetical x genera rather than datal order:

 

C.    Adgina                          -              ( C. Adula x C. Regina )                                                                   - 1926.

 "     Mantau                        -              ( C. Mantini x C. Mastersoniae )                                                     - 1926.

                 "     Mavis                          -               ( C. Lady Ingram x C. Regina )                                                       - 1928.

Bc.    Fama                         -              ( B. Digbyana Mossiae x C. lawrenceana )                                    - 1928.

                  "      Frigida                       -              ( B. glauca x C. Blackii (alba)                                                        - 1927.

Blc.   Lyra                           -              ( Bc. Apollo x Lc. Callistoglossa )                                                   - 1927.

  "      Philomela                  -              ( Bc. Apollo x Lc. G.S.Ball )                                                           - 1927.

Cym.  Matador                    -              ( C. Schlegelii x C. tracyanum )                                                      - 1928.

   "     Robin Hood              -              (             ?       x      ?               )                                        -     ?

                   "     Sherwood Forest       -              ( Cym. eburneum x Cym. Robin Hood                                          - 1932.

Cyp.  Aaron                        -              ( Cyp. Actaeus(sybil) x Cyp. Alcineda(Strelsa)                            - 1928.

   "     Aesop                        -              (Cyp.  Aeson(giganteum) x Cyp. Lord Wollmer )                         - 1925.

   "    Amicus                       -              ( Cyp. Actaeus x Cyp. Armistce II )                                              - 1926.

   "    Anna                           -              ( Cyp. aureum(laekenense) x Cyp. Armistice II )                          - 1929.

                 "    Arbor                          -              (Cyp.  Tantroilus (Ashville) x Cyp. Troilus (eboraicum))            - 1928.

   "    Archbishop                -              (Cyp. Reginald Young x Cyp. Troilus (eboraicum))                     - 1930.

   "    Archville                    -              (   var. of Cyp. Trantroilus )                                                               - 1921.

   "    Armament                  -              (Cyp.  Armistice II x Cyp. maudiae )                                            - 1924.

                 "    Autumn                      -             (Cyp. keighleyense x Cyp. Moonbeam )                                                          - 1927.

   "    Azrael                          -              (Cyp. Elise II (Grand Monarch) x Cyp. Lord Woolmer)               - 1928.

   "    Bastion                        -              ( Cyp. Invincible x Cyp. Pyramus )                                                  - 1926.

   "    Begorra                        -              ( Cyp. Shamus x Cyp. Troilus )                                                         - 1930.

   "    Benedict                      -               (Cyp.  Bendis x Cyp. Mrs. Wm. Mostyn )                                       - 1923.

   "    Bessie                          -              (Cyp.  keighleyense x Cyp. Mrs. C. Batten )                                   - 1922.

   "    Cambyses                    -              ( Cyp. keighleyense x Cyp. Hera )                                                    - 1920.

                   "    Carlo                            -              ( Cyp.Leeanum x Cyp. Tom Charles )                                             - 1927.

   "    Carolus Rex                -              (Cyp.  Carola x Cyp. Earl of Tankerville )                                      - 1930.

   "    Cerebus                       -              ( Cyp. Lady Dillon x Cyp. Satyr )                                                     - 1926.

   "    Chile                            -              (Cyp.  King George V.x Cyp. Mrs. Alfred Fowler )                      - 1927.

   "    Chris                            -              ( Cyp. Christopher x Cyp. Earl of Tankerville )                             -     ?

   "    Clansman                    -               ( Cyp. Mem.F.M. Ogilvie x Cyp. Satyr )                                         - 1932.

   "    Consul                         -              (Cyp. Alcibidiades x Cyp. Constance Wrigley )                            - 1925.

   "    Cophetua                     -               (Cyp.  King George V. x Cyp. Lady Babbie ) - 1931.

   "    Cyclone                       -              (Cyp.  Cyclops x Cyp.Tantroilus )                                                    - 1928.

Cyp. Danae                          -               ( Cyp. Invincible x Cyp. Queen Alexandra )                                  - 1931.

  "     Dawn                           -               (Cyp.  Armistice II x Cyp. nitens-Leeanum )                               - 1927.

  "     Desichado                  -              ( Cyp. Invincible x Cyp.   ?     ?                  )                                   - 1933.

  "     D.M. Coffin                -               ( Cyp. Caractacus x Cyp. Satyr )                                                       - 1931.

  "     Dracomus                 -                ( Cyp. Draco x  Cyp. Shamus(Shaun))                                            - 1929.

  "     Earl Delight                -( Cyp. Delhi x Cyp. Earl of Tankerville )                                       - 1926.

  "     Earl Marshall              -               ( Cyp. Earl of Tankerville x Cyp. King George V.)                       - 1923.

  "     Ederline                       -               ( Cyp. Moonbeam x Cyp. Tracyanum )                                          - 1929.

  "     Edina                            -               ( Cyp. Mem.F.M. Ogilvie x Cyp. The God Pan )                           - 1932.

  "     Endeavour                   -               (Cyp.  Queen of the Belgains x Cyp. The God Pan )                     - 1930.

  "     Erin                               -               (Cyp.  nitens-Leeanum x Cyp. Shamus )                                         - 1928.


  "     Ethiopian                     -               (Cyp.  Hera x Cyp. Cyp. Parkerianum )                                           - 1920.

  "     Evelina                         -               (Cyp.  Leeanum (Lee's) x Cyp. Mother Eve )                              -  1930.

  "     Favourite                     -               (Cyp.  Idina x Cyp. Mme.Albert Fevrier )                                       -  1930.

  "     Genoa                          -               (Cyp.  Invincible x Cyp. Mrs. Wm. Mostyn )                              -  1921.

  "     George Dillon              -               (Cyp.  Charlotte Dillon x Cyp. Royal George )                              -  1934.

  "     George Hye                 -               (Cyp.  King George V. x Cyp. Mme. Jules Hye )                          -  1935.

  "     George Mercier           -               (Cyp.  Cardinal Mercier x Cyp. King George V. )                         -  1936.

  "     George VI.                  -               (Cyp.  Azrael x Cyp. Shamus )                                                          -  1936.

                  "     Glaucible                     -               (Cyp.  glaucophyllum x Cyp. Invincible )                                       -  1920.

  "     Claucus                       -               (Cyp.  glaucophyllum x Cyp. Thompsonii )                                    -  1920.

  "     Goddess                      -               (Cyp.  Pallas Athene x Cyp. The God Pan )                                    -  1930.

  "     Gouvernante               -               (Cyp.  Pallas Athene x Cyp. Shogun )                                              -  1931.

  "     Grenadier                    -               (Cyp.  Dreadnought x Cyp. Trantroilus )                                         -  1926.

  "     Helen Walker             -               (Cyp.  Constance Wrigley x Cyp. Earl of Tankerville )                -  1919.

  "     Hellespont                   -               (Cyp.  Alma x Cyp. Leander(superba) )                                          -  1925.

  "     Helsa                           -               (Cyp.  Helen II x Cyp. Satyr )                                                            -  1925.

  "     Herald                         -               (Cyp.  Lord Wolmer x Cyp. Mrs. Carey Batten )                          -  1924.

  "     Hilda Walker              -               (Cyp.  Hera-(Incomparable) x Cyp. King George V.)                   -  1921.

  "     Horus                           -               (Cyp.  insigne-(Harefield Hall) x Cyp. Mem.Jerninghamiae )    -  1923.

  "     Ignoramus                   -               (Cyp.  Armistice II x Cyp. Ignotum )                                               -  1929.

  "     Intricacy                      -               (Cyp.  Invincible x Cyp. Tracyanum(Lady Evelyn James )         -  1931.

                  "     Ironclad                       -               (Cyp.  Beryl-(W. Hopkins) x Cyp. Dreadnought )                        -  1930.

  "     Jade                             -               (Cyp.  Beryl x Cyp. Mem. Jerninghamiae )                                    -  1920.

  "     Java                             -               (Cyp.  callosum-(Sanderae) x Cyp.javanicum )                             -  1921.

  "     Jesse Lee                     -               (Cyp.  Jessie II. x Cyp. nitens-Leeanum )                                       -  1931.

  "     Jessica                         -               (Cyp.  Aure-Euryades x Cyp. Jessie II. )                                         -  1927.

  "     John                             -               (Cyp.  Beryl x Cyp. Invincible )                                                        -  1925.

  "     Lady Babbie               -               (Cyp.  Actaeus-(Archie Neal) x Cyp. Hera )                                   -  1923.

  "     Lady Moon                 -               (Cyp.  Lord Wolmer-(Hermes) x Cyp. Moonbeam )                    -  1925.

  "     Lawgiver                     -               (Cyp.  Draco x Cyp. Hera-Beckmannii )                                         -  1925.

  "     Leap Year                   -               (Cyp.      ?     x Cyp.    ?     )                                               -      ?

  "     Leopard                       -               (Cyp.  Mrs. Wm. Mostyn x Cyp. triumphs )                                   -  1920.

  "     Leowulf                       -               (Cyp.  Leopard x Cyp. The God Pan )                                        - 1930.

  "     Little Minster              -               (Cyp.  Lady Babbie x Cyp. Tantroilus )                                           -  1930

                  "     Lord St. Vincent         -               (Cyp.  Lord Wolmer x Cyp. Mem.F.M. Ogilvie )                          -  1930.

  "     Lorelei                         -               (Cyp.  Actaeus-(Bianca) x Cyp. Titania )                                        -  1930.

                "     Lucinda                        -               (Cyp.  Alcibidiades x Cyp. Lucernale )                                           -  1928.

  "     Luxor                           -               (Cyp.  Leeanum-(Clinkaberryanum) x Cyp.Minos(Youngii)       -  1923.

  "     Makepiece                  -               (Cyp.  Armistice II. x Cyp. Mastersianum )                                   -  1930.

  "     Marah                          -               (Cyp.  Haro x Cyp. Mario )                                                               -  1931.

  "     Menin Gate                 -               (Cyp.  Tantroilus x Cyp. villosum )                                                  -  1931.

  "     Mesmir                        -               var. of Nesta II.                                                                                 -  1925.

  "     Meta                            -               (Cyp.  Alcineda-(Strelsa) x Cyp. Troilus )                                      -  1926.

  "     Mime                           -               (Cyp.  Farrieanum x Cyp. Invincible )                                             -  1930.

  "     Monsieur Clemenceau –           (Cyp.  nitens-Leeanum x Cyp. Tracyanum )                                  -  1920.

                  "     Morning                      -               (Cyp.  Lucernale x Cyp. nitens-Leeanum )                                     -  1928.

  "     Mother                         -               (Cyp.  Eve x Cyp. Mrs. F. Sander )                                                 -  1923.

  "     Murmur                       -               (Cyp.  Eurybiades(minum) x Cyp. Tom Charles )                         -  1930.

  "     Nigrum                        -               (Cyp.  Lawrenceanum x Cyp. phlogiodes )                                     -  1928.

  "     Noel                             -               (Cyp.  insigne-(Berryanum) x Cyp. Keighleyense )                      -  1919.

  "     Obelisk                        -               (Cyp.  Keighleyense x Cyp. Mem. Jerninghamiae )                      -  1923.

  "     O.O. Wrigley              -               (Cyp.  Curtisii x Cyp. Gowerianum )                                               -  1925.

  "     Oracle                           - (Cyp. Lord Roberts x Cyp. Mario )                                                                -  1930.

  "     Paladin                        - (Cyp.  Farrieanum x Cyp. Reginald Young )                                               -  1925.

  "     Pallida                         - ( Cyp. Armistice II. x Cyp. Traceyanum )                                                   -  1928.

  "     Panjandrum                - ( Cyp. Eurybidiades(minum) x Cyp. The God Pan )                                   -  1930.

  "     Pied Piper                                    - ( Cyp. Earl of Tankerville x Cyp. The God Pan )                        -  1930.

  "     Polites                         - ( Cyp. Priam(Our King) x Cyp. Shogun )                                                     -  1929.

  "     Puck                            - ( Cyp.  Armistice II. x Cyp. Leeanum(Gratrixiae))                                    -  1924.

  "     Queen Helen               - ( Cyp. Helen Walker x Cyp. Queen of the Belgians )                            -  1925.

                  "     Queen Ioanna             - ( Cyp. Lord Wolmer(Hermes) x Cyp. The God Pan 0                                -  1930.

                  "     Queen Mab                 - ( Cyp. Leeanum x Cyp. Titara )                                                                      -  1927.

  "     Quidnune                    - ( Cyp. Beryl x Cyp. Thompsonii )                                                            -  1920.


  "    Ranelagh                      - ( Cyp. Beryl x Cyp. villosum-(Rann Lea))                                   -  1918.

  "    Rex                               - ( Cyp. Ernest Read x Cyp. King George V. )                                               -  1925.

  "    Rizzio                           - ( Cyp. Lord Wolmer(Hermes) x Cyp. Mario )                                             -  1926.

  "    Robert the Devil          - ( Cyp. Robert Paterson x Cyp. Satyr )                                                           -  1931.

  "    St. Oswald                    - ( Cyp. Invincible x Cyp. nitens-Leeanum )                                  -  1927.

  "    Sandringham               - ( Cyp. Jessie II. x Cyp. King George V.)                                                      -  1930.

  "    Santania                        - ( Cyp. Mrs. F. Sander x Cyp. Tatana )                                                          -  1928.

  "    Sarpedon                      - ( Cyp. Alcibiades(Illustrious) x Cyp. Pallas Athene                   -  1927.

  "    Scarab                           - ( Cyp. Mrs. Carey Batten x Cyp. Thompsonii )                                           -  1922.

  "    Scotia                           - ( Cyp. Caractacus x Cyp. Mem.F.M. Ogilvie )                                            -  1932.

  "    Seamew                        - ( Cyp. Troilus x Cyp. Mrs. Carey Batten )                                   -  1923.

  "    Sebastion Cabot          - ( Cyp. Christopher x Cyp. daffrosum )                                                          -  1927.

  "    Sgt. Murphy                 - ( Cyp. Beryl x Cyp. hirsutissimum )                                                              -  1923.

  "    Shadrack                      - ( Cyp. insigne-(Harefield Hall) x Cyp. Thompsonii )                 -  1922.

  "    Shamus                         - ( Cyp. Earl of Tankerville x Cyp. Keighleyense )                                       -  1923.

  "    Spotted Snake              - ( Cyp. Beckmannii x Cyp. Thompsonii )                                                      -  1920.

  "    Strongitharm                - ( Cyp. Mastersio-villosum x Cyp.Shogun )                                                   -  1928.

  "    Sunspot                        - ( Cyp. nitens-Leeanum x Cyp. Spotted Snake )                                           -  1930.

  "    Tamor                           - ( Cyp. Earl of Tankerville x Cyp. Mario )                                                    -  1931.

  "    The God Pan - ( Cyp. Lord Wolmer(hermes) x Cyp.Satyr                                   -  1923.

  "    Thoth                            - ( Cyp.  Masterianum x Cyp. Obelisk )                                                           -  1930.

  "    Titania                          - ( Cyp.  Charlesworthii x Cyp. Mrs. F. Sander )                                           -  1921.

  "    Tom Charles                - ( Cyp.  nitens-Leeanum (Charlesworthii) - (1897) x Cyp. Thompsonii   - 1898.

  "    Tramper                       - ( Cyp.        ?                  x               ?      )                                       -      ?

  "    Troigun                        - ( Cyp. Shogun x Cyp. Troilus )                                                                       -  1931.

  "    Tweedledum                - ( Cyp. nitens-Leeanum x Cyp. The Duchess )                                             -  1920.

  "    Twelfthnight                 - ( Cyp. Noel x Cyp. The God Pan )                                                                 -  1930.

  "    Uncle Tom                   - ( Cyp. Carola x Cyp. Ethiopean )                                                                   -  1927.

  "    Uriah Heap                  - ( Cyp. Hera x Cyp. Moonbeam )                                                                    -  1923.

  "    Vert                              - ( Cyp. Emerald x Cyp. Maudiae )                                                                  -  1928.

  "    Vesper                          - ( Cyp. Alcibidiades-(Illustrious) x Cyp. Vivid II. )                                     -  1926.

  "    Vestal                           - ( Cyp. Lathamianum x Cyp. Vill-exul )                                                        -  1920.

  "    Villius                           - ( Cyp. Vill-exul x Cyp. villosum-(Rann Lea))                                             -  1925.

  "    Villorma                       - ( Cyp. Maudiae x Cyp. villosum-(ornatissimum ))                                      -  1923.

  "    Vivid II.                        - ( Cyp. Thompsonii x Cyp. villosum )                                                             -  1930.

                “   Watchdog                      - ( Cyp. Aeson-(giganteum) x Cyp. Lady Dillon-(Bull Dog))                      -  1930.

 "     Wintergreen                 - ( Cyp. Mastersianum x Cyp. Zeno )                                                               -  1924.

 "    Xenophan                      - ( Cyp. Draco x Cyp. insigne-(Wrigleyanum)                                               -  1921.

 "    Yorkist                           - ( Cyp. Keighleyense x Cyp. Tantroilus )                                                       -  1926.

 "    Zenota                           - ( Cyp. Earl of Tankerville x Cyp.  Zeno )                                                     -  1922.

 "    Zoroaster                       - ( Cyp. Earl of Tankerville x Cyp. villosum )                                  -  1922.

 

Den.  Allison                         - ( Den. Wilton - Perfection x Den. Rolfeae-(roseum))                                -  1931.

    "    Constance Wrigley    - ( Den. Lady Colman x Den. plumptonense-(Model))                                 -  1929.

 

Lc.   Alpha II                      - ( Lc. Warmhamensis x L. Cowanii )                                                              -  1919.

 "     Conicula                       - ( L.  luminosa x C. Sirius )                                                                              -  1926.

 "     Cavatina                       - ( C. Bryan x L. Cowanii )                                                                                -  1922.

 "     Demeter                        - ( L.  C.S. Ball x C. Highburyensis )                                                               -  1924.

 "     Emma                           - ( .exima x Bowringiana )                                                                             -  1920.

 "     Intermezzo                   - ( Cintermedia x L. Cowanii )                                                                       -  1923.

 "     Latonia                         - ( Lc.Dominiana x Lc. Teuera )                                                                        -  1929.

Lc.  Minima                         - ( L. Ophir x C. mendelii )                                                                -  1923.

 "    Oasis                              - ( Lc.Sahara x C. trianae )                                                                -  1931.

 "    Orosa                             - ( L .luminosa x C. .Oriens )                                                                             -  1930.

 "    Peter Pan                       - ( Lc.Gottoiana x Lc. Wrigleyii )                                                                     -  1919.

 "    Pyrope                           - ( C. Sirius x L. Pacavia )                                                                                 -  1926.

 "    Sahara                            - ( C. .Enid x L. Cowanii )                                                                                 -  1920.

 "   Yellow Dwarf                - ( C. Oriens x L. Cowanii )                                                                               -  1923.

 "    Yokohama                    - ( C. Blackii x L. Cowanii )                                                                              -  1922.


Milt. Marion Bruce             - ( Milt. Gloriosa x Milt. Wm. Pitt                                                                    -  1930.

 

Oda. Blackcap     - ( Cda.Brewii x Odm. Souvenir de Victor Hye )                                          -  1930.

   "     V.A.D.                       - ( Cda. Red Cross x Odm. crispum )                                                               -  1928.

 

Odm. Colossus II                 - ( Odm. Armstrongsiae x Odm. Eximum )                                                     -  1919.

   "     Eve                              - ( Odm. crispum x Odm. Pallas )                                                                     -  1924.

   "     Rajah                          - ( Odm. Lobbiae x Odm. Promerens (Delhi))                                                 -  1929.

 

Oncda. Brucae                     - ( Cda.Noezliana x Onc.Wentworthianum )                                                  -  1925.

 

Pot.   Amalthea                    - ( Bc.Digbyano-Mendelii x Slc.Marathon )                                                  -  1927.

 

Rolf. Queen Nerfetiti           - ( Bc.Ilene x Sc.Thwaitesii )                                                                             -  1923.

 "      Saxil                            -  ( Bc.Ilene x Sc. Saxa )                                                                                     -  1922.

 

Sc.   Octavia                         - ( Soph. .Doris x C. Octave Doin )                                                                  -  1923.

 

Slc.  Osmandi                       - ( Lc. Wrigleyi x Soph. .grandiflora )                                                             -  1920.

 "     Sophonisba                   - ( Lc. Luminosa x Sc.Thwaitesii )                                                                   -  1926.

 

Miss. Constance Wrigley:

 

Cal.  Admiration                  - ( Cal. Bryan-(Wm.Murray) x Cal. Butterfly )                                             -  1935.

 

Cym.  Beryanum                 - ( Cym. Beryl x Cym. Gottianum )                                                                  -  1934.

   "      Blush Rose               - ( Cym. Butterfly x Cym. Doris )                                                                     -  1935.

   "      Cantor                        - ( Cym. Castor x Cym. Diana - (Canary))                                                      -  1935.

   "      Florrie Brancker      - ( Cym. Matador x Cym. Rosefieldense )                                                       -  1939.

   "      Othello Low             - ( Cym. David Low x Cym. Glasgow - (Othello))                                         -  1937.

   "      Zenobia                     - ( Cym. Alexanderi x Cym. Beryl )                                                                  -  1935.

 

Cyp.   Acheron                    - ( Cyp. Azrael x Cyp. Sebastion Cabot )                                                        -  1934.

  "       Actor                         - ( Cyp. Actaeus x Cyp. Bromilowianum )                                                      -  1934.

  "       Adrift                        - (       ?      x            ?             )                                                                          -      ?

  "       Aegean                      - ( Cyp. Learden x Cyp. Shogun  )                                                                    -  1934.

  "       Aggression               - (Cyp. Armistice II. x Cyp. Mrs. Eley )                                                          -  1935.

  "       Albania                      - ( Cyp. Perseus - (Alpha) x Cyp. Tommycurte )                                            -  1941.

  "       Acigul                        - ( Cyp. Alcibiades x Cyp. Great Mogul )                                                        -  1933.

  "       Angelic                     - ( Cyp. Azrael x  Cyp. nitens )                                                                         -  1934.

  "       Angel Lady               - ( Cyp. Azrael x Cyp. Lady Dillon )                                                                -  1939.

  "       Armanville                - ( Cyp. Armistice II. x Cyp. Tantroilus )                                                        -  1933.

  "       Armada                     - ( Cyp. Desdichado x Cyp. nitens-Leeanum - (Sunrise))                             -  1934.

  "       Aryan                        - ( Cyp. Azrael x Cyp.. Mem. F.M. Ogilvie )                                 -  1943.

  "       Autumn Manoeuvres – ( Cyp. Argo - (March Along) x Cyp. Autumn )                                        -  1938.

  "       Ballerina                   - ( Cyp. Olympus x Cyp. The Duchess )                                                          -  1936.

  "       Bedel                         - ( Cyp. Bedfordiae x Cyp. Elise II. )                                                                -  1934.

  "       Belgium                    - ( Cyp. Mario x Cyp. Queen of the Belgians )                                               -  1934.

  "       Black Bruce              - ( Cyp. Clansman x Cyp. J.M. Black )                                                            -  1941.

                 "       Boat                           - ( Cyp. Adrift x Cyp. Sebastion Cabot )                                                         -  1939.

  "       Bombast                    - ( Cyp. Rizzio x Cyp. Sebastion Cabot )                                                        -  1936.

  "       Bridge of Allan        - ( Cyp. Bridge x Cyp. Mem.F.M. Ogilvie - (The Premier))                        -  1934.

  "       Bruceanum               - ( Cyp. Bromilowianum x Cyp. Enderline - (Mistress Bruce))                  -  1936.

  "       Cabal                         - ( Cyp. Leeanum - (Gratriixiae) x Cyp, Sebastion Cabot )                         -  1935.

  "       Cabriolet                   - ( Cyp. Caractacus - (Janet Coffin) x Cyp. Theseus )                                  -  1941.

                  "       Caralay                      - ( Cyp, Caractacus - (Janet Coffin) x Cyp. Mrs. Eley )                               -  1935.

Cyp.    Carlotta                    - ( Cyp. Carola x Cyp. Charlotte Dillon )                                                        -  1933.

   “       Carl Puck                 - ( Cyp. Mrs. Carl Holmes x Cyp. Puck )                                                        -  1936.

   "       Cathedral                 - ( Cyp. Mrs. Eley x Cyp. Strongitharm )                                                        -  1934.

   "       Challenge                 - ( Cyp. Dawn x Cyp. Mabel Keeling )                                                            -  1941.

   "       Chancel                    - ( Cyp. Sir. Wm. Chance x Cyp, Mem.H.J. Elwes )                                     -  1941.

   "       Character                 - ( Cyp, Charlotte Dillon x Cyp. Strongitharm )                                             -  1937.

   "       Chrisar                     - ( Cyp. Azrael x Cyp. Chris )                                                                            -  1939.

   "       Chrysolis                  - ( Cyp. T.B. Armstrong x Cyp. The Duchess )                                              -  1933.

   "       Con Dillon               - ( Cyp. Charlotte Dillon x Cyp. Conference )                                                -  1938.

   "       Conqueror                - ( Cyp. Argo - (March Along) x Cyp. Invincible )                                       -  1935.

   "       Corsand                    - ( Cyp. Corsair x Cyp. Frederick William Sander )                                      -  1934.

   "       Darnley                    - ( Cyp. nitens - Leeanum x Cyp. Rizzio )                                                       -  1933.

   "       Dawn Cameron       - ( Cyp. Clansman x Cyp. Morning )                                                                -  1941.

   "       Delight                     - ( Cyp. Earl Dehli x Cyp. Tantroilus(Archville))                                           -  1935.

   "       Delusion                  - ( Cyp. Astarte x Cyp. Jessie II. )                                                                     -  1936.

   "       Dread Queen           - ( Cyp. Dreadnought x Cyp. Queen of the Belgians )                                  -  1933.

   "       Early Morn              - ( Cyp. Earl of Delhi x Cyp. Morning )                                                          -  1935.

   "       Egypt                        - ( Cyp. Actaeus x Cyp.  Moonlight )                                                               -  1934.

   "       Egyptian Friar          - ( Cyp. Grey Fiar x Cyp. Scarab )                                                                    -  1939.

   "       Egyptian King          - ( Cyp. King George V. x Cyp. Scarab )                                                        -  1933.

   "       Eldrum                     - ( Cyp. Mem.H.J. Elwes x Cyp. Panjandrum )                                             -  1941.

   "       Eleventh Hour         - ( Cyp. Armistice II. x Cyp. bellatulum )                                                       -  1939.

   "       Elsina       - ( Cyp. Edina x Cyp. Elise II. )                                                                         -  1939.

   "       Fair Herald              - ( Cyp. Fairrieanum x Cyp. Herald )                                                               -  1935.

                   "       Fairrispont               - ( Cyp. Fairrieanum x Cyp. Hellespont )                                                        -  1933.

   "       Falling Star              - ( Cyp. Dawn x Cyp. Leap Year )                                                                    -  1935.

   "       Fieldmarshall           - ( Cyp. Pyramus x Cyp. Warrior )                                                                   -  1934.

   "       Folly                          ( Cyp. Maudiae x Cyp. Puck )                                                                           -  1935.

   "       Forth Bridge            - ( Cyp. Eurybiades - (Mirum) x Cyp. Leopard )                                           -  1931.

   "       Garvin                      - ( Cyp. Edina x Cyp. Chrysostom )                                                 -  1941.

   "       Goatherd                  - ( Cyp. Satyr x Cyp. The God Pan )                                                -  1933.

   "       Golden Angel          - ( Cyp. Azrael x Cyp. Gold Mohur )                                                               -  1941.

   "       Goodwife                 - ( Cyp. Mrs. Eley x Cyp. Yeoman )                                                -  1939.

   "       Gottfried                  - ( Cyp. Commodore x Cyp. Viking )                                                               -  1936.

   "       Great Goblin            - ( Cyp. Leeanum - (Gratrixiae) x Cyp.Puck - (Goblin))                               -  1934.

   "       Great King               - ( Cyp. Great Mogul x Cyp. King George V)                                                -  1932.

   "       Greece                      - ( Cyp. Garostom x Cyp. Lord St. Vincent)                                                   -  1941.

   "       Greengage               - ( Cyp. Aeson x Cyp. Argo - (March Along )                                                -  1939.

   "       Gridiron                   - ( Cyp. Helen II. x Cyp. Helsa(Ingrid))                                                           -  1933.

   "       Gwenarth                 - ( Cyp. Gwen Hannen x Cyp. Pallas Athene )                                               -  1934.

   "       Gwen O'Brien         - ( Cyp. Gwen Hannen x Cyp. James O'Brien )                                              -  1933.

   "       Half Caste                - ( Cyp. Argo x Cyp. Harrisianum )                                                                  -  1939.

   "       Hederspont              - ( Cyp. Ederline x Cyp. Hellespont )                                                               -  1934.

   "       Helanti                     - ( Cyp. Gouvernante x Cyp. Helsa )                                                                -  1941.

   "       Helen Gale               - ( Cyp. Cyclone x Cyp. Queen Helen )                                                           -  1931.

   "       Helslow                    - ( Cyp. Helsa x Cyp. Swallow )                                                                       -  1939.

   "       Herald of Summer  - ( Cyp. Herald x Cyp. Swallow )                                                                     -  1937.

   "       Hilda Chance          - ( Cyp. Hilda Walker x Cyp. Sir. Wm. Chance )                                          -  1933.

   "       Holme Crag             - ( Cyp. Gouvernante x Cyp. Mrs. C. Holmes )                                              -  1941.

   "       Home Guard            - ( Cyp. Garostum x Cyp. Perseus (F.C.C.))                                                    -  1941.

   "       Hopeful                    - ( Cyp. Mabel Keeling x Cyp. Tweedledum )                                               -  1945.

   "       Horizon                    - ( Cyp. Aeson x Cyp. nitens-Leeanum )                                                         -  1939.

   "       Infantry                    - ( Cyp. Mario x Cyp. Warrior )                                                                        -  1932.

   "       Infidel                       - ( Cyp. Charlotte Dillon x Cyp. Invincible )                                                  -  1934.

   "       Invincible King       - ( Cyp. Invincible x Cyp. King George V. )                                  -  1934.

   "       Invincible Knight   - ( Cyp. Invincible x Cyp. St. Oswald )                                                            -  1934.

                  "       Jean Cabot               - ( Cyp. Caractacus x Cyp. Sebastion Cabot )                                -  1933.

   "       Janet Collingwood - ( Cyp. Caractacus x Cyp. Lord St. Vincent )                                                -  1939.

   "       Janpan                      - ( Cyp. Caractacus x Cyp. The God Pan )                                      -  1933.

   "       Jean Eley                 - ( Cyp. Mario x Cyp. Mrs. Eley )                                                                     -  1933.

   "       Jessal                         ( Cyp. Alabaster x Cyp. Jessie II. )                                                                  -  1934.

   "       Jessibiades               - ( Cyp. Alcibiades - (Illustrious) x Cyp. Jessie II. )                                      -  1934.

   "       Jessie Gold              - ( Cyp. Golden Mohur x Cyp. Jessie II. )                                                       -  1939.

   "       John Aaron              - ( Cyp .Aaron x  Cyp. Sebastion Cabot )                                                       -  1936.

                   “      Kendal                      - ( Cyp. Azreal x Cyp. Mario )                                                                          -  1939.

   "      King of Salem          - ( Cyp. King George V. x Cyp. Sir. Wm. Chance )                                      -  1933.

   "      King Shaun               - ( Cyp. Chrysostom x Cyp. Shamus )                                                             -  1936.

   "      Lady Carl                  - ( Cyp. Actaeus x Cyp. Mrs. Carl Holmes )                                                   -  1937.

   "      Lakeland                   - ( Cyp. Lord St. Vincent x Cyp. Murmur )                                                     -  1939.

   "      Lang Syne                 - ( Cyp. Amicus x Cyp. Mrs. F. Sander )                                                         -  1933.

   "      Lewis Carroll            - ( Cyp. Charlotte Dillon x Cyp. Sebastion Cabot )                                       -  1934.

   "      Lord Cabot               - ( Cyp. Lord St. Vincent x Cyp. Sebastion Cabot )                                      -  1936.

   "      Lord Carlile              - ( Cyp. Lord st. Vincent x Cyp. Major Hanbury Carlile )                           -  1941.

   "      Lord Dillon               - ( Cyp. Lady Dillon x Cyp. Lord St. Vincent )                                              -  1941.

 Cyp.      Lord Mercier        - ( Cyp. Cardinal Mercier x Cyp. Lord St. Vincent )                                     -  1939.

   "          Lottie Carlile        - ( Cyp. Charlotte Dillon x Cyp. Major Hanbury Carlile )                           -  1938.

   "          Marchiones of Salisbury - var. of Charles Richman                                                                     -  1933.

   "           Marnet                  - ( Cyp. Caractacus x Cyp. Mario )                                                                   -  1934.

   "          Maud Green         - ( Cyp. Actaeus(Lady Greensleeves) x Cyp. Maudiae )                              -  1939.

   "          Mayfly                  - ( Cyp. Leeanum - Gratrixiae) x Cyp. Queen Mab )                                    -  1934.

   "          Medar                   - ( Cyp. Locarno x Cyp. Tantroilus )                                                                -  1934.

   "          Mediocre              - ( Cyp. Ashton x Cyp. Charlotte Dillon )                                                       -  1935.

   "          Met-a-Man           - ( Cyp. Meta x Cyp. Yeoman )                                                                         -  1935.

   "          Mica                      - ( Cyp. Charlotte Dillon x Cyp. Mime )                                                         -  1941.

   “          Mockery                                - ( Cyp. Alfred Dimmock x Cyp. Lord Wolmer )                                          -  1933.

   "          Mrs. F.Bromilow - ( Cyp. Bromilowianum x Cyp. Mrs. F. Sander )                                         -  1935.

   "          Muriel Holmes     - ( Cyp. Mrs. Carl Holmes x Cyp. Muriel Hollington )                 -  1938.

   "          Neilson                  - ( Cyp. Actaeus x Cyp. Helsa )                                                                         -  1933.

   "          Noel Argo             - ( Cyp. Argo(March Along) x Cyp. Noel )                                                     -  1934.

   "          Pale Carl               - ( Cyp. Mrs. Carl Holmes x Cyp. Pallida )                                                     -  1936.

   "          Panabal                 - ( Cyp. St. Alban x Cyp. The God Pan )                                                         -  1933.

   "          Panazan                 - ( Cyp. Azrael x Cyp. The God Pan )                                                              -  1938.

   "          Panshine               - ( Cyp. Azrael x Cyp. Janpan )                                                                        -  1941.

   "          Patestia                  - ( Cyp. Hestia x Cyp. Pathan )                                                                         -  1939.

   "          Pathfinder             - ( Cyp. Mem. F.M. Ogilvie x Cyp. Pathan )                                                  -  1939.

   "          Patricimum           - ( Cyp. hirsutisssimum x Cyp. Lucernale )                                                     -  1933.

                   "          Patrina                   - ( Cyp. Edina x Cyp. Lucernale )                                                                     -  1941.

   "          Pat. Walker           - ( Cyp. Lucernale x Cyp. Mem. J.H. Walker )                                              -  1934.

   "          Persedina              - ( Cyp. Edina x Cyp. Perseus (F.C.C.))                                                           -  1938.

                   "          Pirate                     - ( Cyp. Coirsair x Cyp. Thompsonii )                                                             -  1934.

   "          Prime Minister     - ( Cyp. Chrysostom x Cyp. Yeoman )                                                            -  1936.

                   "          Princess Alice      - ( Cyp. Alcibiades x Cyp. Royal George )                                                     -  1935.

   "          Prince Vespa        - ( Cyp. Prince Albert x Cyp. Vesper )                                                             -  1939.

                   "          Queen Alpha        - ( Cyp. Perseus - (Alpha) x Cyp. Queen Alexandra )                                   -  1935.

   "          Queen Azrael       - ( Cyp. Azrael x Cyp. Queen Ioanna )                                                            -  1939.

   "          Ragold                  - ( Cyp. Gold Mohur x Cyp. Scarab )                                                               -  1939.

   "          Raman                   - ( Cyp. Scarab x Cyp. Strongtharm )                                                               -  1934.

   "          Redpoll                 - ( Cyp. Robert Paterman x Cyp. Sir. Wm. Chance )                                    -  1941.

   "          Registration          - ( Cyp. bourtonense x Cyp. Kethar )                                                               -  1939.

   "          Rosern                   - ( Cyp. Ernest Read x Cyp. Rossettii )                                                            -  1933.

   "          Rossarm                - ( Cyp. Armistice II. x Cyp. Rossetti )                                                            -  1934.

   "          Rossatum              - ( Cyp. Alma - (delicatum) x Cyp. Rossetti )                                -  1933.

   "          Royal Coutier       - ( Cyp. Alcibiades x Cyp. King George V.                                                    -  1933.

   "          Rudyard Kipling  - ( Cyp. Aaron x Cyp. The God Pan )                                                              -  1936.

   "          St. Edna                - ( Cyp. Edina x Cyp.Lord St. Vincent )                                                          -  1939.

   "          St. Jean                  - ( Cyp. Lord St Vincent x Cyp. Mario )                                                          -  1938.

   "            Scarsam               - ( Cyp. Masters-villosum - (Samson) x Cyp. Scarab - (Ra))                       -  1934.

   "          Shamrock             - ( Cyp. Mrs. Eley x Cyp. Shamus )                                                                 -  1933.

   "          Shantor                  - ( Cyp. Shamus x Cyp. Toreador )                                                                   -  1939.

   "          Shanty                   - ( Cyp. Satyr x Cyp.Shamus )                                                                           -  1936.

                   "          Sharca                   - ( Cyp. Shamus x Cyp. The God Pan )                                                           -  1933.

   "          Sheen                    - ( Cyp. Pallida x Cyp. Rossetti )                                                                      -  1934.

   "          Shono                    - ( Cyp. Shogun x Cyp. Leno )                                                                          -  1933.

   "          Silver Lady           - ( Cyp. Actaeus x Cyp. Pallida )                                                                      -  1937.

   "           Snake                    - ( Cyp. Mem. F.M. Ogilvie x Cyp. Spotted Snake )                                    -  1934.

   "          Snakeades             - ( Cyp. Alcibiades x Cyp. Spotted Snake )                                                     -  1933.

   "          Steel                      - (           ?      x       ?               )                                                                        -     ?

   “           Storm Centre       - ( Cyp. Cyclone x Cyp. Sebastion Cabot )                                                     -  1938.

   "          Tina                       - ( Cyp. Medina(La Donna) x Cyp.Titania )                                                   -  1933.

   "          Tom Drake           - ( Cyp. Lord St. Vincent x Cyp. Uncle Tom )                                               -  1939.

   "          Tom Maude          - ( Cyp. Maudiae - (coloratum) x Cyp. Uncle Tom )                                    -  1935.

   "          Tommypher          - ( Cyp. Christopher x Cyp. Tommycurte )                                                     -  1941.

   "          Tom Nesta            - ( Cyp. Nesta x Cyp. Uncle Tom )                                                                   -  1935.

   "          Tracybiades          - ( Cyp. Alcibiades - (Illustrious) x Cyp. Tracyanum )                                -  1934.

   "          Tribesmen             - ( Cyp. Azrael x Cyp. Lucifer )                                                                        -  1941.

   "          Troubadour           - ( Cyp. Herald x Cyp.Tramper )                                                                       -  1935.

   "          Tweedianum        - ( Cyp. Bromilowianum x Cyp. Tweedledum )                             -  1934.

                   "          Vincent Chester   - ( Cyp. Earl of Chester x Cyp. Lord St. Vincent )                                        -  1941.

   "          Whirlwind            - ( Cyp. Mem. J.J. Elwes x Cyp.Pirate )                                                           -  1941.

 Cyp.      Yadal                    - ( Cyp. Alcibiades - (Illustrious) x Cyp. Yadie )                                          -  1933.

   "          Zorbaster               - ( Cyp. Sebastion Cabot x Cyp. Zoroaster )                                                   -  1937.

   “          Zorber                   - ( Cyp. Beryl x Cyp. Zoroaster )                                                                      -  1934.

 

Den.       Bridge of Allan    - ( Den. Cybele - (Album) x Den. Plumptonense )                                        -  1937.

   "          Colxanthro            - ( Den. Lady Colman x Den. Xanthocentrum )                                            -  1938.

   "          Constance Montrose – ( Den. Constance Wrigley x Den. Montrose )                                       -  1938.

                   "          Decadal                 - ( Den. Chessingtonense -  (aureum) x Den. Perfection )                           -  1934.

                   "          First Fruits            - ( Den. Constance Wrigley x Den. Merlin - (Curlew))                                -  1936.

   "          Marion Bruce       - ( Den. Constance Wrigley x Den. nobile )                                                   -  1937.

   "          Memories             - ( Den. Allison Wilton x Den. Xantocentrum )                                            -  1937.

                   "           Montryalus           - ( Den. Euryalus x Den. Montrose )                                                                -  1938.

                   "          Promise                 - ( Den. Perfection x Den. nobile )                                                                   -  1933.

   "          Rosaba                  - ( Den. Cybele - (album) x Den.Rolfeae - (roseum))                                   -  1933.

                   "           Throughbred         - ( Den. Chessingtonense x Den. Constance Wrigley )                 -  1936.

   "          Venture                 - ( Den. Rolfeae - (roseum) x Den. Twaitesiae - (Veitch's))                        -  1933.

   "          Xanthoalbum       - ( Den. Cybele - (album) x Den. Xanthocentrum )                                      -  1939.

 

Milt.       Edwina                  - (Milt.  Hyeana x  Milt. Reine Elizabeth )                                                      -  1937.

   "          Elizabeth Burns   - (Milt.  Hyeana x  Milt. Pulchra )                                                                    -  1938.

   "          Hawk Moth          - ( Milt.  Marion Bruce x Milt. Reine Elizabeth )                                          -  1937.

   "          Jubilee                   - ( Milt.  Lycaena x Milt. Warrenensis )                                                          -  1935.

   "          Nellie Owen         - ( Milt.  Nellie Smith x Milt. vexillaria - (G.D.Owen))                                -  1933.

   "          Phalara                  - ( Milt.  Bleuara x Milt.  phalaenopsis )                                                         -  1934.

   "          Queen Constance - ( Milt.  Constance x  Milt. Reine Elizabeth )                                               -  1937.

   "          River                     - ( Milt.  Councillor x Milt.  Mrs. Carl Holmes )                                           -  1938.

   "          Scotland                - ( Milt.  Lucia x Den. Reine Elizabeth )                                                         -  1933.

   "          The Highlands      - ( Milt.  Marion Bruce x Milt. vexillaria )                                                     -  1937.

 

Sc.          April Fool             - ( Sc. Thwaitesii x C. Schroderae )                                                                 -  1933.

 

Slc.         Luminous             - ( Slc. Anzac x Lc. Luminosa )                                                                        -  1933.

                  "            Sandra                   - ( Slc. His Majesty x C. trianae )                                                                     -  1933.

 

Vuyl.       Allison Wilton     - ( Vuyl. Talpa x Milt. vexillaria )                                                                     -  1939.

 

References researched show that O.O. Wrigley. Esq. was a prominent member of the Manchester Orchid Society from its foundation until approximately 1916 often showing large groups of as many as 150 orchids at the fortnightly meetings between 1897 - 1908 when his activities slowed during 1908 - 1916.   Records of his awards between 1897 - 1910 have not been found; below are results found in records for the period 1910 - 1915:

 

                6th. October 1910                - Gold Medal     - Group Display - Manchester Orchid Society.

28th. September 1911          -  "      "             -      "          "                   “             “           “

22nd. February 1912           -  "      “             -      "          "                   “              “           “

  "       "      "                         -  "      "             -       “         “      - North of England Horticultural  Society.

28th. November 1912         -  "      "              - Group Display - Manchester Orchid Society.

  6th. February 1913            -  "      "              -      "          "                   “             “           “

  1st. May 1913                    - Bronze Medal for group of three Anguloa. ”             “           “

26th. February 1914            - Silver Medal        - Group Display.             “             “           “

18th. March 1915                 - Large Silver-gilt Medal - Group Display    “             “           “

  2nd. December 1915        - Silver-gilt Medal   - Group Display            “             “           “

 

Doubtless individual plants would have received awards – again; as stated above records are not available.

 

Mr. E. Rogers grower to O.O. Wrigley. Esq. also met with notable success during the period 1897 - 1916; again records have not been found other than the following covering the last three years of that period:

 

                  3rd.July 1913 - Cultural Cert. & Bronze Medal - Display of Phalaenopsis.

16th.July 1913 -                   "      for                  Angraecum ruckeriana -  ‘Sanguinea’.

 3rd.December 1914-         "        "  Vanda coerulea.

 5th.April 1915 -                "        "    Miltonia  Phalaenopsis.

   "      "        "                     "       “     Eulophia – ‘Elizabethae;.

                 7th.June 1915                    "       "    Phalaenopsis Rimestadiana - (Branched spike of 46 flowers.).

22nd.June 1915                  "       "    Lycaste tricolour ‘ Albens.

                   "       "       "                     "       "                    Phalaenopsis  rimestadiana.

                  2nd.Sept 1915                  "       "    Vanda coerulea.

23rd.   "       "                     "        "                    Cypripedium  Maudae var. ‘E. Rogers’.

  "       "       "                      "       "                     Odontoglossum grande.

21st.October 1915             "       "                     Cyp. Fairrieanum.

 4th.November 1915          "       "                     Epidendrum vitellinum autumnale.

 2nd.December 1915          "       "                    General culture of Group displayed.

 6th.January 1916               "       "                    Laelia gouldiana.

17th.February 1916            "       "                    Eulophia.  Hamelinii.

30th.March 1916                "       "                    Cypripedium Elizabethae.

15th.June 1916                   "       "                    Phalaenopsis rimestediana.

  6th.July 1916                    "       "                    Phalaenopsis  Sanderiana.

20th.  "       "                       "       "                     Cymbidium  Humblotii.

  5th.October 1916              "       "                    Epidendrum vitellinum autumnale.

 

During the period 1918 - 1934 the Mrs. Marion Bruce - Miss Constance Wrigley partnership gained the following awards in addition to producing the many hybrids listed.   N.E.O.S. records show that many of their awarded plants were of their own creation:

 

        51 - First Class Certificates - (M.O.S. or M.N.E.O.S.).

                     100 - Awards of Merit.

                        1 - Gold Medal - individual plant.

                        3 - Silver Medals - individual plants.

                      12 - Awards of Appreciation.

                        4 - Cultural Certificates. (Grower Mr. Burns).

        

Miss. Constance Wrigley gained the following awards individually following the demise of her sister/partner and during the period 1932 - 1943, again it is also noted that most of these were of her own creation:

 

         14 - First Class Certificates - (M.N.E.O.S.).

                        40 - Awards of Merit.

                         8 - Awards of Appreciation.

                         6 - Cultural Certificates. (Grower Mr. Burns.)

 

The foregoing is perhaps a fitting tribute to the success of this unique alliance of father, and daughters which created so very many hybrids during the first forty or years of the Society at a time when `in vitro' and `flasks' were largely unknown, and certainly not available to the amateur grower.   An alliance which cultured so many of their own orchids to award status.


Richard Ashworth. Esq.

Ashlands, Newchurch. Lancs.

 

This Founder member consistently mounted large medal winning displays at most of the Manchester Orchid Society's fortnightly meetings in addition to gaining many awards for individual orchids and producing hybrids during his almost thirty years (twenty-nine years and three hundred and sixty days) involvement.   He suffered a serious illness during 1927 when J.B. Adamson acted as Treasurer.   R. Ashworth did however return to resume duty as Treasurer from the A.G.M. of June 15th. 1928 to be succeeded again by Adamson from the A.G.M. of June 16th. 1933.   In all R. Ashworth served the Manchester Orchid Society which named was changed to the Manchester and North of England O.S. and around 1970 to its present title the North of England O.S.

 

Whilst there is no record of his passing or obituary (which was customary) in official records there is a record of his daughter a Mrs. B.A. Ratcliffe returning his medals and awards to the Society during April 1934.  

 

His residence "Ashfields", Newchurch; lay approximately four and one half miles N.N.W. of Burnley, Lancs. which is thirty or so miles from Manchester where all meetings were held at that time.  

 

It must have been no mean fete to transport large groups of orchids such a distance every other week, arriving in time to set up such large displays in time for judging commencing at twelve noon as it always did.   It is most likely that horse drawn carriage and railway trains were used in the early days.

 

His displays during the period 1910/1916 for which records are held, gained the following awards:

 

                                1 - Gold Medal.

                                3 - Large Silver-gilt Medals.

                            36 - Silver-gilt Medals.

                            33 - Large Silver Medals.

                                1 -   "     "       " - (North of England Horticultural Society)

                                9 - Silver Medals.

                                6 - Awards of Appreciation.- (For individual Orchids shown but submitted for award status.)

                                2 - First Class Botanical Certificates.

                                5 - Cultural Certificates - to grower Mr. W. Gilden.

 

During the period 1910-1927 his orchids gained:

 

                               57 - First Class Certificates - M.O.S./M.& N.E.O.S.

                            162 - Awards of Merit -            "         "

 

Precise details of these are to be found on pages of records held with the awards made during the period of his involvement other than 1897 - 1910 and 1916 - 1922, for which, records; if available; would have greatly increased his tally.   (Note: Some of the M.O.S. records were destroyed by enemy action during the 1939/45 World War.)

 

In addition to all this activity he and his grower Mr. W. Gilden managed to create and nuture some twenty-four hybrids; eleven of which were grown on to award status:

 

1906 - Odontoglossum.      Ashlandense  - ( Odm. Andrianae x Odm. polyxanthum ).

1911 -    "             Highfieldense - ( Odm. Queen Alexandra x Odm. Vuylstekei ).

1912 - Cattleya.                   Apex - ( C. Enid x C. mendelii ) - (A.M./M.N.E.O.S.).

   "    - Cypripedium.           Model -  ( Cyp. Niobe x Cyp. niveum ).

   "    - Odontoglossum.      Vulturnus  - ( Odm. polyxanthum x Odm.Vuylstekei )-(A.M./M.N.E.O.S.).

1913 - Cattleya.                   Purity - ( C. labiata – ‘alba’ x  C. warneri  ‘alba’)

                   "    - Cypripedium.           Rossendale  - ( Cyp. Bingleyense x Cyp. Vill-Exul ) - (A.M./M.N.E.O.S.).

   "    - Laeliocattleyac.       Excelsis - ( L. Haroldiana x C. Hardyana ).

   "    - Odontoglossum.      Cloth of Gold - ( Odm. amabile x Odm. Wilckeanum ) - (A.M./M.N.E.O.S.).

1914 - Brassocattleya.       Sulphurea - ( Bc. Mrs.J.Leemann x C . gaskelliana ) - (F.C.C./M.N.E.O.S.).

                   "    - Cypripedium.           Melas - ( Cyp. Baron Schroder x Cyp. Priam ) - (A.M./M.N.E.O.S.).

   "    - Odontoglossumm.   Uro-excellens - ( Odm.  excellens x Odm. Uro-Skinneri ).

   "    -                 “ Minos - ( Odm. Loochristiense x Odm. Lambeauianum ) - (A.M./M.N.E.O.S.).

               1915 - Lycaste.                     Arthuriana   -  ( Lyc. Balliae x Lyc. plana ) - (A.M./M.N.E.O.S.).

                   "    - Odontioda.               Leopardina   - ( Cda. beechensis x Odm. Vuylstekeae ).

   "    -          "                       luminosa       - ( Cda. Charlesworthii x Odm. Rossi  - (F.C.C./M.N.E.O.S.).

   "    -          "                       Rossendale    - (    "          "                x Odm. Ceres  - (A.M./M.N.E.O.S.).

   "    - Odontoglossum.      Black Dragon  - ( Odm. crispum - (Black Prince) x Odm. Pluto ) - (A.M./M.N.E.O.S.).


1915 - Odontoglossum.                      Herculaneum   -  (         ?       x       ?      )

1917 - Brassolaeliocattleya.             Ashworthiae - ( C. labiata x Blc. Cooksonii ) - (A.M./M.N.E.O.S.).

   "    - Sophrolaeliocattelya              Ashworthiae  - ( Slc. Blackii x C. Doris )

   "    - Odontoglossum.                       Baghdad - ( Odm. Emperor of India x Odm. Jasper )

1918 - Odontioda.                               St. Teresa       -   ( Cda. Bradshawiae  x Odm. Wattonensis )

   "    -        "                                         Aspasia          -   ( Odm..Vuylstekeae x Cda. sanguinea )

   "    - Odontoglossum.      Minos             -  ( Odm. Harvengtense x Odm.Lambeauianum )   

 

Note: There is a discrepancy in records re Odm. Minos :-       

 

M.& N.E.O.S. records show an entry where Odm. Minos – (Loochristiense x Lambeauianum) was awarded A.M./M&NEOS. on October 15th. 1914.   This cross is not shown in Sanders List of Orchid Hybrids, there is however an entry in the Sanders List dated 1918 showing Odm. Minos (Odm. Harvengtense x Odm.Lambeau-ianum), registered by R. Ashworth.

 

Odm. Harvengtense is shown as a natural hybrid from Odm. crispum x Odm. triumphans but not dated in the lists, one can only assume that Odm. Harvengtense was listed between 1914 - 1918 and became the synonym for Odm. loochristiense – or visa-versa.

 

At the same time as R. Ashworths' involvement the Society also had a member E. Ashworth. Esq. resident at Harefield Hall, Wilmslow, Cheshire. - who according to Sanders' Lists produced:

 

1893 - Cypripedium                            Beatrice Ashworth - ( Cyp. Leeanum x Cyp. venustum )

   "     -             "                                   Ashworthiae - ( Cyp. Leeanum - (superbum) x Cyp. selligerum - (majus))

1896 - Dendrobium.                            Findleyano -Wardianum - ( Den. Findlayanum x Den. Wardianum )

1897 - Cypripedium.                           Myra  ( Cyp. Chamberlainianum x Cyp. Haynaldianum )

1903 -           “                                      Fulshawense   - (           ?       x            ?           )

1906 -           "                                      George Hackenschmidt – ( Cyp. Eismannianum x Cyp. insigne )

1909 - Epidendrum.                            Leda – ( Epi. Wallisio x Epi. Wallisio-ciliare )

 

There is nothing in records so far researched showing E. Ashworths' involvement after 1909; it is however believed that he was one of the 29 local gentlemen who met to initiate the Manchester Orchid Society on 26th. April 1897.   It is also believed that he shared some of his best plants with other members particularly with R. Ashworth - who could have been his son or brother.


Colonel Sir. John Rutherford M.P.

 Beardwood, Blackburn. Lancs.

 

Colonel Rutherford was a very early member, if not a founder member with a well established large collection producing hybrids as early as 1903 and mounting large displays at meetings of the Manchester Orchid Society regularly in competition with O.O. Wrigley and R Ashworth and gaining similar awards.   He was assisted by his skilled grower Mr. Lupton.

 

From records held his activity appears to have peaked between 1911 - 1914 when it became intermittent during the war years 1914-1918 - perhaps due to military service; resuming quietly around 1921/22 and continued until 1931 the later years being devoted to showing a few individual orchids at meetings rather than large groups

 

He gained the following awards for his displays:

 

                 1 - Gold Medal on Nov. 14th.1912.

                 2 - Large Silver-gilt Medals.

                 3 - Silver-Gilt Medals.

               18 - Large Silver Medals.

               31 - Silver Medals.

                 1 - Large Bronze Medal.

                 2 - Bronze Medals.

 

               Also the Society's Silver-gilt Medal for the 1913/14 session.

 

In addition he received fifteen Awards of Appreciation and his grower two Cultural Certificates:

 

               December 8th. 1913 for Cypripedium -Leeanum giganteum.

               July 22nd. 1915 for Cattleya gaskellianum.

 

During the period 1911 - 1932 individual orchids from his collection received nineteen First Class Certificates and fifty-four Awards of Merit:

                     First Class Certificates:

Jan. 21st.1912      -               Cymbidium - Parishii - Rutherford's var.

                               Apl.  4th.1912      -                  "          "   .

                               May. 16th.1912   -               Brassocattleya - Digbyano  Mossiae var.` Luptonii ‘.

                               Nov. 14th.1912    -               Cattleya - labiata var. ` Cyme '.

                               Jan. 16th.1913      -               Brassolaeliocattleya - Cooksonii.

                               Apl.  3rd.1913      -               Odontoglossum  - amabile var. ` Fairlight ’.

                               Mar. 26th.1914    -               Cattleya  warneri var. ` Ardenholme ‘.

                               Jun. 18th.1914     -               Miltonia  Charlesworthii var. ` Beardwood '.

                               May. 13th.1915   -               Laeliocattleya. Fascinator - Mossiae var.` Imogene '.

                                  "        "     “         -               Odontoglossum - Captain Turner.

                               Feb.  1st.1923       -               Oncidium - Spendidum Holozarthum.

                                 "  15th.1923       -               Vuylsteakeara - Ruherford's `Sylvia'.

                                Apl.  3rd.1925      -               Brassocattleya - Vilmoriana.

                               Dec. 17th.1925    -               Odontioda - Dacia var. Solario.

                                May.  5th.1931     -                        “         - Olga var. ` Beardwood '.

                               Nov. 27th.1931    -               Cypripedium - G.D. McIvor var. ` Orpen '.

                                  "    "         "        -               Odontoglossum - Princess Margaret.

                                  "    "         "        -               Cypripedium - Bromilowianum var. `Verta'.

                                  "    "         "        -               Odontioda - Cord var. `Zamora'.

                     Awards of Merit:

 

Nov. 11th. 1911   -               Cypripedium  Bonar Law.

                               Jan.  1st. 1912      -                             “        Actaeus major.

                                 "   20th. 1912     -               Odontoglossumcrispum - `Luci-Masreel'.

                                 "      "       "          -               Brasocattleya - Rutherfordi

Mar. 21st. 1912    -               Cymbidium  - paulwelsii.

                               May.  2nd. 1912  -               Odontoglossumeximium - Rutherfordianum.

                                      16th.      "      -               Brassolaeliocattleya - Beardwoodensis.

                               June. 6th.      "      -               Laeliocattleyac - Martinetti var. ` John Lupton ’.

Apl.  3rd. 1913     -                           “             - Lady Blanche.

                               May. 15th.  "        -               Cymbidium - Gottianum.

                               Jan. 29th. 1914     -               Cattleya - trianae var. ‘ Beardwood ‘.

                               Feb.  2nd.     "       -                   "                  "      "    ‘Enimes ‘.


                               Mar. 26th.    "       -               Brassocattleya -  Beardwoodensis.

                               Apl. 16th.     "      -                           "            -  Queen Alexandra var. ` Beardwood '.

                                  "      "         "      -                           "            -  Gloriosa.

                                  "      "         "      -               Odontoglossum - amabile var. ‘Her Majesty ‘.

                                  "   30th.     "       -               Miltonia            - Blueana var. ` Beardwood '.

                                Jun. 18th.     "       -               Brassocattleya  -  Endymion.

                               Sep. 12th.     "      -               Cattleya             - General Smith - Dorien.

                               Mar. 18th. 1915   -               Odontoglossum - ardentissimum var. ` Beardwood '.

Apl.   1st.     "       -                            "            -  illustrissimum var. ` Palatine '.

                 "   15th.    "        -                            "            -  pescatorei –‘ Monica’.

                                   "   29th.     "     -              "            -  amabile ` Twilight '.

 July.  6th. 1916   -               Miltonia            - Sanderae var. ` Beardwood '.

    "   20th.    "       -               Cattleya            -  Comet - var. ` Leonora '.

Dec.  21st. 1922   -               Cypripedium     -  Statue.

Feb. 15th. 1923    -               Odontoglossum - Agapetum var. ` Brunette '.

                                  "      "         "       -                            "             - Adula var.` rubens '.

                "      "         "     -                  Brasscattleya     - Vilmoriniana var. ` Rutherford '.

  "      "         "       -               Odontoglossum -  Aireworth var. ` Beardwood '.

Mar.  1st.     "       -                           “              - Twilight.

                               July. 19th.    "       -               Miltonia             - Blueana var. ` Rutherford '.

Jan. 18th. 1924     -               Odontona           -Thais.

                                  "       “        "       -                          "               - Dora var. ` Beardwood '.

Apl. 17th. 1925    -                         "               - Thais var. ` Beardwood '.

May.  1st.    "        -               Brassocattleya   -  Cliftonii.

Mar. 19th. 1926   -                          “               - Enchantress var. ` Purity '.

Jan.    6th. 1927   -               Odontioda         -  Nada var. ` Beardwood '.

Mar.   3rd.   "        -               Odontoglossum -  Clydonia var. ` Beardwood '.

Apl.    7th.   "       -               Odontioda         -  Aureum.

                                May.  5th.    "       -               Brassolaeliocattleya - Everest var. ` Beardwood '.

    "      "       "       -               Brassocattleya  -  Enchantress var. ` Beardwood '.

    "   20th.    "       -               Odontoglossum -  Doris var. ` magnificum '.

Mar. 20th. 1931  -                Sophrocattleya  -  Crimson King var.` Rutherford '.

May.  5th.     "      -               Odontoglossumcrispum var. ` Invincible '.

    "      "        "      -                   "          "         - Sunstar .

June. 19th.    "      -               Miltonia             - Memoria H.T. Pitt var. ` Beardwood '.

July. 14th.     “      -                    "                   -       "                       “. 

   "       "        "     -                     "                   - Gloriosa var.  ` Superba '.

Jan.    8th. 1932   -               Brassocattleya  -  Eudora.

   "   22nd.    "       -               Cypripedium     -  Diphon.

                                   "       "       "       -               Odontoglossum - Venice.

                                   "       "       "       -                    "         “           - Crispo-solon Imperator.

                                  "       "       "       -                    "         “           - Princess Yolande.

 

Hybrids accredited to Colonel Sir. John Rutherford :-

 

1903       -               Odontoglossum               - Beardwoodiense - (Odm. elegans x Odm. pescatorei).

1912       -               Brassolaeliocattleya       - Beardwoodensis - (B. Digbyana x Lc. C.G. Roebling).

                               1914       -               Braasocattleya               - Beardwoodensis - ( “          “       x C. Empress Frederick ).

                                     "        -               Cattleya                          - General Smith -Dorien - (C. Mantinii x C. Maronii ).

                               1918       -               Odontioda                       - Ceres - ( Cda. Charlesworthii x Odm.elegans).

                               1923       -               Wilsonara                       - Tigrina - (Oda. Charlesworthii x Onc. tigrinum).

                               1931       -               Cypripedium                   - Crimson King - (Cyp. Cardinal Mercier x Cyp. Garland).

    "          -                         "                             - Golden Ball - ( Cyp. Actaeus x Cyp. Anita).

 

Considering that Colonel Rutherford would be away from Beardwood for long periods during the 1914 -1918 War and when carrying out his duties as Member of Parliament for Blackburn his record of achievement over thirty something years is considerable.


J. Leemann, Esq.

West Bank House,

Heaton Mersey.

Stockport. Cheshire.

 

John Leemann Esq. commenced his orchid activity around 1891 amassing a large collection of rarities quickly and thereby causing him to move into the more spacious facilities at West Bank House during 1896 when he was reported to possess one of the largest collections of rare species known at that time.   He acquired this residence from a former Lord Mayor of Manchester.

 

Little has been found regarding his early life, however; the 1881 Census shows a John Leemann as a twenty-eight year old unmarried lodger, born in Bolton, Lancs. in residence at 41, Ackers Street, Chorlton on Medlock, Manchester.   The Census of 1891 shows a John Leemann residing at No. 6 Parsonaage Road, Withington, Manchester; where a son John Albert was born on 2nd. June. 1891.   Other documents researched show that he moved from Parsonage Road to West Bank House, Heaton Mersey during 1896 and that he was a successful in business as a mill owner and merchant in textiles.   He was a generous employer of many; and he invented the khaki dye used for British Military uniforms during the Great War of 1914/1918.   Doubtless he acquired much wealth from this.   The 1918 Census does not include his name but shows an Amy Leemann as the resident at West Bank House and later local records include the names of  Amy, Emily and John Albert Leemann.   Since records show that his orchid collection was auctioned during 1918 realising a sum of £4600.00d. it is assumed that he had passed away at that time; or perhaps; like many other collections, this became sadly depleted during the war years on account of the lack of fuel for heating stoves.  

 

West Bank House was a large Victorian detached residence in spacious grounds overlooking the Mersey Valley.   The grounds were set out as what was described as a beautiful garden where a team of five gardeners maintained masses of ornamental foliage; specimen hollies; choice conifers; thousands of the best rhododendrons and tastefully arranged rose beds. a large lake containing many varieties of water lily.   A Mr. S. Smith (Head Gardener) was the main orchid grower and a Mr. Chambers (Assistant Head Gardener) devoted some time assisting the main orchid grower.

 

West Bank House was built in 1867.   It became the Convent Private School for Infants and Juniors in 1933 until 1964 when it became an R.C. Boys Approved School.   During 1970 it was changed to a school for girls at the request of the Home Office, and remained as such until 1980 when the house was demolished.   A new Roman Catholic Primary School under the name of St. Winifred’s was erected on the site during 1980/1 - in addition a new Roman Catholic Special School, St. John Vianney’s - the first R.C. Special School in the country – has been established within the estate grounds; the lower reaches of which have been developed for houses.  

 

John Leemann’s favourite plants were of the Cattleya alliance of which he had over five hundred albinos by 1912, including the finest forms of C. warneri; C. gigas; C. labiata; and C. gaskelliana.   He rated form and size to be of the paramount importance and did not retain the smaller flowering forms of Laelia pumila ‘alba’; C. percivaliana   C. mossiae etc.,   An `Orchid World’ report of 1912 stated that it was quite impossible to describe the form and beauty of many of his orchids.

 

This fine collection of orchids established at West Bank were maintained in eight span roofed houses, each fifty feet in length and a larger lean-to house all given over to orchid cultivation in addition to a separate potting shed of good dimensions along with several vineries and fruit growing houses.   The `lean to’ on the southern side of the main house was one hundred and thirty feet long linking all the orchids houses to the main dwelling.   In addition to orchids; this also housed Passiflora princeps with its long racemes of red flowers hanging gracefully from its roof along with baskets of  Davallias and Bougainvilleas.

 

The intermediate and warm greenhouses were `double-roofed'  via two identically glazed structures seven inches apart.  

In addition to hot water pipe work within; a hot water pipe was situated between the two roofs a little distant from the rain water guttering creating a stable atmosphere with fresh warm air entering the growing areas via the manually operated vents along the length of the lower roof section.   To effect necessary cooling during the summer sunny periods there was perforated pipe work atop each greenhouse ridge through which cool water from the lake in the grounds was pumped and drained back to its source.   Such was Leemann's devotion and understanding of the needs of his plants, the natural elements and the effects of the rapidly changing climate.

 

Such a structure gave a beneficial controllable environment year round since temperatures, humidity and air buoyancy remained stable via manageable control – this was long before the age of electronic control as we are now able to use.   The methods used also eliminated condensation and the resultant `dripping' without depriving the atmosphere within of fresh buoyant humid air.   The hot water heating system for these `stoves' was duplicated in each stove with its own independent installation used alternatively as a single means of heating to keep each in good working order.   Doubtless they could also be used together during very cold spells rather than running a single unit `flat out' for long periods.    Several houses were devoted to Cattleya hybrids created from the choicest parentage.

 

Whilst Leemann's main interest was held by the Cattleya Alliance he possessed many Odontoglossums including a large number of `blotched'  Odontoglossum - crispum.    Odontioda were also well represented.  

 

 

Cypripediums filled a single house but are reported to have given their fastidious owner little or no pleasure.   In this respect he differed from many of his fellow founder members of the Manchester Orchid Society.

 

The main compost used was from equal parts of Osmunda and A-I fibre with a small amount of Spagnum moss.   Pots were placed on stands constructed from stout wire effectively preventing slug and snail damage.

 

Ready reference to his orchids was easily obtainable from an extensive library of paintings carefully and methodically stored in specially constructed cabinets  built inside his residence.

 

Almost the entire Orchid blooms were cut twice weekly for table and room decoration within West Bank House during the period 1896 - 1912.   His wife accompanied by their housekeeper regularly visited the orchid houses with scissors.

 

In addition and as an indoor hobby, he maintained a marvellous collection of butterflies and moths totalling almost five

thousand specimens - many of which were extremely rare.

 

Since the majority of his blooms were cut for his house he was not an avid exhibitor at meetings before 1912.   He did however display groups of orchids - mainly between 1913 -1915 at the Manchester Orchid Society’s fortnightly shows where he gained the following awards :-

 

First Class Certificate:

                               Feb.26th.1914      -               Oda.      -               Diana ` Leemann's ‘ var.

                                Mar. 3rd.1914      -               Cym.      -               Pauwelsii giganteum.

                                   "    "       "          -                   "         -                     “        maxima.

Apl.16th.1914      -                  "         -                     "        Ideal.

                                  "  16th.1914      -               Lc.         -               Fred Boyle var. ` Kerchove’.

                                  "  30th.1914      -               Odm.     -               Pharo.

   

Award of Merit:

                                Mar.26th.1914     -               Bc.          -               Digbyano Mossiae

                                    “    “       “       -               C.           -               Enid  excelsa

                                    “    “       “       -               Cym.      -               Pauwelsii  delicata

                                    “    “       “       -                “           -                       “        Andreara

                                    “    “       “       -              Cyp.        -               Griffin No. 2

                               Apl. 30th.1914     -              Odm.       -               eximium  Cleome.

                                May.28th.1914    -              Odm.       -               Hereward.

                                   "    "        "         -                   "        -               Leander.

                               Sep. 23rd.1915    -                C.           -               Snowdon.

                                   "    "        "         -               Lc.          -               Mrs. McMaster var. ` splendens’.

                Medals for Group Displays :-

                                May.  1st.1913 - Silver Medal.

Mar.14th.1914 - Gold Medal.

    "  26th.    "   - Silver-gilt Medal.

July.22nd.1915 - Large Silver Medal.

    

Lemann is accredited with the following registered hybrids:

                               1899 - Lc.              Ada  - ( L. schilleriana x C. lueddemanniana ).

                                1899 - C.               Mrs. Herbert Greaves -  ( C. gaskelliana x C. loddigessi ) *

                                1900 - Cyp.           Leemannii - ( Cyp. Bruno x Cyp. Leeanum ).

                               1900 - Lc.              Marie Speranski - ( C. skinneri x L. purpurata ).

                               1914 - Odm.           Leander II - ( Odm. crispo - harryanum x Odm. Mirum ).

                               1918 - Cyp.           Valentine - ( Cyp. Thompsonii x Cyp. Troilus (Archimedes) ).

 

 *  Note: This cross between C. gaskelliana and C. lodigessi was also made and registered by Temple in 1894 as Cattleya - Miss. Williams.   Both registrations appear in Sanders' List of Orchid Hybrids to 1/1/46.

 

Since John Leemann went to such pains to provide his many rare and choice orchids with the ideal growing conditions he must have had unique understanding of both orchids and their environmental needs and must therefore be considered one of the leading U.K. collectors of his time.


William Bolton Esq.  (Pre) 1856-1916.

Wilderspool, Warrington, Cheshire.

 

                Early, if not a “Founder” member of the then Manchester Orchid Society established on 23rd.April 1897.   Warrington’ Cheshire - Town Councillor and its Mayor from 1903 to 1906.

 

                Records suggest that William Bolton was growing orchids from around 1850 and that he possessed large stocks of all genera known at that time.   He is known to have resided in America between 1871 and 1883 and on his return to Wilderspool recommenced his orchid activity amassing even greater quantities and housed them in thirty or so greenhouses.   At one time he lost several thousand warm growing species when the heating system to some of his “stoves” ceased to function; undeterred; he simply acquired more and more, importing a single shipmen of some 6,000 Cattleya via the nearby Port of Liverpool.

 

                During 1913 he had 3,500 plants of Cattleya mossiae in sheath and flower at one time, in addition to large numbers of Cattleyalabiata; mendelii and schroderae, many of which were of the albino variety.

 

                In addition to his greenhouses he constructed a very large conservatory adjoining his house, in which he grew many cymbidiums to perfection amid a naturalistic scenario of rocks, background ferns and other exotic foliage plants from around the world.

 

                W. Bolton  experimented considerably with composts - ruling out peat during 1897 for a straight mix of spagnum moss with oak leaves.   At a later stage he added coarse sand to this mix and used it for majority of his considerable stock apart from the genus Cypridpedium; for these he substituted the oak leaves with a little red marl.

 

                His collection at the turn of the century was estimated to be one hundred thousand orchids; containing most genera then known and grown to perfection by his staff despite the somewhat foul local atmosphere polluted as it was by prevailing air movement passing over a number of chemical processing establishments a little distance away.

 

                It would appear that his favourites were of the Cattleya alliance, but he does not appear to have created any such hybrids; this can be understood since during his time very little hybridising took place.   From 1856 to 1900 one thousand and twelve only hybrids were known to science.   Of these, ninety were man made and twenty-two natural hybrids.    Some twenty only intergenerics of the cattleya alliance had been registered.   If W. Bolton made any, he did not register them; and considering that many of his fellow members of the Manchester Orchid Society were breeding across many genera and registering their successes this is somewhat surprising.

 

                What is known of his breeding activity is a little confusing since there appears to be three “Boltons” shown in records:

 

William of Wilderspool; J.J. Bolton of Claygate, Surrey, who produced Slc. Saint Gothard in 1921 and three hybrids of the  “Odont” alliance between 1925/1928; and a “Bolton” who’s initials and address are not given.

 

                William Bolton is recorded has having produced Paphiopedilum Wilderspool from ( Paph. Argus x Paph. Boltonii) in 1914 and Paph. Gypsy from ( Paph insigne x Paph. Watsonianum) during 1915 only;   Can it not be assumed that “Bolton” of no initials or address who produced Paph. Boltonii in 1909, thought to be a variety of Paph. Muriel Hollington (Paph. insigne x Paph. niveum) produced by A.J. Hollington in 1897; in addition to Paph. Iris II ( Phaph. Chamberlianianum x Paph. Maudiae) in 1909; Odontioda Boltonii (Cda. noezliana x Odm. Vuylsteakeae) in 1911 and Odontioda Edith ( Oda. Bradshawiae x Oda. Chelsiensis) during 1913 are one and the same hybridiser.

 

If this assumption that these two are the same person then W. Bolton the subject of this `pen portrait’  should be credited with six hybrids rather than two only.   Sander’s Lists did not usually give names and addresses of hybridisers who had registered but one or two hybrids.

 

                Mrs. W. Bolton also had a keen interest in orchids and it is recorded that it was her habit to send many orchid blooms to Her Majesty the Queen on the occasion of her birthday each year over a very long period of time.

 

                William Bolton was also an avid collector of gold and silver coins, handcrafted gold and silver `objets de art’; war medals and paintings.

 

                What a wonderful sight the 3,500 Cattleya mossiae must have been, when as recorded in “Orchid World” a leading Orchid publication of 1900 -1914 - were all in flower.


Dr. William Stirling,  O.B.E.; M.D. – 1888-1967.

Orchid Hybridist – 1940/1967.

Whatcroft Hall, Davenham, Northwich. Cheshire.

 

                The following rendering is the net result of some 250 hours over a three year period of research into one of the most prolific orchid hybridisers known.   He was a man of much achievement in his profession as an opthalmic surgeon in addition to producing some 362 orchid hybrids between 1944 and 1967.

 

                The following is a brief record of his success in the field of Orchid hybridisation:

 

Angulocaste                                                           1

Brassolaeliocattleya                                           1

Burrageara                                                           1

Cymbidium                                                          27

Dendrobium                                                          1

Laelia                                                                      1

Laeliocattleya                                                       6

Odontioda                                                            12

Odontocidium                                                       2

Odontoglossum                                                     9

Odontonia                                                              2

Paphiopedilum                                               293

                                                                        Potinara                                                               2

 Sophrocattleya                                                     1

 Sophrolaeliocattleya                                           1

 Stanhopea                                                               1

                                                                                                                                                      362

 

                All of the above are registered and the list includes crosses from famous parentage and are still used in breeding programmes to this day.   A full list of all hybrids registered by him may be downloaded from the CD.Rom “R.H.S. Orchid

Information System”   This a list contains three only hybrids where parents are not known - it is assumed that these were the result of insect pollination within his collection. 

 

                His first `Cyp’  hybrid was Paph. Argonaut (P.Acteus x  P. Golden Cross)             -                 1944.

                His first `Cym’     “       “   Cym Blush (C. Alexanderi x Magali Sander)                  -                 1946

                His first `Lc.’       “       “    Lc. Flash Point (Lc. Golden Flame x Lc Smilex)           -                 1951

                His first `Oncidiinae’   “    Odcdm. Florence Stirling - (Odm. uro skinneri x Onc. tigrinum)- 1945

                                                                       (Named after his mother or wife.)                                            

 

                The above would appear to reveal that in the main he grew cool growing plants.

 

William Stirling was awarded “The George Moore Medal” for his hybrid Paphiopedilum Lady Clunas “Whatcroft Hall” FCC/RHS - ( Paph. delenatii x Paph. Gertrude West) in 1952.   This medal is awarded annually for the best new Paphiopedilum hybrid.

He was the third member of the Manchester & North of England Orchid Society to receive this prestigeous award - the others being Dr. Cravan Moore for his Paph. Pickwick -(Paph. Mrs. William Pickup x Paph. Viking) in 1932 and Mr. H. Barnard Hankey for his Paph.  Wendover AM/RHS - (Paph.  Atlantis x Paph.  John Henry) in 1938.

 

                In addition to Odcdm. Florence Stirling mentioned above bearing the family name he created Oda. Florence Stirling -(Oda. Astoria x Oda. Melina ) in 1948 and Odtna. Anne Stirling - (Odtna. Carina x Odm. Purple Crown) named after his daughter during 1951.  One was named after his wife and one after his mother; both had the name Florence.

               

                Anne Stirling registered his death as on 15th.Oct.1967 at Whatcroft Hall, Davenham, the record of which is held by the Registrar of Births, Marriages and Deaths at Northwich, Cheshire.

 

                The difficulties encountered in conducting this particular piece of research would appear to prove that he and his family were in the main very private persons, but; he did play a somewhat active part in the Manchester and North of England O.S. at their monthly shows, his plants were often awarded.

 

                His obituary in “The Times” of 17th. Oct. 1967 gave notice of his death only, did not include details of his burial and called for `no letters of sympathy’ ; very little is known of his family, other than what is recorded here re his mother Florence;

his wife Florence and his daughter Anne.


William Stirling, O.B.E.; M.D. named a considerable number of his hybrids after Cheshire towns, villages or areas e.g.: Chelford; Croxton; Delamere; Hough Green; Lostock Green; Oulton; Redesmere; Soss Moss; Tarvin; Tarporley; Flash Point, two others after Blackburn and Prestwich, one after the river Bollin and four after the birds - Budgerigar; Chiff-Chaff, Cockateel and Moorhen.

                                                                                                                               

                The following is a brief account of the man himself:

 

                Born on 6th. March 1889 at No.3 Willow Bank, Fallowfield, Withington, Manchester, County of Lancaster the son of Dr. William Stirling, M.D. and Florence, Ferguson Stirling, (Nee Crawford).   Later resided at Belfield Lodge, Fallowfield,

Manchester.   His educational and other achievements are as follows:

 

Attended Woodfield School, Fallowfield, Manchester - 1894/1902.

Transferred  to Manchester Grammar School 1902 until 1904.

                                                Undergraduate - Faculty of Medicine - Victoria University, Manchester - 1906.

Gained M.B. - Manchester - 1911.

Gained M.D. - Manchester - 1916.

Hon. Consultant Ophthalmic Surgeon - Manchester Royal Eye Hospital - 1911/1916.

                           Captain R.A.M.C. - Ophthalmic Surgeon. - Calais Area-British Expeditionary Force 1916/1918.

Awarded O.B.E. for Services to B.E.F. - 1918.

Resident Surgeon - Manchester Royal Eye Hospital - 1918 until retirement.

Medical Officer - Barnes Convalescent Home for War Wounded  - 1918 on.

Fellow Manchester Medical Society.

Member of the Ophthalmic Society of Great Britain.

 

                Despite the fact that he in all probability wished to retain his privacy in death as in life, the author feels that the efforts of this notable hybridiser should be recorded in the annals of orchid history alongside other `orchid worthies’.

 

References:           Registrar of Births, Marriages and Deaths - Manchester

                                The Times Newspaper Archives.

                                Manchester Guardian Newspaper Archives.

                                City of Manchester Library Archives.

                                Stockport M.B.C. Library Archives.

                                Cheshire County Counsel  Archives.

                                Manchester Grammar School Archives.

                                University of Manchester - Victoria Medical Institute Archives.

                                Manchester Royal Eye Hospital Archives.

                                Army – Royal Army Medical Corps  Records.

                                The Central Chancery of the orders of Knighthood.

                                The  Medical  Directory  1964.

                                The  British  Medical  Association.

                                Manchester Royal Infirmary - The Jefferson Library Archives.

                                The Welcome Institute for the History of Medicine.


 

Section 3:List of Orchid Natural Genera (Species):

 

 

(as at 24th. Sept. 2004)

 

 

(Judging Classes from Data base of Dr. C. Maunder,        

 Chairman British Orchid Council Judging Committee.)

 

Compiled by R.Rigby 1990 - 2005

 

 

 

 

This list of the generic names of orchid species has been compiled over

fifteen year period by a grower of a mixed collection with an interest in the ‘History of Orchids’. 

 

It should not be considered an official register or record in any sense.   It is purely an attempt to put into a single document generic names, and some historic details of orchid species and hybrids.   It does not give specific names of species or hybrids within genera.

 

The compiler stresses that contents should be considered an historic record, warts and all; different spellings etc. etc.   It has been put together over a long period from ‘gleanings’ from many sources – books,official records and latterly ‘websites’.

 

It is included in this web site document ‘Highlights of Orchid History’ which the author intends to update that document from time to time – approx. every six months)

 

Should any ‘browser’ be able to add further to this; please contact the author on ‘E-mail’: ronald@r-rigby.demon.co.uk

 

 

Web-site – http://www.r-rigby.demon.co.uk

 

E-mail: - Ronald@r-rigby.demon.co.uk



Aa =Alstensteinia           (Aa.   )[  ]  Rchb.f./HBK        30.31.   1858/1815.

Abaxianthus                 (      )[  ]  Chem. & Jones.              2002.

Abola = Caucaea             (      )[  ]  Lindl./Schltr.              1853.

Abdominea                   (      )[  ]  J.J.Sm.            30.31.   1914.

Abrochis = Orchis           (      )[  ]  Neck./Tourn.                1790.

Acacallis = Aganisia        (Acals.)[ 6]  Lindl.             10.11.   1853.

Acampe                      (Acp.  )[ 6]  Lindl.                      1853.

Acantheplippium             (      )[  ]  Blume.(Ex Endl.)            1837.

Acanthoglossum              (      )[  ]  Blume.                      1825.

Acanthophippium             (      )[  ]  Blume                       1825.     

Aceras                      (      )[  ]  R.Brown.              39.   1813.

Aceratorchis – Orchis       (      )[  ]  Schltr.               39.   1922.

Achlydosa                   (      )[  ]  Clem. & Jones.        39.   2002.   

Achroanthes = Malaxis       (      )[  ]  Raf.                        1819. 

Acianthella                 (      )[  ]  D.L.Jones & M.A.Clem.       2004

Acianthera                  (      )[  ]  Scheidw.           24.25.   1842.

Acianthopsis                (      )[  ]  Clem & Jones.         39.   2002.

Acianthus                   (      )[  ]  R.Brown.              39.   1810.

Acineta                     (Acn.  )[  ]  Lindl.             40.41.   1843.

Ackermannia                 (      )[  ]  Dodson & Hirst.             1993.

Ackersteinia                (      )[  ]  T.Neudecker.                1994.    

Aclinia                     (      )[  ]  Griff.                      1851.

Acoridium = Trichocentrum   (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1837.

Acoridium = Dendrochilum    (      )[  ]  Nees & Meyen       18.19.   1843.

Acostaea = Specklinia       (      )[  ]  Schltr.            24.25.   1923.

Acraea                      (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1845.

Acriopsis                   (      )[  ]  Reinw. Ex Blume    40.41.   1823.

Acroanthes                  (      )[  ]  Raf.                        1808.

Acrolophia                  (      )[  ]  Pfitz.             7.8.9.   1887.

Acronia                     (      )[  ]  Presl.                      1827.

Acropera                    (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1833.

Acrostylia = Cynorkis       (      )[  ]  Frapp./Thou.                1895.

Acrorchis                   (      )[  ]  R.L.Dressler.20.21.22.23.   1990.

Ada                         (Ada.  )[  ]  Lindl.       14.15.16.17.   1853. 

Adactylus                   (      )[  ]  Rolfe./(J.J.Smith) Coetz.   1896/1941.

Adamantinia                 (      )[  ]  Van den Berg&c.n.Gonc.      2003

Adelopetalum                (      )[  ]  Fitzg.                29.   1891/1895.

Adeneleuterophora           (      )[  ]  Rodrig.                     1881.

Adeneleuthera               (      )[  ]  Kuntze.                     1903.

Adenochilus                 (      )[  ]  Hk.f.                 39.   1853.

Adenoncos                   (      )[  ]  Blume.             30.31.   1825.

Adenostylis                 (      )[  ]  Blume.                      1825.

Adipe = Bifrenaria          (      )[  ]  Raf.                        1836.

Adnula                      (      )[  ]  Rafin.                      1836.

Adrorrhizon                 (      )[  ]  Hk.f.              40.41.   1898.

Aeceoclades                 (      )[  ]  Duchartre                   1849.

Aenhenrya                   (      )[  ]  R.Gopalan/Kiemar&Rasmusen   1993/1997.

Aeonia                      (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1824.

Aerangis                    (Aergs.)[  ]  Rchb.f.            32.33.   1865.

Aeranthes                   (Aerth.)[  ]  Lindl.             32.33.   1824.

Aeranthus = Aeranthes       (      )[  ]  Lindl./Rchb.f.              1824/1826.

Aerides                     (Aer.  )[  ]  Lour.              31.32.   1790.

Aeridium = Aerides          (      )[  ]  Pfeiffer./Salisb.           1873/1812.                   

Aeridostachya               (      )[  ]  (Hook.f.) F.G.Brieger.      1981.

Aerobion = Angraecum        (      )[  ]  Kaempf.                     1826.

Aetheria = Hetaeria         (      )[  ]  Endle./Blume.               1837.

Aganisia                    (Agn.  )[  ]  Lindl.             10.11.   1839/1840.

Aggeranthus = Eria          (      )[  ]  Wight./Schltr.              1852/1914.

Aglossorrhyncha             (      )[  ]  Schltr.            40.41.   1905.

Agrostophyllum              (      )[  ]  Blume.             40.41.   1825.

Ala                         (      )[  ]  Szlach.                     1995.  

Alamania                    (      )[  ]  La Llave&Lex.20.21.22.23.   1825.

Alamannia                   (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1826.

Alatiliparis                (      )[  ]  Szlach.& Marg.              2001.

Alinorchis                  (      )[  ]  Szlach.                     2001.

Alipsa = Liparis            (      )[  ]  Hoffmsg.                    1817.

Alismorchis = Calanthe      (      )[  ]  Thou.                       1809.

Alismorkis = Calanthe       (      )[  ]  Thou.                       1809.

Altensteinia                (      )[  ]  HBK.                  39.   1815.

Aluista = Eria              (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1859.

Alvista                     (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1856.

Alwisia                     (      )[  ]  Thw. Ex Lindl.              1838.

Amalia                      (      )[  ]  Reichb.                     1841.

Amalias = Laelia            (      )[  ]  Hofmsg.                     1842.

Amblostoma                  (Abm.  )[  ]  Scheidw.     20.21.22.23.   1838.

Amblyanthe                  (      )[  ]  S.Rauschert.                1983.

Amblyanthus                 (      )[  ]  (Schltr.)F.G.Brieger.       1981.

Amblyglottis = Calanthe     (      )[  ]  Blume.                      1825.

Ambrella                    (      )[  ]  H.Perr.            32.33.   1934.

Amerorchis                  (      )[  ]  W.Hooker.             39.   1814.

Amesiella                   (      )[ 9]  Scel’r.Ex Garay.   30.31.   1926.

Amesia = Epipactis          (      )[  ]  Nels. & McBride.            1913.

Amitostigma                 (Ami.  )[  ]  L.A.Garay/Tang&Wang/. 39.   1935/1982.

Amparoa                     (      )[  ]  Schltr.      14.15.16.17.   1919.

Amphigena = Disa            (      )[  ]  Rolfe.                      1913.

Amphiglottis = Epidendrum   (      )[  ]  Salisb.                     1812.

Amphorchis                  (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1862.

Amphorchis (nomen.)         (      )[  ]  A. Cheval.                  1920.

Amphorkis                   (      )[  ]  Thouars.                    1809.

Anacamptis                  (      )[  ]  Richard.              39.   1817.

Anacampt-orchis             (      )[  ]  M.Schulze.                  1907.

Anacheilium                 (      )[  ]  Hofmsg.                     1842.

Anaectochilus               (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1840.

Anaphora                    (      )[  ]  Gagnep.                     1932.   

Anathallis                  (      )[  ]  Barb.& Rodrz.      24.25.   1877.

Ancistrochilus              (      )[  ]  Rolfe.             40.41.   1897.

Ancistrorhynchus            (      )[  ]  Finet.             32.33.   1907.

Andinia                     (      )[  ]  Luer.              24.25.   2000.

Andreettaea = Pleurothallis (      )[  ]  Luer.                       1978.

Androchilus = Liparis       (      )[  ]  Liebm.                      1844.

Androcorys                  (      )[  ]  Schltr.               39.   1919.

Androgyne                   (      )[  ]  Griff.                      1851.

Anecochilus                 (      )[  ]  Blume.                      1825.

Anectochilus                (      )[  ]  Blume.                      1858.

Angorchis = Angraecum       (      )[  ]  Thou./Spreng.               1809/1822.

Angorkis = Angraecum        (      0[  ]  Thouars                     1809.

Angraecopsis                (      )[  ]  Kraenzl.           32.33.   1900.

Angraecum                   (Angcm.)[ 9]  Bory.              32.33.   1804.

Anguloa                     (Ang.  )[ 6]  Ruiz&Pavon.        12.13.   1794.

Ania                        (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1828.

Anisopetalum = Bulbophyllum (      )[  ]  Thouars./Hook.              1822/1825.

Anistylis                   (      )[  ]  Rafin.                      1825.

Ankylocheilos               (      )[  ]  Summerh.                    1943.

Anneliesia = Miltonia       (      )[  ]  Brieger & Luchel.           1983.

Anocheile                   (      )[  ]  Hoffmgs.                    1841.

Anochilus                   (      )[  ]  Rolfe.                      1913.   

Anoectochilus               (Anct. )[ 2]  Blume.                39.   1825.

Anotia = Rhynchostylis      (      )[  ]  Schltr.                     1914.

Ansellia                    (Aslla.)[ 6]  Lindl.             7.8.9.   1844.

Anteriorchis                (      )[  ]  P. Jacquet                  1997.

Anthereon                   (      )[  ]  Pridgeon & Chase.  24.25.   2001.

Anthericlis                 (      )[  ]  Rafin.                      1819.

Anthogonium                 (      )[  ]  Wall ex Lindl.     40.41.   1836.

Anthogyas                   (      )[  }  Rafin.                      1838.

Anthosiphon                 (      )[  ]  Schltr.            12.13.   1920.

Anticheirostylis            (      )[  ]  Fitz./Schltr.               1891/1906.

Antillanorchis              (      )[  ]  Schltr.      14.15.16.17.   1920.

Anzybas                     (      )[  ]  Jones & Clem.         39.   2002.

Aopia                       (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1835.

Aorchis                     (      )[  ]  G.Seiderfaden.        39.   1932.

Apatostelis = Stelis        (      )[  ]  Garay.                      1979.

Apaturia                    (      )[  ]  Lindle.                     1831.

Apetalon                    (      )[  ]  White.                      1852.

Aphyllorchis                (      )[  ]  Blume.                39.   1825.

Apista                      (      )[  ]  Blume.                      1825.

Aplectra                    (      )[  ]  Rafin.                      1824.

Aplectrum                   (      )[  ]  Torr.                 39.   1826.

Aplostellis = Nervilia      (      )[  ]  Thou./A.Rich.               1822/1828.

Apoda                       (      )[  ]  F.G.Brieger.                1981.

Aporopsis                   (      )[  ]  G.Sedfn./Clem/Jomes27.28.   1982/2002.

Aporostylis                 (      )[  ]  Rupp. & Hatch.        39.   1946.

Aporum = Dendribium         (      )[  ]  Blume.                      1825.

Apostasia                   (      0[  ]  Blume.                      1825.

Appendicula                 (      )[  ]  Blume.             40.41.   1825.

Appendiculopsis             (      )[  ]  Szlach. & Marg.             1995.

Aracamunia                  (      )[  ]  Carnevali&Ramfrez.    39.   1984.

Aracheilium                 (      )[  ]  F. de Barros.               1983.

Arachnanthe = Arachnis      (      )[  ]  Blume.             30.31.   1828.

Arachnis                    (Arach.)[ 9]  Blume.             30.31.   1825.

Arachnites = Ophrys.        (      )[  ]  Schidmt.                    1793.

Arachnorchis                (      )[  ]  D.L.Jones & M.S.Clem.       2001.

Archineottia                (      )[  ]  S.C.Chen.                   1979.

Archivea                    (      )[  ]  E.A.Christenson&R.Jenny     1996.

Arethusa                    (Aret. )[  ]  Gronov./Linn.      40.41.   1743/1753.

Arethusantha                (      )[  ]  Finet.                      1897. 

Arhynchium                  (      )[  ]  Lindl. & Paxt.              1850.

Aridostachya                (      )[  ]  F.G.Brieger.                1981.

Arietinum = Cypripedium     (      )[  ]  Beck.                       1833.

Argyrorchis                 (      )[  ]  Blume.                      1858.

Arisanorchis                (      )[  ]  Hayata.                     1914.

Aristotelea = Spiranthes    (      )[  ]  Lour.                       1790.

Armaridium                  (      )[  ]  Rodrig.                     1880.

Armodorum = Arachnis        (      )[  ]  Breda.             30.31.   1827.

Arnedina                    (      )[  ]  Reichb.                     1841.

Arnottia                    (      )[  ]  A.Rich.               39.   1828.

Arophyllum = Arpophyllum    (      )[  ]  Endl.                       1825.

Arpophyllum                 (      )[  ]  La Llave & Lex.    40.41.   1825.

Arrhynchium                 (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1850.

Arthrochilium = Epipactis   (      )[  ]  Beck.                       1890.

Arthrochilus                (      )[  ]  F.Muell./D.L.Jones.         1858/1991.

Artorima                    (      )[  ]  Dreslr&Pold. 20.21.22.23.   1971.

Arundina                    (      )[  ]  Blume.             40.41.   1825.

Asarca = Epipactis          (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1827.

Ascidieria                  (      )[  ]  G.Seidenfaden.     40.41.   1984.

Ascistrochilus              (      )[  ]  Rolfe.                      1897.

Ascocentropsis              (      )[  ]  Senghas & Schildhauer.      2000.

Ascocentrum                 (Asctm.)[ 9]  Schltr.            30.31.   1913.

Ascochilopsis               (      )[  ]  Carr.              30.31.   1929.

Ascochilus = Gastrochilus   (      )[  ]  Blume./Ridl.                1828/1896.

Ascoglossum                 (Ascgm.)[ 9]  Schltr.            30.31.   1913.

Ascolabium                  (      )[  ]  S.Ying/L.Averyanov 30.31.   1994.

Asochilus                   (      )[  ]  Blume./Ridl.       30.31.   1828/1896.

Ascotainia = Tainia         (      )[  ]  Ridl.                       1907.

Aspasia                     (Asp.  )[ 8]  Lindl.       14.15.16.17.   1832.

Aspegrenia = Octomeria      (      )[  ]  P. & E.                     1836.

Aspidogyne = Ophrys.        (      )[  ]  Garay.                      1977.

Aspla                       (      )[  ]  Reichb.                     1841.

Astroglossus                (      )[  ]  Benth.&Hook.f.              1883.

Ate                         (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1835.

Auliza = Epidendrum         (      )[  ]  Salisb.                     1812.                    

Aulizeum = Epidendrum       (      )[  ]  Lindl. Ex Stein.            1892.

Aulosepalum                 (      )[  ]  L.A.Garay.            39.   1980.

Aulostylis                  (      )[  ]  Schltr.            40.41.   1912.

Australorchis = dendrobium  (      )[  ]  Brieger            27.28.   1981.

Auxopus                     (      )[  ]  Schltr.               39.   1900/1905.

Aviceps = Satyrium          (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1838.

Azadehdelia = Cribbia       (      )[  ]  G.A. Braem.        32.33.   1988.


 

 

Baptistania                 (      )[  ]  Barb.&Radr. Ex Pfitz.       1889.               

Baptistonia                 (Bapt. )[ 8]  Barb. Rodr.  14.15.16.17.   1877.

Barbosella                  (      )[  ]  Lindl./Schltr.     24.25.   1845/1918.

Barbrodia = Barbosella      (      )[  ]  Luer.              24.25.   1981.

Barkeria = Epidendrum       (Bark. )[ 7]  Kno’s&Westct.20.21.22.23.   1838.

Barlaceras                  (      )[  ]  E.G.Gamus.                  1927.

Barlaea = Cynorchis         (      )[  ]  Rchb.f.                     1877.      

Barlia                      (Barl. )[  ]  Parlatore.            39.   1858.

Barlorchis                  (      )[  ]  Kalopissis&Constantinidis.  1993.   

Barombia = Aerangis         (Brmb. )[ 9]  Schltr.            32.33.   1914.

Barombiella                 (      )[  ]  Szlach.                     2003.          

Bartholina                  (      )[  ]  R. Brown              39.   1813.  

Basigyne = Dendrochilum     (      )[  ]  J.J.Sm.            18.19.   1917.

Basiphyllaea                (      )[  ]  Schltr.      20.21.22.23.   1921. 

Baskervilla                 (      )[  ]  Nauray & Christenson.       2001.

Baskervilla                 (      )[  ]  Lindl.                39.   1840.

Batemania                   (Btmna.)[ 6]  Lindl.             10.11.   1834.

Bathiea = Neobathiea        (      )[  ]  Schltr.                     1915/1935.

Bathiorchis                 (      )[  ]  Bosser & P.J.Cribb.         2003.

Beadlea = Cyclopogon        (      )[  ]  Small.                39.   1903.

Beclardia = Crypto          (      )[  ]  A.Rich./Schltr.    32.33.   1828/1903.

Beloglottis = Spiranthes    (      )[  ]  Schltr./L.C.Rich.     39.   1920/1818.

Benthamia                   (      )[  ]  Schltr./A.Rich.       39.   1924/1928.

Benzingia                   (      )[  ]  C.H.Dodson.        10.11.   1989.

Bertauxia                   (      )[  ]  Szlach.                     2004

Bhutanthera                 (      )[  ]  J. Renz.                    2001.

Bicchia = Pseudorchis       (      )[  ]  Parlatore.                  1858.

Bicornella                  (      )[  ]  L./Lindl.                   1735/1835.

Bieneria = Chloraea         (      )[  ]  Rchb.f.                     1853.

Biermannia = Kingidium      (      )[  ]  King & Pantl.      30.31.   1897.

Bifolium = Listeria         (      )[  ]  Petiver.                    1764.

Bifrenaria                  (Bif.  )[ 6]  Lindl./Dressler.   12.13.   1832/1979.

Bilabrella = Habenaria      (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1834.

Binotia                     (      )[  ]  Rolfe.       14.15.16.17.   1905.

Bipinnula                   (      )[  ]  Comm. & Juss.         39.   1789.

Birchea = Luisia            (      )[  ]  A.Rich./Gaud.               1841/1826.

Blephariglotis=Platanthera  (      )[  ]  Raf.                  39.   1836.

Blepharochilum              (      )[  ]  Clem & Jones.         29.   2002. 

Bletia                      (Bletia)[10]  Ruiz&Pavon.        40.41.   1794.

Bletiana = Bletia           (      )[  ]  Raf.                        1818.

Bletilla                    (Ble.  )[99]  Rchb.f.            40.41.   1851/1853.

Blumeorchis                 (      )[  ]  Szlach.                     2003.

Bogoria                     (      )[  ]  J.J.Sm.            30.31.   1905.

Bolbidium = Dendrobium      (      )[  ]  Lindl./Brieger.             1847/1981.

Bolbophyllaria=Bulbophyllum (      )[  ]  Rchb.f.                     1852.

Bolbophyllum                (      )[  ]  Spreng.                     1826.

Bolbophyllopsia=Bulbophyllum(      )[  ]  Rchb.f./Thou.               1852/1822.

Bolorchis                   (      )[  ]  Zoll. & Moritzii.           1845.

Bollea                      (Bol.  )[ 6]  Rchb.f.            10.11.   1852.

Bolorchis = Pleione         (      )[  ]  Zoll.& Mor.                 1845/1825.

Bolusiella                  (      )[  ]  Schltr.            32.33.   1918.

Bonatea                     (Bnt.  )[  ]  Willd.                39.   1805.

Bonniera                    (      )[  ]  Cordem.            32.33.   1899.

Bothriochilus               (      )[  ]  C. Lemaire.  20.21.22.23.   1852.

Bouletia                    (      )[  ]  Clem & Jones.      27.28.   2002.

Braasiella                  (      )[  ]  G.J.Braem.   14.15.16.17.   1984

Brachionidium               (      )[  ]  Lindl.             24.25.   1859.

Brachtia                    (Bra.  )[ 8]  Rchb.f.      14.15.16.17.   1849.

Brachycorythis              (      )[  ]  Lindl.                39.   1838.   

Brachypeza                  (      )[  ]  Garay.             30.31.   1972.

Brachystele                 (      )[  ]  Schltr.               39.   1920.

Brachystepis                (      )[  ]  Pritz.                      1855.

Bracisepalum                (      )[  ]  J.J.Sm.            18.19.   1933.

Braemia                     (      )[  ]  R. Jenny.          40.41.   1985.

Brasilocycnis               (      )[  ]  G.Gerlach & M.W.Whitten     1999.

Brassavola                  (B.    )[ 7]  R.Brown.     20.21.22.23.   1813.     

Brassovolaea                (      )[  ]  Poepp. & Endl.              1838.

Brassavolea                 (      )[  ]  Spreng.                     1826.

Brassia                     (Brs.  )[ 8]  R.Brown.     14.15.16.17.   1813.

Brenesia = Pleurothallis    (      )[  ]  Schltr.            24.25.   1923.

Briegeria = Jacquiniella    (      )[  ]  Schltr.                     1920.

Bromheadia                  (Brom. )[  ]  Lindl.             40.41.   1841.

Broughtonia                 (Bro.  )[ 7]  R.Brown.     20.21.22.23.   1813.

Brownleea                   (      )[  ]  Harv.ex Lindl.        39.   1842.

Bryobium = Eria             (      )[  ]  Lindl.             40.41.   1836.

Bucculina                   (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1836.

Buchtienia                  (      )[  ]  Schltr.               39.   1929. 

Buesiella                   (      )[  ]  C.Schweinf.  14.15.16.17.   1952.

Bulbophyllum                (Bulb. )[11]  Thou.                 29.   1822.

Bulleya                     (      )[  ]  Schltr.            18.19.   1912.

Bunochilus                  (      )[  ]  Jones & Clem.               2002.

Burlingtonia = Rodriguezia  (      )[  ]  Lindl.                      1837/1794.

Burnettia                   (      )[  ]  Lindl.                39.   1840.

Burnsbaloghia               (      )[  ]  (Lindl.)/Szlachetko         1991/1992.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

Cadetia                     (Cadta.)[  ]   Gaud.             27.28.   1826.

Caelia                      (      )[  ]   G. Don.                    1839.

Caeloglossum                (      )[  ]   Steud.                     1840.

Caelogyne                   (      )[  ]   Wall ex Steud.             1840.

Caladenia                   (Calda.)[98]   R.Brown.             39.   1810.

Calaena                     (      )[  ]   Schltr.                    1827.

Calanthe                    (Cal.  )[ 6]   R.Brown.          40.41.   1821.

Calanthidium = Calanthe     (      )[  ]   Pfitzer.                   1889.

Calcearia                   (      )[  ]   Bl.                  39.   1825.

Calceolaria                 (      )[  ]   Heist ex Fabr.             1748.

Calceolus = Cypripedium     (      )[  ]   Miller./L.                 1754/1753.

Caleana                     (      )[  ]   R.Brown.             39.   1810.

Caleya = Caleana            (      )[  ]   R.Brown.                   1813.

Calliphyllon                (      )[  ]   Pyren.                     1901.

Calipogon                   (      )[  ]   Rafin.                     1832.

Callista = Dendrobium       (      )[  ]   Ritg./Sw.                  1790/1799.

Callithronum                (      )[  ]   Ehrh.                      1789.

Calochilus                  (Clchs.)[  ]   R.Brown.             39.   1810.

Caloglossum                 (      )[  ]   Schltr.                    1918.

Calonema                    (      )[  ]   Lindl./Szlach.       39.   2001.

Calonemorchis = Caladenia   (      _[  ]   Szlach.                    2001.

Calopogon                   (Cpg.  )[13]   R.Brown.          40.41.   1813.

Callostylis                 (      )[  ]   Blume./Chen./Tsi.          1825/1984.

Caluera                     (      )[  ]   C.H.Dodson.       40.41.   1983.

Calymmanthera               (      )[  ]   Schltr.           30.31.   1913.

Calypso                     (      )[  ]   Salisbury.           39.   1806.

Calypsodium                 (      )[  ]   Link.                      1829.

Calyptrochilum              (      )[  ]   Kraenzl.          32.33.   1895.

Camaridium = Maxillaria     (      )[  ]   Lindl.                     1824.

Camarotis = Micropera       (      )[  ]   Lindl.                     1833.

Camelostalix = Pholidota    (      )[  ]   Pftz.                      1825/1907. 

Cameridium                  (      )[  ]   Reichb.                    1849.

Campanulorchis              (      )[  ]   F.G,Brieger.               1076.

Campylocentrum              (      )[  ]   Bentham.          32.33.   1845/1881.

Canacorchis                 (      )[  ]   Gillaumin.                 1964.

Cannaeorchis                (      )[  ]   Clements & Jones.          1997.

Capanemia                   (      )[  ]   Barb. Rodr. 14.15.16.17.   1877.

Cardiochilus                (      )[  ]   P.J.Cribb.                 1977.

Cardiophyllum               (      )[  ]   Ehrh.                      1789.

Carparomorchis              (      )[  ]   Clem & Jones.        29.   2002.

Carteretia                  (      )[  ]   A.Rich.                    1834.

Carteria                    (      )[  ]   Small.                     1910.

Catachaetum = Catasetum     (      )[  ]   Hofmsg.                    1842.

Catasetum                   (Ctsm. )[ 6]   Kunth.            40.41.   1822.

Cathea = Calapogon          (      )[  ]   Salisb.                    1812.

Cattleya                    (C.    )[ 7]   Lindl.      20.21.22.23.   1821.

Cattleyopsis                (Ctps. )[ 7]   Lem.        20.21.22.23.   1854.

Caucaea                     (      )[  ]   Schltr.     14.15.16.17.   1920.

Caularthron                 (Cau.  )[  ]   Raf.        21.22.23.24.   1836.

Caulescentes                (      )[  ]   F.G.Brieger.               1981.

Centranthera = Pleurothallis(      )[  ]   Schwdf.                    1842.

Centrochilus = Habenaria    (      )[  ]   Schau.                     1843.

Centrogenium = Eltroplectris(      )[  ]   Schltr.                    1919/1836.

Centroglossa                (      )[  ]   Barb. & Rodr.     40.41.   1882.

Centropetalum = Fernandezia (      )[  ]   Lindl.                     1839.

Centrosia                   (      )[  ]   A.Rich.                    1828.

Centrosis = Limadorum       (      )[  ]   Swartz./L.C.Rich.          1814/1818

Centrosis = Calanthe        (      )[  ]   Thou.                      1821/1822.

Centrostigma                (      )[  ]   Schltr.              39.   1915.

Cephalangraecum=Ancistrorhynchus(  )[  ]   Schltr.                    1918/1907.

Cephalanthera               (Ceph. )[  ]   L.C.Richard          39.   1817.

Cephalantheropsis=Calanthe  (      )[  ]   Guill.            40.41.   1960/1821.

Cephalopactis               (      )[  ]   Aschers. & Graebn.         1907.

Cepobacu.lum                (      )[  ]   Clem & Jones      27.28.   2002.

Ceraia = Dendrobium         (      )[  ]   Lour.       20.21.22.23.   1790/1799.

Ceratandra                  (      )[  ]   Eckl.                39.   1837.

Ceratandropsis              (      )[  ]   Rolfe.                     1913.

Ceratium = Eria             (      )[  ]   Blume/Lindl.               1825.

Ceratobium                  (      )[  ]   Lindl./Clem&Jones 27.28.   2002.

Ceratocentron               (Crtn. )[  ]   Senghas.          30.31.   1989.

Ceratochilus = Stanhopea    (      )[  ]   Blume/Lindl.      30.31.   1825/1829.

Ceratopsis = Epipogium      (      )[  ]   Lindl.                     1840/1810.

Ceratostylis                (      )[  ]   Blume.            40.41.   1825.

Cestichis = Liparis         (      )[  ]   Thour.Pftzr.Lindl.         1817/1887.          

Chaenanthe                  (      )[  ]   Lindl.                     1838.           

Chaeradoplectron            (      )[  ]   Benth. & Hook.f.           1883.

Chaetocephala               (      )[  ]   R. Brown.                  1818.

Chamaeangis                 (      )[  ]   Schltr.           32.33.   1915.

Chamaeanthus = Gunnarella   (      )[  ]   Schltr.           30.31.   1915.

Chamaegastrodia             (      )[  ]   Mak.& Maek.          39.   1937.

Chamaelorchis               (      )[  ]   Senghas & Luckel           1997.

Chamaerorchis = Chamaerepes (      )[  ]   Koch. & Spreng.            1818/26/37.

Chamelophyton               (      )[  ]   Garay.            24.25.   1974.

Chamorchis = Arachnites     (      )[  ]   L.C.M.Richard.       39.   1817.

Changnienia                 (      )[  ]   Chien.                     1935.

Chaseella                   (      )[  ]   Summerh.             29.   1961.

Chaubardia                  (      )[  ]   Reichb.f.         10.11.   1852.

Chaubardiella               (Chbl. )[  ]   Garay             10.11.   1969.

Chauliodon                  (      )[  ]   Summerh.          32.33.   1943.

Cheiradenia                 (      )[  ]   Lindl.            10.11.   1853.

Cheiropterocephalus         (      )[  ]   Rodrig.                    1877.

Cheirorchis = Cordiglottis  (      )[  ]   Carr./J.J.Sm.     30.31.   1932/1922.

Cheirostylis                (      )[  ]   Blume.               39.   1825.

Chelonanthera               (      )[  ]   Blume.                     1825.

Chelonistele                (      )[  ]   Pfitzer.          18.19.   1907.

Chelrostylis                (      )[  ]   Pritz.                     1855.

Chelyorchis                 (      )[  ]   Dressler & Williams.       2000.

Chilo.glottis               (      )[  ]   R.Brown.             39.   1810.

Chilopogon                  (      )[  ]   Schltr.           40.41.   1912.

Chiloschista                (Chsch.)[ 9]   Lindl.            30.31.   1832.

Chitonanthera               (      )[  ]   Schltr.           40.41.   1905.

Chitonochilus               (      )[  ]   Schltr.           40.41.   1905.

Chloidia = Corymborkis      (      )[  ]   Lindl./Thouars.            1840/1809.

Chloraea                    (      )[  ]   Lindl.               39.   1827.

Chlorosa                    (      )[  ]   Blume./Ames/Schweinf.      1825/1920.

Choeradoplectron=Habeneria  (      )[  ]   Schau.                     1843.

Chondradenia                (      )[  ]   Maxim.& Mak.         39.   1902.

Chondrorhyncha              (Chdrh.)[ 6]   Lindl.            10.11.   1846.

Chondroscaphe=Chondroryncha (      )[  ]   Senghas&G.Gerlad.          1993.

Christensonia               (      )[  ]   Haager.           30.31.   1993.

Chromatotriccum             (      )[  ]   Clem & Jones.     27.28.   2002.

Chroniochilus               (      )[  ]   J.J.Sm.           30.31.   1918.

Chrysobaphus=Anoectochilus  (      )[  ]   Wall.                      1826.

Chrysocycnis                (      )[  ]   Linden/Rchb.f.    12.13.   1854.

Chrysoglossum               (      )[  ]   Blume.            40.41.   1825.

Chrysoglossella             (      )[  ]   Hatusima.                  1967.

Chusua                      (      )[  ]   Nevski.              39.   1935.

Chysis                      (Chy.  )[10]   Lindl.            40.41.   1837.

Chytroglossa                (      )[  ]   Rchb.f.           40.41.   1863.

Cionisaecus = Goodyera      (      )[  ]   Breda.                     1829.

Cirrhaea                    (Cra.  )[  ]   Lindl.            40.41.   1825.

Ciripedium                  (      )[  ]   Zumag.                     1829.

Cirrohopetalum = Bulb.      (Cirr. )[11]   Lindl.               29.   1824.

Cischweinfia                (Cisch.)[ 8]   Dressler    14.15.16.17.   1970.

Cistela                     (      )[  ]   Blume.                     1828.

Cistella = Geodorum         (      )[  ]   G. Jacks.                  1811.

Claderia                    (      )[  ]   Hk.f.             40.41.   1890.

Cladobium = Spathyglottis   (      )[  ]   Lindl.                     1836.

Cladorhiza = Corallorhiza   (      )[  ]   Raf.                       1828/1775.

Cleisocentron               (Clctn.)[ 9]   Bruhl.            30.31.   1926.

Cleisomeria                 (      )[  ]   Linll./Schltr.    30.31.   1855/1920.

Cleisostoma                 (Cleis.)[ 9]   Blume.            30.31.   1825.

Cleisostomopsis             (      )[  ]   (Finet) G.Seidenfaden.     1992.

Cleistes                    (      )[  ]   L.C.Rich. ex Lindl.  39.   1818/1840.

Clematepistephium           (      )[  ]   Halle.            40.41.   1977.

Clinchymenia                (      )[  ]   A. Rich.                   1844.

Clinhymenia                 (      )[  ]   A.Rich. & Gal.             1845.

Clowesia                    (Cl.   )[ 6]   Lindl.            40.41.   1843.

Cnemidia                    (      )[  ]   Lindl.                     1833.

Coccineorchis               (      }[  ]   Schltr.              39.   1920

Cochleanthes                (Cnths.)[ 6]   Raf.              10.11.   1836.

Cochlia = Bulbophyllum      (      )[  ]   Blume.                     1825.

Cochlioda                   (Cda.  )[ 8]   Lindl.      14.15.16.17.   1853.

Cocleorchis                 (      )[  ]   D.L.Szlachetko.            1994.      

Codonorchis                 (      )[  ]   Lindl.               39.   1840.

Codonosiphon                (      )[  ]   Schltr.              29.   1913

Coelandria = Dendrobium     (      )[  ]   Fitzg.                     1882.

Coelia                      (      )[  ]   Lindl.            40.41.   1830.

Coeliopsis                  (      )[  ]   Rchb.f            40.41.   1872.

Coeloglossum                (      )[  ]   Hartmann./Lindl.     39.   1820/1834.

Coelogyne                   (Coel. )[97]   Lindl.             18.19.  1821.

Coenadenium                 (      )[  ]   Szlach.                    2003.

Cogniauxiocharis            (      )[  ]   (Schltr.)/Hoehne.          1944.

Cohnia                      (      )[  ]   Reichb.f.                  1852.

Cohniella = Oncidium        (      )[  ]   Pfitzer      14.15.16.17.  1899/1800.

Coilochilus                 (      )[  ]   Schltr.               39.  1906.

Coilostylis = Epidendrum    (      )[  ]   L./Rafin.    20.21.22.23.  1836/1763.

Colax = Pabstia             (Clx.  )[ 6]   Lindl.            10. 11.  1825/1843.

Collabium                   (      )[  ]   Blume              40.41.  1825. 

Collabiopsis                (      )[  ]   S.S.Ying.                  1977.

Collaea                     (      )[  ]   Endl.                      1842.

Collare-stuartense          (      )[  ]   Senghas & Bockemuhl.       1997.

Collea                      (      )[  ]   Lindl.                     1823.  

Cologyne                    (      )[  ]   Griff.                     1851.

Colombiana = Pleurothallis  (      )[  ]   Ospina.                    1974/1736.

Commersorchis               (      )[  ]   Thou.                      1822.

Comparettia                 (Comp. )[ 8]   Poepp.&Endl. 14.15.16.17.  1835.

Comperia                    (      )[  ]   C.Koch.               39.  1849.

Conchidium = Eria           (      )[  ]   Griff.                     1825/1851.

Conchochilus = Appendiculata(      )[  ]   Hassk.                     1842/1825.

Condylago = Stelis          (      )[  ]   Luer.              24.25.  1982.

Conopsidium                 (      )[  ]   Wall.                      1840.

Conostalix                  (      )[  ]   (Krzl.)F.G.Brieger.        1981.

Constantia                  (Const.)[ 7]   Barb.Rodr.   20.21.22.23.  1877. 

Cooktownia                  (      )[  ]   D.S. Jones.                1997.

Coppensia = Oncidium        (      )[  ]   Dum.                       1835.

Coralliokyphos              (      )[  ]   Fleischm. & Rech.          1910.

Coralliorrhiza              (      )[  ]   Aschers.                   1864.

Corallorrhiza               (      )[  ]   Hall./R.Brown.        39.  1742/1813.

Cordanthera                 (      )[  ]   L.O.Wms.                   1941.  

Cordiglottis                (      )[  ]   J.J.Sm.            30.31.  1922.

Cordula = Paphiopedilum     (      )[  ]   Rafin.                     1836.

Cordyla = Nervilia          (      )[  ]   Blume                      1825.

Cordylestylis = Goodyera    (      )[  ]   Falc.                      1842.

Corisanthes                 (      )[  ]   Stued.                     1840.

Corunastylis                (      )[  ]   Fitzg.                39.  1888.

Coryanthes                  (Crths.)[ 5]   W.J. Hooker.       40.41.  1831.

Corybas                     (Crbs. )[  ]   Salisb.               39.  1807.

Corycium                    (      )[  ]   Sw.                   39.  1800.

Corydandra = Galeandra      (      )[  ]   Rchb.f.                    1841

Corymbis = Corymborkis      (      )[  ]   Thou./Thomas.              1822/1829

Corymborchis                (      )[  ]   Thou.ex Blume.        39.  1855.

Corymborkis                 (      )[  ]   Thou.                 39.  1822.

Corynanthes = Coryanthes    (      )[  ]   Schltr.                    1948.

Corysanthes = Corybas       (      )[  ]   R.Brown & Salisb.          1810/1848

Corythanthes = Coryanthes   (      )[  ]   Lemaire                    1849.

Costaricaea                 (      )[  ]   Schltr.                    1923.

Cottonia                    (      )[  ]   Wight.                     1852.

Crangonorchis               (      )[  ]   Jones & Clem.              2002.

Cranichis                   (      )[  ]   Swartz.               39.  1788.

Cremastra                   (      )[  ]   Lindl.                39.  1833.

Crepidium = Malaxis         (      )[  ]   Bl./Sw.                    1788/1825.        

Cribbia                     (      )[  ]   Senghas            32.33.  1985

Crinonia = Pholodita        (      )[  ]   Blume. & Lindl.            1825.

Criogenes                   (      )[  ]   Salisb.                    1814.

Criosanthes = Cypripedium   (      )[  ]   Raf. & Lindl.              1819/1753.

Crocodeilanthes=Pleurothallis(     )[  ]   Warcz./Rchb.f.             1813/1854.

Crossangis                  (      )[  ]   Schltr.                    1918.

Crossoglossa                (      )[  ]   Dodson/Dressler.           1995/1997.

Crybe = Arethusa            (      )[  ]   Lindl. * L.                1836/1753.

Cryptanthemis=Rhizanthella  (      )[  ]   Rupp. & Rogers.            1932/1928.

Cryptarrhena                (      )[  ]   Lindl.             40.41.  1816.

Cryptocentrum               (      )[  ]   Bth.               12.13.  1881.

Cryptochilus                (      )[  ]   Wall.              40.41.  1822.

Cryptophoranthus=Pleurothallis(    )[  ]   Barb. & Rodr.              1881/1813.

Cryptopus                   (Crypt.)[ 9]   Lindl.             32.33.  1824.

Cryptopylus                 (      )[  ]   Garay/Senghas.     30.31.  1972/1986.

Cryptosanus = Leochilus     (      )[  ]   Scheidw/Kns.& West.        1843/1838.

Cryptostylis                (      )[  ]   R.Brown.              39.  1810.

Crytoglottis                (      )[  ]   Blume.                     1825.

Crytosaccus                 (      )[  ]   Reichb.f.                  1858.

Ctenorchis                  (      )[  ]   K. Schom.                  1901.

Cuculina = Catasetum        (      )[  ]   Raf.                       1836/1838.

Cuitlanzina                 (      )[  ]   Lindle.                    1826.

Cuitlauzinia                (      )[  ]   La Llave&Lex.14.15.16.17.  1824

Cutsis                      (      )[  ]   (La Llave&Lex)/C.Nelson    1994.

Cyanaeorchis                (      )[  ]   Barb. & Rodr.      40.41.  1877.

Cyanicula                   (      )[  ]   S.D.Hopper & A.P.Brown.    2000.

Cyanorchis                  (      )[  ]   Thou. Ex Steud.            1840

Cyanorkis                   (      )[  ]   Thou.                      1809

Cyas                        (      )[  ]   Salisb.                    1812.

Cyathoglottis = Sobralia    (      )[  ]   Poepp. & Endl.             1835/1794.

Cybebus                     (      )[  ]   L.A.Garay.            39.  1978.

Cybele = Habenaria          (      )[  ]   Falc.                      1805/1847.

Cybelion = Ionopsis         (      )[  ]   Spreng.                    1826.

Cyclopogon                  (Cycl. )[  ]   Presl.                39.  1827.

Cycloptera = Spiranthes     (      )[  ]   R.Brown./Endl.             1817/1841.

Cyclosia = Mormodes         (      )[  ]   Klotsch.                   1838.

Cycnauken = Cynoches        (      )[  ]   Lemaire                    1845.

Cycnoches                   (Cyc.  )[ 6]   Lindl.             40.41.  1832.  

Cydoniorchis                (      )[  ]   K.Senghas.                 1994.

Cylindrochilus = Sarcochilus(      )[  ]   Thwaites.                  1861.

Cylindrolobus = Eria        (      )[  ]   Blume.                     1828/1825.

Cymbidiella                 (Cymla.)[ 6]   Rolfe.             7.8.9.  1918.

Cymbidium                   (Cym.  )[ 6]   Swartz.            7.8.9.  1799.

Cymbiglossum = Lemboglossum (      )[  ]   Halbinger.                 1983/1984.

Cymboglossum                (      )[  ]   (J.J.Sm.) F.G.Brieger.     1981.

Cynorchis                   (      )[  ]   (A.Rich.) Kraenzl.         1900.

Cynorkis                    (Cyn.  )[96]   Thou.                 39.  1809.

Cynosorchis                 (      )[  ]   Thou./Rolfe                1822/1908.

Cyperorchis = Cymbidium     (      )[ 6]   Blume.             7.8.9.  1848/1799.

Cyphochilus                 (      )[  ]   Schltr.            40.41.  1912.

Cypholoron                  (      )[  ]   Schnitemann. 14.15.16.17.  1982.

Cypripedilum                (      )[  ]   Aschers.                   1864.

Cypripedium                 (Cyp.  )[ 1]   L.                    39.  1753.

Cyrtidiorchis               (      )[  ]   Spreng./Rauschert. 12.13.  1826/1982.

Cyrtidium = Cyrtidiorchis   (      )[  ]   Schltr.            12.13.  1924.

Cyrtochiloides              (      )[  ]   N.B.Williams & M.W.Chase.  2001.

Cyrtochilos = Oncidium      (      )[  ]   Spreng.                    1826/1800.

Cyrtochilum = Oncidium      (      )[  ]   Kunth.             7.8.9.  1815.

Cyrtoglottis                (      )[  ]   Schltr.                    1920

Cyrtopera = Eulophia        (      )[  ]   R.Brown./Lindl.            1823.    

Cyrtopera = Xylobium        (      )[  ]   Lindl.                     1833/1825.

Cyrtopodium                 (Cyrt. )[ 6]   R.Brown.           32.33.  1813.

Cyrtorchis                  (Cyrtes)[ 9]   Schltr./Blume.     32.33.  1914/1858.

Cyrtosia =  Erythrorchis    (      )[  ]   Blume.             40.41.  1825/1837.

Cyrtostylis                 (      )[  ]   R.Brown.              39.  1810.

Cystopus                    (      )l  ]   Bl.                        1858.       

Cystorchis                  (      )[  ]   Blume.                39.  1858.

Cytherea = Calypso          (      )[  ]   Salisb.                    1808/1807.

Cytheris = Calanthe         (      )[  ]   Lindl.                     1831.


 

 

Dactylodenia                (      )[  ]   Parox& Reinhard (ex Spreng).1983.

Dactyloglossum              (      )[  ]   R.Kohlmuller./Breiner.      1999/2001.

Dactylogymnadenia           (      )[  ]   L.Hautzinger.               1976.

Dactylorchis=Dactylorhiza   (      )[  ]   Klinge./Vermh.              1947/1937.

Dactylorhiza                (Dact. )[80]   Necker./Hendren       39.   1790/2002.

Dactylorrhiza               (      )[  ]   Necker.                     1790.

Dactylorhynchus             (      )[  ]   Schltr.               29.   1913.

Dactylostalix               (      )[  ]   Scheidw./Rchb.f.      39.   1878.

Dactylostyes                (      )[  ]   Scheidw.                    1839.

Danhatchia                  (      )[  ]   Garay & Christenson         1995.

Darwiniella                 (      )[  ]   L.A.Braas/L/Luchel.         1982.

Darwiniera                  (      )[  ]   L.A.Brass & L.Luchel.       1982.

Dasyglossum = Odontoglossum (      )[  ]   Kanga & Scheidw.            1994/1878.

Davejonesia                 (      )[  ]   Clem.              27.28.   2002.

Decaisnea                   (      )[  ]   Brongn.                     1829. 

Deceptor                    (      )[  ]   G.Seidenfaden.              1992.

Degranvillea                (      )[  ]   Determann.            39.   1985.

Deiregyne                   (      )[  ]   Schltr.               39.   1920.

Dendrobates                 (      )[  ]   Clem & Jones.      27.28.   2002.

Dendrobia                   (      )[  ]   F.G.Brieger.                1981. 

Dendrobium                  (Den.  )[ 3]   Swartz.            27.28.   1799.

Dendrochilum                (      )[  ]   Blume.             18.19.   1825.

Dendrocolla = Thrixpernum   (      )[  ]   Blume./Lour.                1825/1790.

Dendrocoryne                (      )[  ]   Brieger                     1981.

Dendrolirium = Eria         (      )[  ]   Blume.                      1825.

Dendrophylax                (Dlax. )[  ]   Rchb.f.            32.33.   1861.

Dendrorchis = Polystachya   (      )[  ]   Thouars.                    1891.

Dendrorkis = Polystchya     (      )[  ]   Thouars.                    1809/1824.                   

Denslovia                   (      )[  ]   Rydb.                       1931.

Deppia = Lycaste            (      )[  ]   Raf./Lindl.                 1837/1842.

Deroemeria                  (      )[  ]   Rchb.f.                     1852.

Desmotrichum = Epigeneium   (      )[  ]   Blume./Ridley/Gagnec.       1825/1924.

Diacrium = Caularthron      (Diacm.)[ 7]   Lindl./Bthm.20.21.22.23.    1836/1881.

Diadenium                   (      )[  ]   P. & E.     14.15.16.17.    1835.

Dialissa = Stelis           (      )[  ]   Lindl./Swartz.              1845/1800.

Diaphananthe                (Dpthe.)[ 9]   Schltr.            32.33.   1914.

Diceratostele               (      )[  ]   Summerh.           40.41.   1938.

Dicerostylis = Hylophila    (      )[  ]   Blume./Lindl.         39.   1858/1833.

Dichaea                     (      )[  ]   Lindl.             10.11.   1833.

Dichaeopsis = Dichaea       (      )[  ]   Pfitz./Lindl.               1887/1833.

Dichopus = Dendrobium       (      )[  ]   Blume/Swartz.               1856/1799.

Dichromanthus               (      )[  ]   L.A.Garay.            39.   1980.

Dickasonia                  (      )[  ]   L.O.Williams.      18.19.   1941.

Dicranotaenia               (      )[  ]   Finet.                      1907.

Dicrophyla                  (      )[  ]   Rafin.                      1836.

Dicrypta = Maxillaria       (      )[  ]   Lindl.Ruiz.Pavon            1813/1794.

Dictyophyllaria             (      )[  ]   L.A.Garay.         40.41.   1986.

Didactyle = Bulbophyllum    (      )[  ]   Lindl./Thoars.              1852/1822.

Didiciea                    (      )[  ]   King & Pantl.               1896.    

Didothian                   (      )[  ]   Rafin.                      1836.

Didymoplexiella             (      )[  ]   L.A.Garay.            39.   1986.

Didymoplexis                (      )[  ]   Griff.                39.   1844.

Didymoplexiopsis            (      )[  ]   G. Seidenfaden.             1997.

Dienia = Malaxis            (      )[  ]   Swartz.                     1824/1788.

Diglyphis                   (      )[  ]   Blume.                      1828.

Diglyphosa                  (      )[  ]   Bl.                40.41.   1825.

Diglyphys                   (      )[  ]   Spach.                      1846.

Dignathe                    (      )[  ]   Lindl.       14.15.16.17.   1849.

Digonphotis                 (      )[  ]   Radfin.                     1836.

Dikylikostigma              (      )[  ]   Krazl.                      1919.

Dilochia                    (      )[  ]   Lindl.             40.41.   1830.

Dilochus                    (      )[  ]   Miq.                        1858.

Dilomilis                   (      )[  ]   Raf.   20.21.22.23.24.25.   1836.

Dimerandra                  (      )[  ]   Schltr.      20.21.22.23.   1922.

Dimorphorchis               (      )[  ]   (Lindl.) Rolfe.    30.31.   1847/1919.

Dinema = Epidendrum         (      )[  ]   Lindl./L.                   1826/1763.

Dinklageella                (      )[  ]   Mansf.             32.33.   1934.

Diodonopsis                 (      )[  ]   Pridgeon & Chase   24.25.   2001.

Diothonea                   (      )[  ]   Lindl.       20.21.22.23.   1834.

Dipera                      (      )[  ]   Spreng.                     1826.

Diperis                     (      )[  ]   Wight.                      1852.

Diphryllum = Listera        (      )[  ]   Raf./R.Brown.               1808/1813.

Diphyes = Bulbophyllum      (      )[  ]   Thours./Blume.              1822/1825.

Diphylax = Habenaria        (      )[  ]   Willd./Hook.f.        39.   1805/1889.

Diplacorchis                (      )[  ]   Schltr.                     1921.

Diplandrorchis              (      )[  ]   S.C.Chen.                   1979.

Diplanthera                 (      )[  ]   Rafin.                      1833.

Diplecthrum = Satyrium      (      )[  ]   Pers./Swartz.               1807/1800.

Diplectrum                  (      )[  ]   Endl.                       1837.

Diplectraden                (      )[  ]   Rafin.                      1836.

Diplocaulobium              (      )[  ]   (Rchb.f.)Kraenzl.  27.28.   1876/1910.

Diplocentrum                (      )[  ]   Lindl.             30.31.   1832.       

Diplochilus                 (      )[  ]   Lindl.                      1832.

Diploconchium               (      )[  ]   Schau.                      1843.

Diplodium                   (      )[  ]   Sw./Jones & Clem.           1810/2002.

Diplolabellum               (      )[  ]   L.A.Garay.                  1985.

Diplomeris                  (      )[  ]   D.Don.                39.   1825.

Diploprora                  (Dpra. )[ 9]   J.D.Hooker.        30.31.   1890.

Diplorrhiza                 (      )[  ]   Ehrh.                       1789.

Dipodium                    (      )[  ]   R.Brown.           40.41.   1810.

Dipteranthus                (      )[  ]   Barb. & Rodr.      40.41.   1881.

Dipterostele = Stellilabium (      )[  ]   Schltr.           40. 41.   1921/1915.

Disa                        (Disa. )[94]   Bergius.              39.   1767.

Discyphus                   (      )[  ]   Schltr.               39.   1919.

Diskyphogyne                (      )[  ]   Szlach.& Gonzalez.          1996.

Disperis                    (      )[  ]   Swartz.               39.   1800.

Dissorhynchium = Habenaria  (      )[  ]   Schau./Willd.               1843/1805.  

Distichis                   (      )[  ]   Thou. Ex Lindl.             1847.

Disticholiparis             (      )[  ]   Marg. & Szlach.             2004.

Distichorchis               (      )[  ]   Clem & Jones.      27.28.   2002.

Distomaea = Listera         (      )[  ]   Spen./R.Brown.              1825/1813.

Distylodon                  (      )[  ]   Summerhayes.       32.33.   1966/1970.  

Diteilis                    (      )[  ]   Rafin.                      1833.

Dithyridanthus              (      )[  ]   L.A.Garay.            39.   1980. 

Dituilis = Liparis          (      )[  ]   Raf./L.C.Rich.              1836/1817.

Ditulima = Dendrobium       (      )[  ]   Raf./Swartz.                1838/1799.

Diuris                      (Diuris)[93]   J.E. Smith.           39.   1798.

Dockrillia                  (      )[  ]   Brieger.           27.28.   1981.

Dodsonia                    (      )[  ]   Ackerman.          10.11.   1979. 

Dolichocentrum              (      )[  ]   (Schltr.)F.G.Brieger.       1981.

Dolichopsis                 (      )[  ]   (Hook.f.)F.G.Brieger.       1981.

Domingoa                    (Dga.  )[ 7]   Schltr.      20.21.22.23.   1913.

Doritis = Phalaenopsis      (Dor.  )[ 9]   Lindl.       34.35.36.37.   1833.

Dorychiele = Cephalanthera  (      )[  ]   Rchb.f./L.C.Rich.           1841/1818.

Dossinia                    (Doss. )[ 2]   C.Morr.               39.   1848.   

Dothilis = Spiranthes       (      )[  ]   Raf./L.C.Rich.              1836/1817.

Dothilophis = Barkeria      (      )[  ]   Raf./Kns./Westc.            1836/1838.

Doxosma = Encyclia          (      )[  ]   Raf./Hooker.                1836/1828.

Dracomonticola              (      )[  ]   H.P.Linder&H.Kurzweil.39.   1995.

Draconanthes                (      )[  ]   Luer.                       1996.

Dracula                     (Drac. )[ 4]   Luer.              24.25.   1978.

Drakaea                     (      )[  ]   Lindl.                      1839.

Drakaea                     (      )[  ]   Endl./ A.S.George.    39.   1841/1984.

Drakonorchis                (      )[  ]   Jones & Clem.         39.   2001.

Dresslerella                (      )[  ]   Luer.              24.25.   1976.

Dressleria                  (      )[  ]   Dodson.            40.41.   1975.

Dryadella                   (      )[  ]   Luer.              24.25.   1978.

Dryadorchis                 (      )[  ]   Schltr.            30.31.   1913.

Drymoanthus                 (Dry.  )[ 9]   Nicholls.          30.31.   1943.

Drymoda                     (      )[  ]   Lindl.                29.   1838.

Dryopaeia                   (      )[  ]   Linn.                       1827.

Dryopeia                    (      )[  ]   Thou                        1822.

Dryopria                    (      )[  ]   Thou.                       1822.

Dryorkis                    (      )[  ]   Thou.                       1809.

Dubois = Myoxanthus         (      )[  ]   H.Karst/Poepp/Endl.         1848/1836.

Dubois – Reymondia          (      )[  ]   F.G.Brieger.                1977.

Duboisia = Pluerothallis    (      )[  ]   Karst.                      1847.

Duckeella                   (      )[  ]   C.Porto.& Breda.      39.   1940.

Dungsia                     (      )[  ]   Chir.& Castor.0.21.22.23.   2002.

Dunstervillea               (      )[  ]   Garay.             40.41.   1972.

Durabaculum                 (      )[  ]   Clem & Jones.      27.28.   2002. 

Dyakia                      (      )[  ]   E.A.Christensen.   30.31.   1986.


 

 

Earina                      (      )[  ]   Lindl.             40.41.   1834.

Eburopyton                  (      )[  ]   A. Heller                   1904.

Echinella                   (      )[  ]   Pridgeon & Chase.  24.25.   2001.

Echinoglossum.              (      )[  ]   Reichb.                     1841.

Echinosepala                (      )[  ]   Pupylin.                    2002.

Echioglossum                (      )[  ]   Blume./Szlach.              1825/1995.

Eckarda = Peristeria        (      )[  ]   Endl./Hooker.               1842/1831.                      

Eckartia                    (      )[  ]   Reichb.                     1841.

Ecuadoria                   (      )[  ]   Dodson & Dressler.          1994.

Eggelingia                  (      )[  ]   Summerh.          32.33.    1951.

Eicosia                     (      )[  ]   Blume.                      1828.

Elasmatium = Goodyera       (      )[  ]   R.Brown./Dulac.             1813/1867.

Eleorchis                   (Elo.  )[  ]   F.Maekawa.         40.41.   1935.

Eleutheroglossum            (      )[  ]   Clem & Jones.      27.28.   2002.

Elleanthus                  (      )[  ]   Presl./Breiger     40.41.   1827/1981.

Eloyella                    (      )[  ]   Dodson.            40.41.   1984.

Eltroplectris               (      )[  ]   Raf.                  39.   1836.

Elythranthera               (Elth. )[  ]   A.S.George.           39.   1963.

Embreea                     (Emb.  )[ 5]   Dodson.            40.41.   1980.

Empusa = Liparis            (      )[  ]   Lindl./L.C.Richard.         1824/1817.

Empusaria = Liparis         (      )[  ]   Rchb.f./L.C.Richard.        1828/1817.

Encheiridion                (      )[  ]   Summerh.           32.33.   1943.

Encyclia                    (      )[  ]   W.J.Hooker.  20.21.22.23.   1828.

Encyclium                   (      )[  ]   Neum.                       1845.

Endeisa                     (      )[  ]   Rafin.                      1836.

Endresiella = Trevoria      (      )[  ]   Schltr./F.C.Lehm.           1921.

Enothrea = Octomeria        (      )[  ]   Raf./R.Brown.               1836.

Entaticus                   (      )[  ]   S.F.Gray.                   1821.

Entomophobia                (      )[  ]   de Vogel.          18.19.   1984.

Eparmatostigma              (      )[  ]   Garay.             30.31.   1972.

Ephemerantha = Flickingeria (      )[  ]   Summerhayes/Hawkes.27.28.   1961/1825.

Ephippium = Bulbophyllum    (      )[  ]   Blume.                      1825.  

Ephippianthus               (      )[  ]   Rchb.f.               39.   1868.

Epiblastus                  (      )[  ]   Schltr.            40.41.   1905.

Epiblema                    (      )[  ]   R.Brown.              39.   1810.

Epicladium = Epidendrum     (      )[  ]   Small.                      1913.

Epicranthes = Bulbophyllum  (      )[  ]   Blume/Thouars.              1825/1822.

Epicrianthes                (      )[  ]   Blume.                      1828.

Epidanthus                  (      )[  ]   L,O.Williams.20.21.22.23.   1940.

Epidendropsis               (      )[  ]   Garay/Dunster               1976.

Epidendrum                  (Epi.  )[ 7]   L.           20.21.22.23.   1763.

Epidorchis = Angraecum      (      )[  ]   Thou./Bory.                 1822/1804

Epigeneium                  (      )[  ]   Gagnep./Wood/Comber27.28.   1932/1996.

Epigogium                   (      )[  ]   Koch.                       1837.

Epilyna                     (      )[  ]   Schltr.            40.41.   1918.

Epipactis                   (Epcts.)[92]   Hall./Linn.           39.   1742/1757.

Epipactum = Epipactis       (      )[  ]   Ritg./Zina.                 1831/1757.

Epiphanes                   (      )[  ]   Blume./Rchb.f.              1825/1868.

Epiphora = Polystrachya     (      )[  ]   Lindl./Hooker.              1836/1824.

Epipogium                   (      )[  ]   R.Br./J.F.Gmel.       39.   1810/1792.   

Epipogon = Epipogium        (      )[  ]   Gmel./Swartz.               1747/1850.

Epistephium                 (      )[  ]   Kunth.             40.41.   1822.

Epithecia = Dichaea         (      )[  ]   Kn.&Westc./Lindl.           1838/1833.

Epithecium.                 (      )[  ]   Benth. & Hook.f.            1883.

Eria                        (      )[  ]   Lindl.             40.41.   1825.

Eriaxis                     (      )[  ]   Lindl.             40.41.   1825.

Ericksonella                (      )[  ]   Hopper & A.P.Br.            2004.

Eriochilus                  (      )[  ]   R.Br.Spreng.          39.   1810/1826.

Eriochylus                  (      )[  ]   Steud.                      1840.

Eriodes                     (      )[  ]   Rolfe.             40.41.   1915.

Eriopexis                   (      )[  ]   (J.J.Smith)-S.Rauschert.    1983.  

Eriopsis                    (      )[  ]   Lindl.             40.41.   1847.

Erioxantha = Eria           (      )[  ]   Raf./Lindl.                 1832/1825.

Erporkis                    (      )[  ]   Thou.                       1809.

Erycina                     (Ercn. )[ 8]   Lindl.       14.15.16.17.   1853.

Erythrodes                  (      )[  ]   Blume.                39.   1825.

Erythrorchis                (      )[  ]   Blume.             40.41.   1835.

Esmeralda = Arachnananthe   (      )[  ]   Rchb.f./Blume.     30.31.   1874.

Etaeria                     (      )[  ]   Blume.                      1825.

Euanthe = Vanda             (      )[  ]   Schltr.            30.31.   1914.

Euchile                     (      )[  ]   Withner.                    1998.

Eucnemia                    (      )[  ]   Reichb.                     1841.

 Eucnemis                    (      )[  ]   Lindl.                      1832-33.

 Eucosia                     (      )[  ]   Blume.                39.   1825.

 Eulophidium                 (      )[  ]   Pfitz.             40.41.   1889.

 Eulophia                    (Eupha.)[ 6]   R.Br.Ex.Lindl.     40.41.   1823.

 Eulophiella                 (Eul.  )[ 6]   Rolfe.             7.8.9.   1891.

 Eulophidium = Oeceoclades   (      )[  ]   Pfitz./Lindl.               1888/1832.

 Eulophiopsis                (      )[  ]   Schltr.                     1915.

 Eulophus                    (      )[  ]   R.Br.                       1821.

 Eunannos = Sophronitis      (      )[  ]   Porto/Brade/Lindl.          1935/1832.

 Euothonaea                  (      )[  ]   Reichb.f                    1852.

 Euphlebium                  (      )[  ]   (Krzl.) F.G.Brieger.        1981.

 Euphroboscis                (      )[  ]   Wight.                      1852.

 Euprobossum                 (      )[  ]   Griff.                      1845.

 Eurostyles                  (      )[  ]   Wawra./Schltr.        39.   1863/1925.

 Eurycaulis                  (      )[  ]   Clem & Jones.      27.28.   2002.

 Eurycentrum                 (      )[  ]   Schltr.               39.   1905.

 Eurychone                   (Echn. )[ 9]   Schltr.            32.33.   1918.

 Eurystyles                  (      )[  ]   Schltr.                     1923.

 Euthonaea = Hexisea         (      )[  ]   Rchb.f./Lindl.              1852/1834.

 Eveleyna                    (      )[  ]   Steud.                      1840.

 Evelyna = Elleanthus        (      )[  ]   P. & E./Prest.              1835/1827.

 Evota                       (      )[  ]   Rolfe.                      1913.

 Evotella                    (      )[  ]   H.Kurzweil&H.P.Linden.39.   1991.

 Evrardia                    (      )[  ]   Gagnep.               39.   1932.

 Evrardiana                  (      )[  ]   L.V.Aver`yanov.             1988.

 Evrardianthe                (      )[  ]   S. Rauschert.               1983.    

 Exalaria                    (      )[  ]   Garay.&Romer-Gonzalez.      1999. 

 Exochanthus                 (      )[  ]   Clem & Jones.      27.28.   2002.

 Exeria = Eria               (      )[  ]   Raf./Lindl.                 1836/1825.

 Exophya = Encyclia          (      )[  ]   Raf./Hooker.                1836/1828.

 Eydisanthema                (      )[  ]   Necker.                     1790.

 

 

Fernandezia                 (      )[  ]   Riuz. & Pavon.              1794.

Fernandezia = Lockhartia    (      )[  ]   Lindl./Hooker14.15.16.17.   1833/1827.

Ferruminaria                (      )[  ]   L.A.Garay/F.Hamer/Siegerist.1994.

Fieldia = Vandopsis         (      )[  ]   Gaudlich/Pfitz.             1826/1889.

Fimbriella                  (      )[  ]   (ex F.Butzin.) Farwell.     1981.

Fimbrorchis                 (      )[  ]   Szlach.                     2004.

Finetia = Neofinetia        (      )[  ]   Schltr./H.H.Hu.             1918/1925.

Fingardia                   (      )[  ]   Szlach.                     1995.    

Fissipes = Cypripedium      (      )[  ]   Small./L.                   1903/1753.  

Flickingeria                (Flkga.)[ 3]   A.D. Hawkes        27.28.   1965.

Forbesina                   (      )[  ]   Ridl.              18.19.   1925.

Forficaria = Herschelia     (      )[  ]   Lindl.                39.   1838.

Forsythmajoria              (      )[  ]   Kranzl.                     1914.

Fregea = Sobralia           (      )[  ]   Rchb.f./Ruiz.&Pavon.        1852.

Fractiunguis                (      )[  ]   Schltr.                     1922.

Frondaria = Pleurothallis   (      )[  ]   G.A.Luer.          24.25.   1986.

Froscula                    (      )[  ]   Rafin.                      1836.

Fruticicola                 (      )[  ]   Clem. & Jones.              2002.      

Fuertesiella                (      )[  ]   Schltr.               39.   1913.

Funkiella                   (      )[  ]   Schltr.               39.   1920.

 

 


 

 

Gabertia = Grammatophyllum  (      )[  ]   Blume./Gaudich.             1825/1826.

Galeandra                   (Gal.  )[ 6]   Lindl.             7.8.9.   1832.

Galearis =Habenaria         (      )[  ]   Raf.                  39.   1833.

Galeoglossum                (      )[  ]   A. Rich.                    1845.

Galeola = Erythrorchis      (      )[  ]   Lour./Blume.       40.41.   1790/1837.

Galeorchis = Orchis         (      )[  ]   Rydh./L.              39.   1901/1753.

Galeottia                   (Glta. )[ 6]   A. Richard.        10.11.   1845.

Galeottiella = Spiranthes   (      )[  ]   Schltr.L.C.Rich.      39.   1920/1818.

Galera = Epipogum           (      )[  ]   Blume/J.F.Gmel.             1825/1792.

Gamaria                     (      )[  ]   Rafin.                      1836.

Gamoplexis = Gastrodia      (      )[  ]   Falc./R.Brown.              1847/1810.

Gamosepalum = Aulosepalum   (      )[  ]   Schltr.               39.   1920.

Garaya                      (      )[  ]   Szlach                      1993.

Garayanthus                 (      )[  ]   Szlach.                     1995.

Garayella                   (      )[  ]   F.G.Brieger.                1975.

Gastridium                  (      )[  ]   Blume.                      1828.

Gastorchis                  (      )[  ]   Thou.                       1822.

Gastrochilus                (Gchls.)[ 9]   D. Don.            30.31.   1825.

Gastroglottis = Liparis     (      )[  ]   Blume.                      1825.

Gastropodium                (      )[  ]   Lindl.                      1845.

Gastrorchis = Gastorchis    (      )[  ]   Schltr.            40.41.   1924.

Gastrorkis                  (      )[  ]   Thou.                       1809.

Gastrosiphon                (      )[  ]   Clem. & Jones.              2002.

Gavilea = Chloraea          (      )[  ]   Poepp.&Endl.exSteud.  39.   1840.

Geissanthera                (      )[  ]   Schltr.                     1905.

Geesinkorchis               (      )[  ]   de Vogel.          18.19.   1984.

Gennaria                    (      )[  ]   Parlat.               39.   1858.

Genoplesium                 (      )[  ]   R.Br.                 39.   1810.

Gennyorchis                 (      )[  ]   Schltr.               29.   1900.

Geobina = Goodyera          (      )[  ]   Raf./R.Brown.               1836/1813.

Geoblasta                   (      )[  ]   Barb./Rodr.           39.   1891.

Geocalpa = Physosiphon      (      )[  ]   Brieger/Lindl.              1975/1835.

Geodorum                    (      )[  ]   G.Jack.            40.41.   1810.

Georchis = Goodyera         (      )[  ]   Lindl./R.Brown.             1833/1813.

Gersinia = Bulbophyllum     (      )[  ]   Neraud/Thours.              1826/1822.

Geisbrechtia = Calanthe     (      )[  ]   Lindl.                      1847.

Ghiesbreghtia = Calanthe    (      )[  ]   A.Rich.&Gal./R.Br.          1845/1821.

Giulianettia                (      )[  ]   Rolfe.                      1899.

Glomera                     (      )[  ]   Blume./Omerod.     40.41.   1825/1996.

Glossaspis = Habenaria      (      )[  ]   Spreng/Willd.               1826/1805.

Glossodia = Elythranthera   (Gloss.)[  ]   R.Brown./A.S.George   39.   1810/1963.

Glossochilopsis             (      )[  ]   Szlach. & Marg.             2001.   

Glossorhyncha               (      )[  ]   Ridl.              40.41.   1891.

Glossula = Habenaria        (      )[  ]   Lindl./Willd.               1825/1805.

Goadbyella                  (      )[  ]   R.S.Rog.                    1927.

Goldschmidtia (nomen)       (      )[  ]   Dammen.                     1910.

Gomesa                      (Gom.  )[ 8]   R.Brown.     14.15.16.17.   1815.

Gomesia = Gomesa            (      )[  ]   Spreng/R.Brown.             1826/1815.            

Gomeza = Gomesa             (      )[  ]   Lindl./R.Brown.             1825/1815.

Gomezia = Gomesa            (      )[  ]   Bartl./R.Brown.             1830/1815.

Gomphichis                  (      )[  ]   Lindl.                39.   1840.

Gomphostylis = Coelogyne    (      )[  ]   Wall(Ex Lindl.)/Lindl.      1830/1825.

Gonatostylis                (      )[  ]   Schltr.               39.   1906.

Gongora                     (Gga.  )[ 5]   Ruiz.& Pavon.      40.41.   1794.

Gonogona = Goodyera         (      )[  ]   Lk./R.Brown.                1822/1813.

Goodiera                    (      )[  ]   Koch.                       1844.

Goodyera                    (      )[  ]   R.Brown.              39.   1813.

Gorgoglossum = Sievkingia   (      )[  ]   F.C.Lehm./Rchb.f.           1897/1871.

Govenia                     (      )[  ]   Lindl. Ex Lodd.    40.41.   1831.

Govindooia                  (      )[  ]   Wight.                      1853.

Govindovia                  (      )[  ]   C. Muell.                   1861.

Gracielanthus               (      )[  ]   Szlach.                     1995.

Grafia = Phalaenopsis       (      )[  ]   Rchb./Hawkes.               1837.

Grammangis                  (      )[  ]   Rchb.f.            7.8.9.   1860.

Grammatophyllum             (Gram. )[ 6]   Blume.             7.8.9.   1825.

Graphorchis = Ceceoclades   (      )]  ]   Thou./Lindl.                1822/1832.

Graphorkis = Ceceoclades    (Grks. )[ 6]   Thours./Lindl.     7.8.9.   1809/1832.

Grastidium = Dendrobium     (      )[  ]   Blume/Swartz.               1825/1799.

Greenwoodia                 (      )[  ]   P.Burns-Balogh.       39.   1986.

Grobya                      (      )[  ]   Lindl.             7.8.9.   1835.

Grosowidya                  (      )[  ]   Rchb.f.                     1864.

Grosourdya = Sarcochilis    (      )[  ]   Rchb.f./R.Brown.   31.32.   1864/1810.

Guanchezia                  (      )[  ]   G.A.Romero.                 2000.

Guarianthe                  (Gur.  )[  ]   J.Dressler & W.E.Higgins.   2003.

Gudrunia                    (      )[  ]   G.T.Braem.                  1993.      

Gularia                     (      )[  ]   L.A.Garay.                  1980.

Gunnarorchis                (      )[  ]   F.G.Brieger.                1981.

Gunnerella                  (      )[  ]   Senghas            30.31.   1988.

Gunnia = Sarcochilus        (      )[  ]   Lindl./R.Brown.             1834/1810.

Gussonea                    (      )[  ]   Blume./Schltr.              1828/1914.

Gussonia                    (      )[  ]   Spreng.                     1831.

Gyaladenia                  (      )[  ]   Schltr.                     1921.

Gyalanthos = Cymnadenia     (      )[  ]   Szlach. & Marg.             2001.        

Gyas = Bletia               (      )[  ]   Salsb./Ruiz.&Pavppn.        1812/1794.

Gymleuorchis                (      )[  ]   H.Kumpel.                   1978.

Gymnabicchia                (      )[  ]   G.Gamus.                    1908.

Gymnadenia                  (Gym.  )[  ]   R.Brown.              39.   1813.

Gymnadeniopsis = Habenaria  (      )[  ]   Rydb./Willd.                1901/1805.

Gymnanacamptis              (      )[  ]   Aschers. & Graebn.          1907.

Gymnigritella               (      )[  ]   G. Gamus.                   1908.

Gymnochilus                 (      )[  ]   Bl.                   39.   1858.

Gymnaglossum                (      )[  ]   Rolfe.                      1919.

Gymplatanthera              (      )[  ]   G.Camus.                    1906.

Gynizodon = Miltonia        (      )[  ]   Raf./Lindl.                 1836/1837

Gynoglottis                 (      )[  ]   J.J.Sm.            18.19.   1904.

Gynostachys = Spiranthes    (      )[  ]   Pers./L.C.Rich.             1859/1817.

Gynizodon = Miltonia        (      )[  ]   Raf.Lindl.                  1836/1837.

Gyrostachis                 (      )[  ]   Blume.                      1858.

Gyrostachys                 (      )[  ]   Pers./Stone.                1807/1911.


 

 

Habenaria                   (Hab.  )[91]   Willd.                39.   1805.

Habenella = Habenaria       (      )[  ]   Small.Willd.                1903/1805.

Habenorkis                  (      )[  ]   Thou.                       1809.

Hadrocattleya               (      )[  ]   V.P.Castro & Chiron.        2002.

Hadrodungsia                (      )[  ]   V.P.Castro & Chiron.        2002.

Hadrolaelia                 (      )[  ]   Chiron & V.P.Castro.        2002.

Haemaria = Ludisia          (Haem. )[ 2]   Lindl.                39.   1826.  

Hagsatera                   (      )[  ]   R.Gonzales T.20.21.22.23.   1974.

Hallackia                   (      )[  ]   Harv.                       1863.

Halleorchis                 (      )[  ]   Szlach.& Olszewski          1998.   

Halpalochilus               (      )[  ]   Garay./Hames/Siegerist29.   1995.

Haematorchis = Ergthrorchis (      )[  ]   Blume.                      1848/1837.

Hammarbya                   (      )[  ]   O.Kuntze.                   1891.                 

Hancockia                   (      )[  ]   Rolfe.             40.41.   1903.

Hapalochilus = Bulbophyllum (      )[  ]   Garay&Kittr./Thouars        1978/1822.

Hapalorchis = Spiranthes    (      )[  ]   Schltr./L.C.Rich.     39.   1919/1818.

Haplochilus = Zeuxine       (      )[  ]   Endl./Lindl.                1841/1826.

Haplostelis                 (      )[  ]   Reichb.                     1841. 

Haplostellis = Nervilia     (      )[  ]   Endl./Comm.ex Gaud.         1837/1826.

Haraella                    (Hal.  )[  ]   Kudo.              30.31.   1930.

Harrisella                  (      )[  ]   Fawcett & Rendle.  32.33.   1909. 

Harrisiella                 (      )[  ]   H.Dietrich.                 1982.

Hartwegia = Nageliella      (      )[  ]   Lindl./L.Wms.20.21.22.23.   1940/1831.

Hecabe = Phaius             (      )[  ]   Lour./Rafin.                1790/1836.

Hederorkis                  (      )[  ]   Thou.              40.41.   1809.

Helictonia                  (      )[  ]   Ehrh.                       1789.

Helcia                      (Hlc.  )[ 8]   Lindl.       14.15.16.17.   1845.  

Helleborine = Epipactis     (      )[  ]   Hall/Moerch/Sw.             1736/1757.

Helleriella                 (      )[  ]   Hawkes.      20.21.22.23.   1906.

Hellerorchis                (      )[  ]   Hawkes.                     1959.

Helonoma                    (      )[  ]   L.A.garay.            39.   1982.

Helorchis                   (      )[  ]   Schltr.                     1924.

Hemihabenaria = Habenaria   (      )[  ]   Finet/Willd.                1901/1805.

Hemiperis = Habenaria       (      )[  ]   Cordem/Willd.               1895/1805.

Hemipilia                   (      )[  ]   Lindl.                39.   1835.

Hemipoliopsis               (      )[  ]   Y.B.Luo & S.C.Chen.         2003

Hemiscleria                 (      )[  ]   Lindl.                      1835.

Henosis = Bulbophyllum      (      )[  ]   Thouars./Hook.f.            1822/1890.

Hermibicchia                (      )[  ]   G. Gamus.                   1908.

Herminium =Arachnites       (      )[  ]   Guett./R.Br.          39.   1754/1793.

Herpetophylum               (      )[  ]   (Schltr.) F.G.Brieger.      1981.   

Herpysma                    (      )[  ]   Lindl.                39.   1831.

Herschelia                  (Hers. )[94]   Lindl.                39.   1838.

Herschelianthe = Herschelia (Hers. )[94]   (Sond.) S.Rauschert.  39.   1983.

Hetaeria                    (      )[  ]   Bl.                   39.   1825.

Heterotaxis = Maxillaria    (      )[  ]   Lindl./Ruiz.&Pavon.         1826/1794.

Heterozeuxine = Hapalochilus(      )[  ]   J.T.Smith/T.Hashimoto.      1986.

Hexadesmia = Scaphyglottis  (Hex.  )[ 7]   Brgn.Poep.En.20.21.22.23.   1842/1835.

Hexalectris                 (      )[  ]   Raf.               40.41.   1825.   

Hexameria                   (      )[  ]   R. Br.                      1838.

Hexisea                     (Hxsa. )[ 7]   Lindl.       20.21.22.23.   1834.

Hexopea                     (      )[  ]   Steud.                      1840.

Hexopia = Scaphyglottis     (      )[  ]   Poep.& Endl./Batem.         1836/1844.

Himanthoglossum             (      )[  ]   Koch.                       1837.

Himantoglossum              (      )[  ]   Speng./Koch.          39.   1826/1837.

Hintonella                  (      )[  ]   Ames.              40.41.   1938.

Hippeophyllum               (      )[  ]   Schltr.            40.41.   1905.

Hippoglossum = Cirrhopetalum(      )[  ]   Breda./Rchb.f.              1827/1830.

Hipporkis                   (      )[  ]   Thou.                       1809.

Hirtzia                     (      )[  ]   Dodson.                     1996.

Hispaniella                 (      )[  ]   Braem.       14.15.16.17.   1980.

Hoehneella = Chaubardia     (      )[  ]   Ruschi. Rchb.f.    10.11.   1945/1852.

Hoffmanncattleya            (      )[  ]   V.P.Castro & Chiron.        2002.

Hoffmanncyclia              (      )[  ]   Chiron & V.P.Castro.        2002.

Hoffmannseggella = Laelia   (      )[  ]   H.G.Jones/Lindl.            1968/1831.

Hoffmannseggella            (      )[  ]   Castro&Campacci.            2002.

Hofmeisteria=Hofmeisterella (      )[  ]   Rchb.f.                     1852.

Hofmeisterella              (      )[  ]   Rchb.f.            40.41.   1852.

Holcoglossum                (Holc. )[  ]   Schltr.            30.31.   1919.

Holmalopetalum              (      )[  ]   Rolfe.       20.21.22.23.   1896.

Holmesia                    (      )[  ]   P.J.Cribb.         32.33.   1977.

Hologyne = Coelogyne        (      )[  ]   Pfitz./Lindl.               1907/1821

Holopogon                   (      )[  ]   Komarov & Nevski.           1935.

Holothrix                   (      )[  ]   L.C.Rich.             39.   1818.

Homalopetalum               (      )[  ]   Schltr.                     1923.

Homocolleticon              (      )[  ]   Szlach.& Olszewski.         2001.  

Horichia                    (      )[  ]   R.Jenny.           40.41.   1981.

Hormidium = Encyclia        (      )[  ]   Lindl./Hooker.              1840/1828.

Horvatia                    (      )[  ]   Garay.             12.13.   1977.

Houlletia                   (Hlt.  )[  ]   Brongniart.        40.41.   1841/2000.

Huebneria                   (      )[  ]   Schltr.                     1925.

Humboldtia = Stelis         (      )[  ]   Ruiz&Pavon/Sw.              1794/1800.

Humboltia=Stelis/Pleurothallis(    )[  ]   R&P./Sw./R.Brown.           1794/1803.

Huntleya                    (Hya.  )[ 6]   Bateman ex Lindl.  10.11.   1839.

Huttonaea                   (      )[  ]   Harv.                 39.   1863.

Huttonia                    (      )[  ]   Bolus.                      1882.

Hyacinthorchis              (      )[  ]   Blume.                      1849.

Hyalosema                   (      )[  ]   Schltr./Rolfe.              1919.

Hybochilus                  (      )[  ]   Schltr.      14.15.16.17.   1920.

Hydranthus                  (      )[  ]   Kuhl. & Van Hasselt.        1862.

Hydrorchis                  (      )[  ]   Jones & Clem.         39.   2002.

Hygrochilus = Vandopsis     (      )[  ]   Pfitzer.           30.31.   1897/1889.

Hylaeorchis                 (      )[  ]   Canvli & Romero.            2000.

Hylophila                   (      )[  ]   Lindl.                39.   1833.

Hymanthoglossum             (      )[  ]   Tod.                        1842.

Hymeneria                   (      )[  ]   Clem. & Jones.              2002.

Hymenorchis                 (      )[  ]   Schltr.            30.31.   1913.

Hypodema = Cypripedium      (      )[  ]   Rchb.f./L.                  1841/1753.

Hypodematium = Eulopia      (      )[  ]   A.Rich./R.Br./Lendl.        1833/1823.

Hysteria = Corymborkis      (      )[  ]   Reinw. Ex Blume             1823.


 

 

Iantha = Ionopsis           (      )[  ]   Hooker/HBK.                 1815/1824.

Ibidium = Spiranthes        (      )[  ]   Salisb./L.C.Rich.           1812/1817.

Ichthyostomum               (      )[  ]   Clem. & Jones.              2002.

Ida                         (      )[  ]   A.Ryan & H.Oakley.          2002.

Iebne                       (      )[  ]   Rafin.                      1836.

Imerinaea                   (      )[  ]   Schltr.            40.41.   1924.

India                       (      )[  ]   Nageswara                   1998.

Inobulbon                   (      )[  ]   Schltr./Kraenzl.            1910.

Inobulbum                   (      )[  ]   Clement & Jones.            1998.

Inopsis = Ionopsis          (      )[  ]   Steud                       1821.

Ione                        (      )[  ]   Lindl.                29.   1853.

Ionopsis                    (Inps. )[ 8]   H.B.K.       14.15.16.17.   1815.

Ionorchis                   (      )[  ]   G.Bech.                     1890.

Ipsea                       (      )[  ]   Lindl.             40.41.   1831.

Iridorchis = Cymbidium      (      )[  ]   Sw./Blume.                  1799/1858.

Iridorkis                   (      )[  ]   Thou.                       1809.

Isabelia                    (      )[  ]   Barb.Rodr.   20.21.22.23.   1877.

Ischnocentrum               (      )[  ]   Schltr.            40.41.   1912.

Ischnogyne                  (      )[  ]   Schltr.            18.19.   1913.

Isias                       (      )[  ]   De Not.                     1844.

Isochilos = Isochilus       (      )[  ]   Spreng/R.Br.                1826/1813.

Isochilus                   (      )[  ]   R.Brown.     20.21.22.23.   1813.

Isotria                     (      )[  ]   Raf.                  39.   1808.

Itaculumia                  (      )[  ]   Leite.                      1946.

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

Jacquiniella                (      )[  ]   Schltr.      20.21.22.23.   1920.

Jamaiciella                 (      )[  ]   G.A.Braem.                  1980.

Jansenia = Plectaophora     (      )[  ]   Barb.Rodr.                  1891.

Jantha                      (      )[  ]   Steud.                      1840.

Jejewoodia                  (      )[  ]   Szlach.                     1995.  

Jejosephia                  (      )]  ]   A.Nageswara           29.   1985.

Jennyella                   (      )[  ]   E.Luckel. & H.Fessel.       1999.

Jensoa = Cymbidium          (      )[  ]   Sw./Rafin.                  1799/1836.

Jimenesia = Bletilla        (      )[  ]   Raf./Rchb.f.                1836/1852.

Jimensia                    (      )[  ]   (Hayatta)Garay&R.E.Schult.  1958.

Jonesiopsis                 (      )[  ]   Szlach.               39.   2001.

Jonorchis = Limodorum       (      )[  ]   G.Beck/Sw.                  1890/1760.

Josepha                     (      )[  ]   Benth. & Hook.f.            1883.

Josephia                    (      )[  ]   Wight.                      1851. 

Jostia                      (      )[  ]   C.A.Luer.                   2000.  

Jouyella                    (      )[  ]   Szlach. & Marg.             2002.

Jumellea                    (Jum.  )[ 9]   Schltr.            32.33.   1914.


 

 

Kalimpongia = Dickasonia    (      )[  ]   Pradham.           18.19.   1877.

Kalopternix = Epidendrum    (      )[  ]   Garay&Dunst./L.             1967/1763.

Karorchis                   (      )[  ]   Jones & Clem.         29.   2002.

Katherinea = Epigeneium     (      )[  ]   Hawkes/Gagnep.              1956/1932.

Kefersteinia                (Kefst.)[ 6]   Rchb.f.            10.11.   1852.

Kegelia = Kegeliella        (      )[  ]   Rchb.f./Mansf.              1852/1934.

Keranthus                   (      )[  ]   Lour.ex Endl.               1836.

Kergeliella                 (      )[  ]   H.G.R./Mansfield   40.41.   1852/1934.

Kerigomnia                  (      )[  ]   P.van Royen.                1976.

Kinetochilus                (      )[  ]   (Schltr.)-F.G.Brieger.      1981.

Kingidium = Kingiella       (      )[  ]   PFHunt/Bl.34.35.36.37.38.   1970/1825.

Kingidium minus             (      )[  ]   Siedenf./Hook./Christenson. 2003.

Kingiella = Phalaenopsis    (King. )[ 9]   Rolfe./Bl.34.35.36.37.38.   1917/1825.

Kionophyton                 (      )[  ]   L.A.Garay.            39.   1980.

Kitigorchis                 (      )[  ]   Maekawa.                    1971.

Kochiophyton = Acacalllis   (      )[  ]   Schltr./Lindl.              1906/1853.

Koellensteinia              (      )[  ]   Rchb.f./Schltr.    10.11.   1854/1918.  

Konantzia                   (      )[  ]   Ddsn.&NH.Wlms.4.15.16.17.   1980.

Kornasia                    (      )[  ]   Szlach.                     1995.

Kraenzlinelle = Pleuro.     (      )[  ]   O.Ktze./R.Br.               1903/1813.

Kraenzlinella               (      )[  ]   O.Ktze.                     1903.

Kraenzlinorchis             (      )[  ]   Szlach.                     2004.

Kreodanthus                 (      )[  ]   L.A.Garay.            39.   1977.

Kryptostoma                 (      )[  ]   Szlach./Olszewski.          1995/1998.

Kuhlhasseltia               (      )[  ]   Rchb.f/J.J.Sm.        39.   1803/1910.

Kusibella                   (      )[  ]   Szlach.                     2004. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lacaena                     (      )[  ]   Lindl.             40.41.   1843.

Lacroixia                   (      )[  ]   Szlach.                     2003.

Laelia                      (L.    )[ 7]   Lindl.       20.21.22.23.   1831.

Laelichilis                 (      )[  ]   (Withner), R.P.Sauleda.     1988.

Laeliopsis                  (Lps.  )[ 7]   Lindl/Paxton.20.21.22.23.   1852-53.

Lanium                      (      )[  ]   Lindl.       20.21.22.23.   1841.

Lankesterella               (      )[  ]   Ames.                 39.   1923.

Larnandra = Epidendrum      (      )[  ]   Raf.                        1825.

Lathrisia                   (      )[  ]   Sw.                         1829

Latourea                    (      )[  ]   Benth. & Hook.f.            1883.

Latouria = Dendrobium       (      )[  ]   Sw./Blume.                  1799/1847.

Latourorchis = Dendrobium   (      )[  ]   Breiger/Sw.                 1981/1799.

Leaoa                       (      )[  ]   Schltr. & Porto.            1922.

Lecanorchis                 (      )[  ]   Bl.                40.41.   1856.

Lectandra                   (      )[  ]   J.J.Smith.                  1907.

Ledgeria = Erythrorchis     (      )[  ]   Blume./F.von Muell          1837/1859.

Leioanthum                  (      )[  ]   Clem. & Jones.              2002.

Leiochilus = Leochilus      (      )[  ]   Hkr./Knwls.& Westc.         1873/1838.

Lemboglossum                (      )[  ]   Halbinger.   14.15.16.17.   1983.

Lemuranthe                  (      )[  ]   Schltr.                     1924.

Lemurella                   (      )[  ]   Schltr.            32.33.   1925.

Lemurorchis                 (      )[  ]   Krzl.              32.33.   1893.

Leochilus                   (Lchs. )[ 8]   Knls/Westcot.14.15.16.17.   1838.

Leopardanthus = Dipodium    (      )[  ]   R.Br./Blume.                1810/1849

Lepanthes                   (Lths. )[90]   Swartz.            24.25.   1799.

Lepanthopsis                (Lpths.)[  ]   (Cogn.)Ames.       24.25.   1933.

Lepanthos                   (      )[  ]   St. Lag.                    1880.

Lepervenchea                (      )[  ]   Corden.                     1899.

Lepidogyne                  (      )[  ]   Blume.                39.   1858.

Leporella                   (      )[  ]   George.               39.   1971.

Lepotceras                  (      )[  ]   Lindl.                39.   1839.

Leptocentrum=Plectrelminthus(      )[  ]   Schltr./Raf.                1914/1838.

Leptorchis = Liparis        (      )[  ]   Thou.                       1891.

Leptorkis                   (      )[  ]   Thou.                       1809.

Leptotes                    (Lpt.  )[ 7]   Lindl.       20.21.22.23.   1833.

Leptotherium                (      )[  ]   D. Dietr.                   1839.

Leptothrium = Isochilus     (      )[  ]   Kth./R.Br.                  1815/1813.

Lequeetia                   (      )[  ]   Pyren.                      1901.

Lesliea                     (      )[  ]   G.Seidenfaden.     30.31.   1988.

Leucadenia                  (      )[  ]   Schltr.                     1919.

Leucerminium                (      )[  ]   S. Rauschert.               1983.

Leucohyle                   (      )[  ]   Klotzsch.    14.15.16.17.   1854.

Leucolaena                  (      )[  ]   Schltr.                     1911.

Leucolena                   (      )[  ]   Ridl.                       1891.

Leucorchis                  (      )[  ]   E. Mey./Blume.              1839/1849.

Leucostachys = Goodyera     (      )[  ]   Hoffmsg./R.Br.              1842/1813.

Leucotella                  (      )[  ]   Schltr.                     1919.

Leuranthos                  (      )[  ]   Szllach. & Marg.            2001.

Leuorchis = Pseudorchis     (      )[  ]   E. Meyer./Bl./Mey.    39.   1849/1839.                 

Lichinora = Eria            (      )[  ]   Lindl./Wight.               1825/1852.

Lichertveldia = Cuitauzina  (      )[  ]   LaLave&Lex./Lem.            1825/1855.

Ligeophila                  (      )[  ]   L.A.Garay.                  1977.

Limatodes = Eulopia         (      )[  ]   Blume./Lindl.      40.41.   1825/1833.

Limatodis = Calanthe        (      )[  ]   Lindl./R.Br.                1825/1821.

Limnas                      (      )[  ]   Ehrh.                       1789.

Limnorchis = Habenaria      (      )[  ]   Rydb./Willd.                1900/1805.

Limodorum                   (      )[  ]   Ludw./Linn./Swartz.   39.   1737/40/60.

Limonias                    (      )[  ]   Ehrh.                       1789.

Lindbloma = Habenaria       (      )[  ]   Fries/Willd.                1843/1805.

Lindleyella = Bifrenaria    (      )[  ]   Schltr./Lindl.              1914/1832.

Lindsayella = Sobralia      (      )[  ]   Ames/Schf./Ruiz&Pavon.      1937/1794.

Liparis                     (      )[  ]   L.C. Rich.         40.41.   1818.

Lisowskia                   (      )[  ]   Szlach.                     1995.

Lissochilus = Eulophia      (      )[  ]   R.Brown.           40.41.   1821/1823.

Listeria                    (      )[  ]   R.Brown.              39.   1813.

Listrostachys               (      )[  ]   Rchb.f             32.33.   1852.

Lobogyne                    (      )[  ]   Schltr.                     1900.

Lockhartia                  (Lhta. )[ 8]   W.J.Hooker.  14.15.16.17.   1827.

Loefgrenianthus             (      )[  ]   Hoehne.      20.21.22.23.   1927.

Lonchitis                   (      )[  ]   Pyren.                      1901.

Longchophyllum              (      )[  ]   Ehrh.                       1789.